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Non-melanoma skin cancer pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018888/-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-pathogenesis-prevalence-and-prevention
#1
A Zink
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy of the light-skinned population with an enormous socioeconomic impact. Historically known as incurable under the term noli me tangere (transl. do not touch me), today various non-melanocytic cutaneous neoplasms are grouped as NMSC. The most common of these, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratoses as carcinomas in situ, are increasingly called keratinocyte carcinoma. Today, the pathogenesis and risk factors of NMSC are relatively well understood, which has led to multiple treatment options, the recognition of NMSC as an occupational disease in Germany and a variety of prevention approaches...
November 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790368/signs-of-innate-immune-activation-and-premature-immunosenescence-in-psoriasis-patients
#2
Liisi Šahmatova, Elena Sügis, Marina Šunina, Helen Hermann, Ele Prans, Maire Pihlap, Kristi Abram, Ana Rebane, Hedi Peterson, Pärt Peterson, Külli Kingo, Kai Kisand
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects skin and is associated with systemic inflammation and many serious comorbidities ranging from metabolic syndrome to cancer. Important discoveries about psoriasis pathogenesis have enabled the development of effective biological treatments blocking the T helper 17 pathway. However, it has not been settled whether psoriasis is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease or an autoinflammatory disorder that is driven by exaggerated innate immune signalling. Our comparative gene expression and hierarchical cluster analysis reveal important gene circuits involving innate receptors...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764171/evaluation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-and-glucose-transporter-1-expression-in-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-an-immunohistochemical-study
#3
Iman Seleit, Ola Ahmed Bakry, Dalia Rifaat Al-Sharaky, Rania Abdel Aziz Ragab, Shimaa Ahmed Al-Shiemy
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is a mediator enabling cell adaptation to hypoxia. It plays its role mainly through transcription of many target genes including Glucose Transporter-1 (GLUT-1) gene. AIM: The present work aimed at evaluating the pattern and distribution of HIF-1α and GLUT-1 in each case and control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control and retrospective study was conducted on archival blocks diagnosed from pathology department as, Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC, 20 cases), cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC, 20 cases) and 20 normal site-matched skin biopsies from age and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713981/neuroendocrine-factors-the-missing-link-in-non%C3%A2-melanoma-skin-cancer-review
#4
Mihai Lupu, Ana Caruntu, Constantin Caruntu, Laura Maria Lucia Papagheorghe, Mihaela Adriana Ilie, Vlad Voiculescu, Daniel Boda, Carolina Constantin, Cristiana Tanase, Maria Sifaki, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Charalampos Mamoulakis, George Tzanakakis, Monica Neagu, Demetrios A Spandidos, Boris N Izotov, Aristides M Tsatsakis
Non‑melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer worldwide, comprising 95% of all cutaneous malignancies and approximately 40% of all cancers. In spite of intensive efforts aimed towards awareness campaigns and sun‑protective measures, epidemiological data indicate an increase in the incidence of NMSC. This category of skin cancers has many common environmental triggers. Arising primarily on sun‑exposed skin, it has been shown that ultraviolet radiation is, in the majority of cases, the main trigger involved in the pathogenesis of NMSC...
September 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640877/identification-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-as-a-novel-target-of-the-hpv8-e6-protein-regulating-mir-203-in-human-keratinocytes
#5
Anna M Marthaler, Marta Podgorska, Pascal Feld, Alina Fingerle, Katrin Knerr-Rupp, Friedrich Grässer, Hans Smola, Klaus Roemer, Elke Ebert, Yoo-Jin Kim, Rainer M Bohle, Cornelia S L Müller, Jörg Reichrath, Thomas Vogt, Magdalena Malejczyk, Sławomir Majewski, Sigrun Smola
Patients suffering from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited skin disease, display a particular susceptibility to persistent infection with cutaneous genus beta-human papillomavirus (beta-HPV), such as HPV type 8. They have a high risk to develop non-melanoma skin cancer at sun-exposed sites. In various models evidence is emerging that cutaneous HPV E6 proteins disturb epidermal homeostasis and support carcinogenesis, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood as yet. In this study we demonstrate that microRNA-203 (miR-203), a key regulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation, is strongly down-regulated in HPV8-positive EV-lesions...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603206/clinical-practice-and-mechanism-of-endocrinological-adverse-events-associated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#6
REVIEW
Shintaro Iwama, Hiroshi Arima
  Immune checkpoint inhibitors, used for cancer immunotherapy, show anti-tumor effects through T cell activations. Monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death (PD)-1, or PD-ligand 1 which is a ligand of PD-1 have been shown to be effective in the treatments of advanced cancers including malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. However, these drugs also have immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The irAEs, which have unique characteristics different from those seen in conventional cytotoxic anti-tumor medicines, are observed in the several tissues such as skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung, muscle, nerve and endocrine systems...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467829/whole-genome-landscapes-of-major-melanoma-subtypes
#7
Nicholas K Hayward, James S Wilmott, Nicola Waddell, Peter A Johansson, Matthew A Field, Katia Nones, Ann-Marie Patch, Hojabr Kakavand, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Hazel Burke, Valerie Jakrot, Stephen Kazakoff, Oliver Holmes, Conrad Leonard, Radhakrishnan Sabarinathan, Loris Mularoni, Scott Wood, Qinying Xu, Nick Waddell, Varsha Tembe, Gulietta M Pupo, Ricardo De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo E Vilain, Ping Shang, Loretta M S Lau, Rebecca A Dagg, Sarah-Jane Schramm, Antonia Pritchard, Ken Dutton-Regester, Felicity Newell, Anna Fitzgerald, Catherine A Shang, Sean M Grimmond, Hilda A Pickett, Jean Y Yang, Jonathan R Stretch, Andreas Behren, Richard F Kefford, Peter Hersey, Georgina V Long, Jonathan Cebon, Mark Shackleton, Andrew J Spillane, Robyn P M Saw, Núria López-Bigas, John V Pearson, John F Thompson, Richard A Scolyer, Graham J Mann
Melanoma of the skin is a common cancer only in Europeans, whereas it arises in internal body surfaces (mucosal sites) and on the hands and feet (acral sites) in people throughout the world. Here we report analysis of whole-genome sequences from cutaneous, acral and mucosal subtypes of melanoma. The heavily mutated landscape of coding and non-coding mutations in cutaneous melanoma resolved novel signatures of mutagenesis attributable to ultraviolet radiation. However, acral and mucosal melanomas were dominated by structural changes and mutation signatures of unknown aetiology, not previously identified in melanoma...
