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Non-melanoma skin cancer pathogenesis

Anu Planken, Lille Kurvits, Ene Reimann, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Külli Kingo, Sulev Kõks, Pille Taba
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by symptoms of motor impairment, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, however non-neuronal symptoms are also common. Although great advances have been made in the pathogenic understanding of Parkinson's Disease in the nervous system, little is known about the molecular alterations occurring in other non-neuronal organ systems. In addition, a higher rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer has been observed in the Parkinson's Disease population, indicating crosstalk between these diseases...
January 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
Héctor C Perez, Xiomara Benavides, Juan S Perez, Maria A Pabon, Jaime Tschen, Silvia J Maradei-Anaya, Luis Lopez, Eyner Lozano
INTRODUCTION: As numbers of transplant recipients and survival rates increase, the vulnerability of this population to several malignancies also rises. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) carries the highest rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. To avoid these malignancies, it is necessary to identify particular risk factors in transplant recipients and to follow preventive protocols. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed using as keywords the medical subject headings (MeSH) "transplantation", "skin neoplasm" and "prevention"...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Christine M Pierce Campbell, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino, Hui-Yi Lin, B Nelson Torres, Jane L Messina, Mark H Stoler, Dana E Rollison, Bradley A Sirak, Martha Abrahamsen, Roberto J Carvalho da Silva, Laura Sichero, Luisa L Villa, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Anna R Giuliano
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) increase the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in sun-exposed skin. We examined the role of beta-HPV in the development of male external genital lesions (EGLs), a sun-unexposed site. METHODS: In this nested case-control study (67 men with pathologically-confirmed EGLs and 134 controls), exfoliated cells collected from the surface of lesions and normal genital skin 0, 6, and 12 months preceding EGL development were tested for beta-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay...
October 2016: Virology
Xue Mei Li, Yong Jun Piao, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Jeong-Min Ha, Myung Im, Young-Joon Seo, Kyu Uang Whang, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Young Lee, Chang Deok Kim
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer, of which the incidence is relatively high, ranking second among the non‑melanoma skin cancers. It is known that numerous intracellular signal regulators are involved in the pathogenesis of SCC. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway serves an important role in cancer development. However, the downstream effectors of β‑catenin remain to be clearly elucidated yet. The present study investigated the functional importance of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling in cutaneous SCC...
July 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Edward V Sargent, Jeffrey B Travers
Skin cancers including malignant melanoma which are due to UV radiation constitute a serious public health problem. Recent studies have confirmed the importance of UVA radiation in the pathogenesis of skin cancer, as well as the protective effects of broad-spectrum sunscreen use. Barriers for effective protection of the US public include the lack of effective UV filters, especially in the UVA spectrum. The major reason for the paucity of UVA-effective filters in the US is due primarily to the FDA's reluctance to approve agents which have already been on the market in Europe and elsewhere in the world for more than a decade...
August 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Z Apalla, A Lallas, E Sotiriou, E Lazaridou, E Vakirlis, M Trakatelli, A Kyrgidis, D Ioannides
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer. Outdoor workers, including farmers, experience higher exposure levels compared to the general population. Available literature data suggest that occupational ultraviolet exposure represents an independent risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma; whereas for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) this association still remains unclarified. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the epidemiological, clinical and histological data of patients diagnosed with BCC, and correlate them with outdoor occupation in farmers...
April 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
G E Piérard, C Piérard-Franchimont, T Hermanns-Lê, S L Piérard
Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer showing an increasingly growing incidence in white populations of Europe and United States. Intensive research in recent years has begun to unlock its molecular pathogenesis. Screening the neoplasm at an early stage remains primordial. Hence, targeting populations at risk is likely efficient. In such an attempt, the regular clinical examination benefits from a series of non invasive procedures such as skin surface biopsies, in vivo confocal microscopy, dermoscopy and specular fluorescent light reflectance...
September 2015: Revue Médicale de Liège
Denise A Galloway, Laimonis A Laimins
Over 200 types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been identified that infect epithelial cells at different anatomic locations. HPVs are grouped into five genera with the alpha and beta viruses being the most commonly studied. Members of the alpha HPV genus infect genital epithelia and are the causative agents of many anogenital cancers. Beta HPVs infect cutaneous epithelia and have been suggested as co-factors in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers. Recent studies have shown that activation of DNA damage pathways is important for the productive life cycle of the alpha HPVs while the beta viruses suppress their activation...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Virology
Saverio Caini, Sara Raimondi, Harriet Johansson, Vincenzo De Giorgi, Ines Zanna, Domenico Palli, Sara Gandini
There is much evidence supporting the role of telomeres in cancer pathogenesis, however the studies that investigated the association between telomere length and skin cancer risk provided inconsistent results. To help clarify this issue, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published papers on the association between peripheral leukocytes telomere length (PLTL) and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We calculated summary relative risks (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using random effect models with maximum likelihood estimates, and explored causes of between-studies heterogeneity of risk estimates...
December 2015: Journal of Dermatological Science
Paola Savoia, Ottavio Cremona, Paolo Fava
Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignancy in humans, with a basal/squamous cell carcinoma incidence ratio of 4:1 in immunocompetent patients. Basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasizes but commonly causes significant local tissue destruction and disfigurement, whereas squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a substantial risk of recurrence and metastasis; the prognosis in metastatic patients is poor. Surgical approaches give a cure rate greater than 90% if appropriately applied, on the basis of the characteristics of the primary tumors and of the patients, but in selected cases, medical treatment (5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac and, more recently, ingenol mebutate) is preferable to invasive procedures and provides a good chance of cure, with generally excellent cosmetic outcomes...
