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Non-melanoma skin cancer pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467829/whole-genome-landscapes-of-major-melanoma-subtypes
#1
Nicholas K Hayward, James S Wilmott, Nicola Waddell, Peter A Johansson, Matthew A Field, Katia Nones, Ann-Marie Patch, Hojabr Kakavand, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Hazel Burke, Valerie Jakrot, Stephen Kazakoff, Oliver Holmes, Conrad Leonard, Radhakrishnan Sabarinathan, Loris Mularoni, Scott Wood, Qinying Xu, Nick Waddell, Varsha Tembe, Gulietta M Pupo, Ricardo De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo E Vilain, Ping Shang, Loretta M S Lau, Rebecca A Dagg, Sarah-Jane Schramm, Antonia Pritchard, Ken Dutton-Regester, Felicity Newell, Anna Fitzgerald, Catherine A Shang, Sean M Grimmond, Hilda A Pickett, Jean Y Yang, Jonathan R Stretch, Andreas Behren, Richard F Kefford, Peter Hersey, Georgina V Long, Jonathan Cebon, Mark Shackleton, Andrew J Spillane, Robyn P M Saw, Núria López-Bigas, John V Pearson, John F Thompson, Richard A Scolyer, Graham J Mann
Melanoma of the skin is a common cancer only in Europeans, whereas it arises in internal body surfaces (mucosal sites) and on the hands and feet (acral sites) in people throughout the world. Here we report analysis of whole-genome sequences from cutaneous, acral and mucosal subtypes of melanoma. The heavily mutated landscape of coding and non-coding mutations in cutaneous melanoma resolved novel signatures of mutagenesis attributable to ultraviolet radiation. However, acral and mucosal melanomas were dominated by structural changes and mutation signatures of unknown aetiology, not previously identified in melanoma...
May 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439661/comparative-study-of-p16-protein-expression-in-squamous-cell-carcinomas-from-patients-with-epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-and-patients-without-the-disease
#2
Mayra S G Mattos, Walmar R Oliveira, Mirian N Sotto
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis associated with susceptibility to beta-human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. EV patients develop disseminated warts and non-melanoma skin cancer, mainly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) that are locally aggressive. EV pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, but alterations in the p16 gene play a role in the pathogenesis of neoplasms caused by high-risk genital HPV. To explore its role in EV lesions, we compared p16 expression in SCC from patients with and without EV...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327825/genotype-association-gstm1-null-and-gastric-cancer-evidence-based-meta-analysis
#3
Rívian Xavier Ribeiro, Cícera Isabella Leão Leite Nascimento, Antonio Márcio Teodoro Cordeiro Silva
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the sixth among women, except for non-melanoma skin tumors, in Brazil. Epidemiological evidences reveal the multifactorial etiology of this cancer, highlighting risk factors such as: infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, advanced age, smoking, chronic alcohol abuse, eating habits and genetic polymorphisms. Considering the context of genetic polymorphisms, there is the absence of the GSTM1 gene. The lack of GSTM1 function to detoxify xenobiotics and promote defense against oxidative stress leads to increased DNA damage, promoting gastric carcinogenesis...
March 16, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245638/impact-of-age-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-on-dna-damage-responses-in-uv-irradiated-human-skin
#4
REVIEW
Michael G Kemp, Dan F Spandau, Jeffrey B Travers
The growing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) necessitates a thorough understanding of its primary risk factors, which include exposure to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of sunlight and age. Whereas UV radiation (UVR) has long been known to generate photoproducts in genomic DNA that promote genetic mutations that drive skin carcinogenesis, the mechanism by which age contributes to disease pathogenesis is less understood and has not been sufficiently studied. In this review, we highlight studies that have considered age as a variable in examining DNA damage responses in UV-irradiated skin and then discuss emerging evidence that the reduced production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) by senescent fibroblasts in the dermis of geriatric skin creates an environment that negatively impacts how epidermal keratinocytes respond to UVR-induced DNA damage...
February 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185865/cutaneous-squamous-cell-cancer-cscc-risk-and-the-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-system
#5
REVIEW
Pooja Yesantharao, Wei Wang, Nilah M Ioannidis, Shadmehr Demehri, Alice S Whittemore, Maryam M Asgari
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common cancer among Caucasians in the United States, with rising incidence over the past decade. Treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer, including cSCC, in the United States was estimated to cost $4.8 billion in 2014. Thus, an understanding of cSCC pathogenesis could have important public health implications. Immune function impacts cSCC risk, given that cSCC incidence rates are substantially higher in patients with compromised immune systems. We report a systematic review of published associations between cSCC risk and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system...