May 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439661/comparative-study-of-p16-protein-expression-in-squamous-cell-carcinomas-from-patients-with-epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-and-patients-without-the-disease
#8
Mayra S G Mattos, Walmar R Oliveira, Mirian N Sotto
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis associated with susceptibility to beta-human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. EV patients develop disseminated warts and non-melanoma skin cancer, mainly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) that are locally aggressive. EV pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, but alterations in the p16 gene play a role in the pathogenesis of neoplasms caused by high-risk genital HPV. To explore its role in EV lesions, we compared p16 expression in SCC from patients with and without EV...
August 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327825/genotype-association-gstm1-null-and-gastric-cancer-evidence-based-meta-analysis
#9
Rívian Xavier Ribeiro, Cícera Isabella Leão Leite Nascimento, Antonio Márcio Teodoro Cordeiro Silva
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the sixth among women, except for non-melanoma skin tumors, in Brazil. Epidemiological evidences reveal the multifactorial etiology of this cancer, highlighting risk factors such as: infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, advanced age, smoking, chronic alcohol abuse, eating habits and genetic polymorphisms. Considering the context of genetic polymorphisms, there is the absence of the GSTM1 gene. The lack of GSTM1 function to detoxify xenobiotics and promote defense against oxidative stress leads to increased DNA damage, promoting gastric carcinogenesis...
April 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245638/impact-of-age-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-on-dna-damage-responses-in-uv-irradiated-human-skin
#10
REVIEW
Michael G Kemp, Dan F Spandau, Jeffrey B Travers
The growing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) necessitates a thorough understanding of its primary risk factors, which include exposure to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of sunlight and age. Whereas UV radiation (UVR) has long been known to generate photoproducts in genomic DNA that promote genetic mutations that drive skin carcinogenesis, the mechanism by which age contributes to disease pathogenesis is less understood and has not been sufficiently studied. In this review, we highlight studies that have considered age as a variable in examining DNA damage responses in UV-irradiated skin and then discuss emerging evidence that the reduced production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) by senescent fibroblasts in the dermis of geriatric skin creates an environment that negatively impacts how epidermal keratinocytes respond to UVR-induced DNA damage...
February 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185865/cutaneous-squamous-cell-cancer-cscc-risk-and-the-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-system
#11
REVIEW
Pooja Yesantharao, Wei Wang, Nilah M Ioannidis, Shadmehr Demehri, Alice S Whittemore, Maryam M Asgari
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common cancer among Caucasians in the United States, with rising incidence over the past decade. Treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer, including cSCC, in the United States was estimated to cost $4.8 billion in 2014. Thus, an understanding of cSCC pathogenesis could have important public health implications. Immune function impacts cSCC risk, given that cSCC incidence rates are substantially higher in patients with compromised immune systems. We report a systematic review of published associations between cSCC risk and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system...