2016: Current Drug Targets
Ramya Chockalingam, Christopher Downing, Stephen K Tyring
Non-melanoma skin cancers represent a major cause of morbidity after organ transplantation. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are the most common cutaneous malignancies seen in this population, with a 65-100 fold greater incidence in organ transplant recipients compared to the general population. In recent years, human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the beta genus have been implicated in the pathogenesis of post-transplant SCCs. The underlying mechanism of carcinogenesis has been attributed to the E6 and E7 proteins of HPV...
2015: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Shahriar Shafaei, Mahnaz Sharifian, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki
BACKGROUND: Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common malignant tumor in humans. The role of ultraviolet radiation is well-known in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). CD10 is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase known as common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA). Although CD10 expression has been investigated in some cutaneous tumors, to our knowledge, data regarding its expression in cutaneous epithelial neoplasms are very limited...
2015: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Pei-Ying Lin, Shih-Ni Chang, Tzu-Hung Hsiao, Bo-Tsang Huang, Ching-Heng Lin, Pan-Chyr Yang
IMPORTANCE: Parkinson disease (PD) has been reported to be associated with a general reduced risk of cancer. These studies were mainly carried out in Western populations and little was known about associations in East Asians. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between PD and risk of cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this cohort study, the data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, which contained information on approximately 24...
August 2015: JAMA Oncology
Chrisostomos Chrisostomidis, Petros Konofaos, Dimitrios Karypidis, Andreas Lazaris, Alkiviadis Kostakis, Othon Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate if the expression of CD105 and Ets-1 was predictive of aggressive biologic behavior of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) and to evaluate indicators of local recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 144 patients with NMSC were included in the current study. Surgical specimens were independently examined for diagnosis confirmation and immunohistochemical expression of Ets-1 and CD105 by two dermatopathologists...
September 2015: International Journal of Dermatology
P Sollena, L Del Regno, M C Fargnoli, K Peris
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in white individuals over the age of 40 years. BCCs usually grow slowly and rarely metastasize, but can be locally invasive if neglected or of an aggressive subtype. The local tissue destruction caused by an untreated BCC can be extensive, therefore optimal treatment should lead to tumour clearance. Surgery and topical medical treatments are successful therapeutic options for most superficial and nodular BCC. Systemic medical treatments may be considered when surgical procedures are not recommended on the basis of the anatomical site and tumor extension, and patients' associated comorbidities...
August 2015: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Peter Foley
Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) account for around 80% of non-melanoma skin cancer. Australia has the highest incidence of BCC globally and the rates continue to increase in both Australia and New Zealand. BCC causes significant morbidity, placing an enormous burden on the healthcare system. Treatment of patients with advanced BCC can be particularly challenging. A panel of UK experts recently defined advanced disease as BCC that in which current treatment modalities are considered potentially contraindicated by clinical or patient-driven factors...
March 2015: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Ola Ahmed Bakry, Rehab Monir Samaka, Mohamed Abdel Moneim Shoeib, Doaa Mohamed Megahed
Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI)1 is involved in controlling cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore its possible role in non-melanoma skin cancer pathogenesis through its immunohistochemical (IHC) expression in skin biopsies of these diseases and correlating this expression with the clinico-pathological parameters of the studied cases. Seventy-six cutaneous specimens were studied; 30 cases with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 30 cases with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 16 normal skin samples, from age- and gender-matched subjects, as a control group...
April 2015: Ultrastructural Pathology
Brian Poligone, Elaine S Gilmore, Carolina V Alexander, David Oleksyn, Kathleen Gillespie, Jiyong Zhao, Sherrif F Ibrahim, Alice P Pentland, Marc D Brown, Luojing Chen
Non-melanoma skin cancer represents the most common cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a subtype of NMSC that shows a greater potential for invasion and metastasis. The current study identifies the protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), which is also known as the receptor-interacting protein kinase 4, as a suppressor of tumor growth in SCC of the skin. We show that expression of PKK is decreased in human SCC of the skin compared with normal skin. Further, suppression of PKK in human keratinocytes leads to increased cell proliferation...
March 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
G M O'Kane, T Lyons, I McDonald, N Mulligan, F J Moloney, D Murray, C M Kelly
Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy, comprising over 80 per thousand of non-melanoma skin cancers. Surgical excision is adequate treatment for most BCC's. Options are however limited for the minority of patients presenting with locally advanced inoperable or metastatic BCC. The Hedgehog signalling pathway is a critical driver in the pathogenesis of both sporadic and hereditary BCC. On 31st January 2012, based on a phase II clinical trial the US Food and Drug Administration approved Vismodegib (Erivedge, Roche) a first-in-class, small-molecule oral Hedgehog-inhibitor for the treatment of locally advanced inoperable and metastatic BCC...
July 2014: Irish Medical Journal
B Fazekas, H Polyánka, A Bebes, G Tax, K Szabó, K Farkas, A Kinyó, F Nagy, L Kemény, M Széll, É Ádám
Ultraviolet (UV) B is the most prominent physical carcinogen in the environment leading to the development of various skin cancers. We have previously demonstrated that the human ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (COP1) protein, huCOP1, is expressed in keratinocytes in a UVB-regulated manner and is a negative regulator of p53 as a posttranslational modifier. However, it was not known whether huCOP1 plays a role in mediating the UVB-induced early transcriptional responses of human keratinocytes...
November 2014: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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