April 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167449/curcumin-and-treatment-of-melanoma-the-potential-role-of-micrornas
#6
REVIEW
Diana Lelli, Claudio Pedone, Amirhosssein Sahebkar
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and is characterized by poor prognosis in its advanced stages because treatments are poorly effective and burdened with severe adverse effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are implicated in several cellular processes; they are categorized as oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs. Several miRNAs are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of melanoma, such as the tumor suppressor miR-let7b that targets cyclin D and regulates cell cycle...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107544/cutaneous-hpv8-and-mmupv1-e6-proteins-target-the-notch-and-tgf-%C3%AE-tumor-suppressors-to-inhibit-differentiation-and-sustain-keratinocyte-proliferation
#7
Jordan M Meyers, Aayushi Uberoi, Miranda Grace, Paul F Lambert, Karl Munger
Cutaneous beta-papillomaviruses are associated with non-melanoma skin cancers that arise in patients who suffer from a rare genetic disorder, Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) or after immunosuppression following organ transplantation. Recent studies have shown that the E6 proteins of the cancer associated beta human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 inhibit NOTCH and TGF-β signaling. However, it is unclear whether disruption of these pathways may contribute to cutaneous HPV pathogenesis and carcinogenesis...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068941/looking-beyond-the-brain-to-improve-the-pathogenic-understanding-of-parkinson-s-disease-implications-of-whole-transcriptome-profiling-of-patients-skin
#8
Anu Planken, Lille Kurvits, Ene Reimann, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Külli Kingo, Sulev Kõks, Pille Taba
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by symptoms of motor impairment, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, however non-neuronal symptoms are also common. Although great advances have been made in the pathogenic understanding of Parkinson's Disease in the nervous system, little is known about the molecular alterations occurring in other non-neuronal organ systems. In addition, a higher rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer has been observed in the Parkinson's Disease population, indicating crosstalk between these diseases...
January 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868187/basic-aspects-of-the-pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Héctor C Perez, Xiomara Benavides, Juan S Perez, Maria A Pabon, Jaime Tschen, Silvia J Maradei-Anaya, Luis Lopez, Eyner Lozano
INTRODUCTION: As numbers of transplant recipients and survival rates increase, the vulnerability of this population to several malignancies also rises. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) carries the highest rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. To avoid these malignancies, it is necessary to identify particular risk factors in transplant recipients and to follow preventive protocols. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed using as keywords the medical subject headings (MeSH) "transplantation", "skin neoplasm" and "prevention"...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518539/cutaneous-beta-human-papillomaviruses-and-the-development-of-male-external-genital-lesions-a-case-control-study-nested-within-the-him-study
#10
Christine M Pierce Campbell, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino, Hui-Yi Lin, B Nelson Torres, Jane L Messina, Mark H Stoler, Dana E Rollison, Bradley A Sirak, Martha Abrahamsen, Roberto J Carvalho da Silva, Laura Sichero, Luisa L Villa, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Anna R Giuliano
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) increase the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in sun-exposed skin. We examined the role of beta-HPV in the development of male external genital lesions (EGLs), a sun-unexposed site. METHODS: In this nested case-control study (67 men with pathologically-confirmed EGLs and 134 controls), exfoliated cells collected from the surface of lesions and normal genital skin 0, 6, and 12 months preceding EGL development were tested for beta-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay...
October 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151141/sox9%C3%A2-is-a-%C3%AE-catenin-regulated-transcription-factor-that-enhances-the-colony-forming-activity-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#11
Xue Mei Li, Yong Jun Piao, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Jeong-Min Ha, Myung Im, Young-Joon Seo, Kyu Uang Whang, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Young Lee, Chang Deok Kim
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer, of which the incidence is relatively high, ranking second among the non‑melanoma skin cancers. It is known that numerous intracellular signal regulators are involved in the pathogenesis of SCC. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway serves an important role in cancer development. However, the downstream effectors of β‑catenin remain to be clearly elucidated yet. The present study investigated the functional importance of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling in cutaneous SCC...
July 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016397/examining-the-differences-in-current-regulatory-processes-for-sunscreens-and-proposed-safety-assessment-paradigm
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Edward V Sargent, Jeffrey B Travers
Skin cancers including malignant melanoma which are due to UV radiation constitute a serious public health problem. Recent studies have confirmed the importance of UVA radiation in the pathogenesis of skin cancer, as well as the protective effects of broad-spectrum sunscreen use. Barriers for effective protection of the US public include the lack of effective UV filters, especially in the UVA spectrum. The major reason for the paucity of UVA-effective filters in the US is due primarily to the FDA's reluctance to approve agents which have already been on the market in Europe and elsewhere in the world for more than a decade...