April 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167449/curcumin-and-treatment-of-melanoma-the-potential-role-of-micrornas
#12
REVIEW
Diana Lelli, Claudio Pedone, Amirhosssein Sahebkar
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and is characterized by poor prognosis in its advanced stages because treatments are poorly effective and burdened with severe adverse effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are implicated in several cellular processes; they are categorized as oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs. Several miRNAs are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of melanoma, such as the tumor suppressor miR-let7b that targets cyclin D and regulates cell cycle...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107544/cutaneous-hpv8-and-mmupv1-e6-proteins-target-the-notch-and-tgf-%C3%AE-tumor-suppressors-to-inhibit-differentiation-and-sustain-keratinocyte-proliferation
#13
Jordan M Meyers, Aayushi Uberoi, Miranda Grace, Paul F Lambert, Karl Munger
Cutaneous beta-papillomaviruses are associated with non-melanoma skin cancers that arise in patients who suffer from a rare genetic disorder, Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) or after immunosuppression following organ transplantation. Recent studies have shown that the E6 proteins of the cancer associated beta human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 inhibit NOTCH and TGF-β signaling. However, it is unclear whether disruption of these pathways may contribute to cutaneous HPV pathogenesis and carcinogenesis...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068941/looking-beyond-the-brain-to-improve-the-pathogenic-understanding-of-parkinson-s-disease-implications-of-whole-transcriptome-profiling-of-patients-skin
#14
Anu Planken, Lille Kurvits, Ene Reimann, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Külli Kingo, Sulev Kõks, Pille Taba
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by symptoms of motor impairment, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, however non-neuronal symptoms are also common. Although great advances have been made in the pathogenic understanding of Parkinson's Disease in the nervous system, little is known about the molecular alterations occurring in other non-neuronal organ systems. In addition, a higher rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer has been observed in the Parkinson's Disease population, indicating crosstalk between these diseases...
January 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868187/basic-aspects-of-the-pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Héctor C Perez, Xiomara Benavides, Juan S Perez, Maria A Pabon, Jaime Tschen, Silvia J Maradei-Anaya, Luis Lopez, Eyner Lozano
INTRODUCTION: As numbers of transplant recipients and survival rates increase, the vulnerability of this population to several malignancies also rises. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) carries the highest rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. To avoid these malignancies, it is necessary to identify particular risk factors in transplant recipients and to follow preventive protocols. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed using as keywords the medical subject headings (MeSH) "transplantation", "skin neoplasm" and "prevention"...
April 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518539/cutaneous-beta-human-papillomaviruses-and-the-development-of-male-external-genital-lesions-a-case-control-study-nested-within-the-him-study
#16
Christine M Pierce Campbell, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino, Hui-Yi Lin, B Nelson Torres, Jane L Messina, Mark H Stoler, Dana E Rollison, Bradley A Sirak, Martha Abrahamsen, Roberto J Carvalho da Silva, Laura Sichero, Luisa L Villa, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Anna R Giuliano
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) increase the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in sun-exposed skin. We examined the role of beta-HPV in the development of male external genital lesions (EGLs), a sun-unexposed site. METHODS: In this nested case-control study (67 men with pathologically-confirmed EGLs and 134 controls), exfoliated cells collected from the surface of lesions and normal genital skin 0, 6, and 12 months preceding EGL development were tested for beta-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay...
October 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151141/sox9%C3%A2-is-a-%C3%AE-catenin-regulated-transcription-factor-that-enhances-the-colony-forming-activity-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#17
Xue Mei Li, Yong Jun Piao, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Jeong-Min Ha, Myung Im, Young-Joon Seo, Kyu Uang Whang, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Young Lee, Chang Deok Kim
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer, of which the incidence is relatively high, ranking second among the non‑melanoma skin cancers. It is known that numerous intracellular signal regulators are involved in the pathogenesis of SCC. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway serves an important role in cancer development. However, the downstream effectors of β‑catenin remain to be clearly elucidated yet. The present study investigated the functional importance of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling in cutaneous SCC...
July 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016397/examining-the-differences-in-current-regulatory-processes-for-sunscreens-and-proposed-safety-assessment-paradigm
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Edward V Sargent, Jeffrey B Travers
Skin cancers including malignant melanoma which are due to UV radiation constitute a serious public health problem. Recent studies have confirmed the importance of UVA radiation in the pathogenesis of skin cancer, as well as the protective effects of broad-spectrum sunscreen use. Barriers for effective protection of the US public include the lack of effective UV filters, especially in the UVA spectrum. The major reason for the paucity of UVA-effective filters in the US is due primarily to the FDA's reluctance to approve agents which have already been on the market in Europe and elsewhere in the world for more than a decade...
August 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995018/farmers-develop-more-aggressive-histologic-subtypes-of-basal-cell-carcinoma-experience-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-northern-greece
#19
Z Apalla, A Lallas, E Sotiriou, E Lazaridou, E Vakirlis, M Trakatelli, A Kyrgidis, D Ioannides
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer. Outdoor workers, including farmers, experience higher exposure levels compared to the general population. Available literature data suggest that occupational ultraviolet exposure represents an independent risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma; whereas for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) this association still remains unclarified. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the epidemiological, clinical and histological data of patients diagnosed with BCC, and correlate them with outdoor occupation in farmers...
April 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26638445/-gazing-into-a-crystal-ball-and-detecting-subjects-at-risk-for-developing-cutaneous-melanoma
#20
G E Piérard, C Piérard-Franchimont, T Hermanns-Lê, S L Piérard
Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer showing an increasingly growing incidence in white populations of Europe and United States. Intensive research in recent years has begun to unlock its molecular pathogenesis. Screening the neoplasm at an early stage remains primordial. Hence, targeting populations at risk is likely efficient. In such an attempt, the regular clinical examination benefits from a series of non invasive procedures such as skin surface biopsies, in vivo confocal microscopy, dermoscopy and specular fluorescent light reflectance...
September 2015: Revue Médicale de Liège
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