August 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995018/farmers-develop-more-aggressive-histologic-subtypes-of-basal-cell-carcinoma-experience-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-northern-greece
#13
Z Apalla, A Lallas, E Sotiriou, E Lazaridou, E Vakirlis, M Trakatelli, A Kyrgidis, D Ioannides
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer. Outdoor workers, including farmers, experience higher exposure levels compared to the general population. Available literature data suggest that occupational ultraviolet exposure represents an independent risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma; whereas for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) this association still remains unclarified. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the epidemiological, clinical and histological data of patients diagnosed with BCC, and correlate them with outdoor occupation in farmers...
April 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26638445/-gazing-into-a-crystal-ball-and-detecting-subjects-at-risk-for-developing-cutaneous-melanoma
#14
G E Piérard, C Piérard-Franchimont, T Hermanns-Lê, S L Piérard
Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer showing an increasingly growing incidence in white populations of Europe and United States. Intensive research in recent years has begun to unlock its molecular pathogenesis. Screening the neoplasm at an early stage remains primordial. Hence, targeting populations at risk is likely efficient. In such an attempt, the regular clinical examination benefits from a series of non invasive procedures such as skin surface biopsies, in vivo confocal microscopy, dermoscopy and specular fluorescent light reflectance...
September 2015: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26398222/human-papillomaviruses-shared-and-distinct-pathways-for-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Denise A Galloway, Laimonis A Laimins
Over 200 types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been identified that infect epithelial cells at different anatomic locations. HPVs are grouped into five genera with the alpha and beta viruses being the most commonly studied. Members of the alpha HPV genus infect genital epithelia and are the causative agents of many anogenital cancers. Beta HPVs infect cutaneous epithelia and have been suggested as co-factors in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers. Recent studies have shown that activation of DNA damage pathways is important for the productive life cycle of the alpha HPVs while the beta viruses suppress their activation...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341697/telomere-length-and-the-risk-of-cutaneous-melanoma-and-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-a-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Saverio Caini, Sara Raimondi, Harriet Johansson, Vincenzo De Giorgi, Ines Zanna, Domenico Palli, Sara Gandini
There is much evidence supporting the role of telomeres in cancer pathogenesis, however the studies that investigated the association between telomere length and skin cancer risk provided inconsistent results. To help clarify this issue, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published papers on the association between peripheral leukocytes telomere length (PLTL) and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We calculated summary relative risks (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using random effect models with maximum likelihood estimates, and explored causes of between-studies heterogeneity of risk estimates...
December 2015: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26245477/new-perspectives-in-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Paola Savoia, Ottavio Cremona, Paolo Fava
Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignancy in humans, with a basal/squamous cell carcinoma incidence ratio of 4:1 in immunocompetent patients. Basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasizes but commonly causes significant local tissue destruction and disfigurement, whereas squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a substantial risk of recurrence and metastasis; the prognosis in metastatic patients is poor. Surgical approaches give a cure rate greater than 90% if appropriately applied, on the basis of the characteristics of the primary tumors and of the patients, but in selected cases, medical treatment (5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac and, more recently, ingenol mebutate) is preferable to invasive procedures and provides a good chance of cure, with generally excellent cosmetic outcomes...
2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26239556/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinomas-in-organ-transplant-recipients
#18
REVIEW
Ramya Chockalingam, Christopher Downing, Stephen K Tyring
Non-melanoma skin cancers represent a major cause of morbidity after organ transplantation. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are the most common cutaneous malignancies seen in this population, with a 65-100 fold greater incidence in organ transplant recipients compared to the general population. In recent years, human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the beta genus have been implicated in the pathogenesis of post-transplant SCCs. The underlying mechanism of carcinogenesis has been attributed to the E6 and E7 proteins of HPV...
2015: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26221509/immunohistochemical-expression-of-cd10-in-cutaneous-basal-and-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#19
Shahriar Shafaei, Mahnaz Sharifian, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki
BACKGROUND: Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common malignant tumor in humans. The role of ultraviolet radiation is well-known in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). CD10 is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase known as common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA). Although CD10 expression has been investigated in some cutaneous tumors, to our knowledge, data regarding its expression in cutaneous epithelial neoplasms are very limited...
2015: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26181771/association-between-parkinson-disease-and-risk-of-cancer-in-taiwan
#20
Pei-Ying Lin, Shih-Ni Chang, Tzu-Hung Hsiao, Bo-Tsang Huang, Ching-Heng Lin, Pan-Chyr Yang
IMPORTANCE: Parkinson disease (PD) has been reported to be associated with a general reduced risk of cancer. These studies were mainly carried out in Western populations and little was known about associations in East Asians. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between PD and risk of cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this cohort study, the data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, which contained information on approximately 24...
August 2015: JAMA Oncology
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