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Cytoarchitecture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766664/tissue-engineered-nigrostriatal-pathway-for-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Laura A Struzyna, Kevin D Browne, Zachary D Brodnik, Justin C Burrell, James P Harris, H Isaac Chen, John A Wolf, Kate V Panzer, James Lim, John E Duda, Rodrigo A España, D Kacy Cullen
The classic motor deficits of Parkinson's disease are caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, resulting in the loss of their long-distance axonal projections that modulate the striatum. Current treatments only minimize the symptoms of this disconnection as there is no approach capable of replacing the nigrostriatal pathway. We are applying micro-tissue engineering techniques to create living, implantable constructs that mimic the architecture and function of the nigrostriatal pathway...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763586/postnatal-testis-development-in-the-collared-peccary-tayassu-tajacu-with-emphasis-on-spermatogonial-stem-cells-markers-and-niche
#2
Nathália de Lima E Martins Lara, Guilherme Mattos Jardim Costa, Gleide Fernandes de Avelar, Diva Anelie Guimarães, Luiz Renato de França
Collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) present a unique testis cytoarchitecture, where Leydig cells (LC) are mainly located in cords around the seminiferous tubules (ST) lobes. This peculiar arrangement is very useful to better investigate and understand the role of LC in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) biology and niche. Recent studies from our laboratory using adult peccaries have shown that the undifferentiated type A spermatogonia (Aund or SSCs) are preferentially located in ST regions adjacent to the intertubular compartment without LC...
May 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760098/cochlear-amplification-and-tuning-depend-on-the-cellular-arrangement-within-the-organ-of-corti
#3
Hamid Motallebzadeh, Joris A M Soons, Sunil Puria
The field of cochlear mechanics has been undergoing a revolution due to recent findings made possible by advancements in measurement techniques. While it has long been assumed that basilar-membrane (BM) motion is the most important determinant of sound transduction by the inner hair cells (IHCs), it turns out that other parts of the sensory epithelium closer to the IHCs, such as the reticular lamina (RL), move with significantly greater amplitude for weaker sounds. It has not been established how these findings are related to the complex cytoarchitecture of the organ of Corti between the BM and RL, which is composed of a lattice of asymmetric Y-shaped elements, each consisting of a basally slanted outer hair cell (OHC), an apically slanted phalangeal process (PhP), and a supporting Deiters' cell (DC)...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755326/transient-hypothyroidism-during-lactation-arrests-myelination-in-the-anterior-commissure-of-rats-a-magnetic-resonance-image-and-electron-microscope-study
#4
Federico S Lucia, Jesús Pacheco-Torres, Susana González-Granero, Santiago Canals, María-Jesús Obregón, José M García-Verdugo, Pere Berbel
Thyroid hormone deficiency at early postnatal ages affects the cytoarchitecture and function of neocortical and telencephalic limbic areas, leading to impaired associative memory and in a wide spectrum of neurological and mental diseases. Neocortical areas project interhemispheric axons mostly through the corpus callosum and to a lesser extent through the anterior commissure (AC), while limbic areas mostly project through the AC and hippocampal commissures. Functional magnetic resonance data from children with late diagnosed congenital hypothyroidism and abnormal verbal memory processing, suggest altered ipsilateral and contralateral telencephalic connections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753719/analysis-of-respiratory-capacity-in-brain-tissue-preparations-high-resolution-respirometry-for-intact-hippocampal-slices
#5
Cândida Dias, Cátia F Lourenço, Rui M Barbosa, João Laranjinha, Ana Ledo
The evaluation of mitochondrial function provides the basis for the study of brain bioenergetics. However, analysis of brain mitochondrial respiration has been hindered by the low yield associated with mitochondria isolation procedures. Furthermore, isolating mitochondria or cells results in loss of the inherent complexity of the central nervous system. High-resolution respirometry (HRR), is a valuable tool to study mitochondrial function and has been used in diverse biological preparations ranging from isolated mitochondria to tissue homogenates and permeabilized tissue biopsies...
May 10, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752482/publisher-correction-single-cell-analysis-of-experience-dependent-transcriptomic-states-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#6
Sinisa Hrvatin, Daniel R Hochbaum, M Aurel Nagy, Marcelo Cicconet, Keiramarie Robertson, Lucas Cheadle, Rapolas Zilionis, Alex Ratner, Rebeca Borges-Monroy, Allon M Klein, Bernardo L Sabatini, Michael E Greenberg
In the version of this article initially published, the x-axis labels in Fig. 3c read Vglut, Gad1/2, Aldh1l1 and Pecam1; they should have read Vglut+ , Gad1/2+ , Aldh1l1+ and Pecam1+ . In Fig. 4, the range values were missing from the color scales; they are, from left to right, 4-15, 0-15, 4-15 and 0-15 in Fig. 4a and 4-15, 4-15 and 4-8 in Fig. 4h. In the third paragraph of the main text, the phrase reading "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types, thus masking the full diversity of excitatory populations" should have read "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types and masked the full diversity of excitatory populations...
May 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750809/histological-validation-of-calcifications-in-the-human-hippocampus-as-seen-on-computed-tomography
#7
Melissa E M Peters, Remko Kockelkoren, Esther J M de Brouwer, Huiberdina L Koek, Ronald L A W Bleys, Willem P Th M Mali, Jeroen Hendrikse, Annemieke M Rozemuller, Pim A de Jong
BACKGROUND: Calcifications within the hippocampus were recently described for the first time on computed tomography (CT). These calcifications appeared in patients older than 50 years, the prevalence increases with age and they may be associated with cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to determine the histological basis (the presence, severity and location) of these CT-detected hippocampal calcifications of post-mortem brains. METHODS: CT scans of seven post-mortem brains were scored for the presence and severity (mild, moderate, severe) of hippocampal calcification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749636/axon-initial-segments-structure-function-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Claire Yu-Mei Huang, Matthew N Rasband
The axon initial segment (AIS) is located at the proximal axon and is the site of action potential initiation. This reflects the high density of ion channels found at the AIS. Adaptive changes to the location and length of the AIS can fine-tune the excitability of neurons and modulate plasticity in response to activity. The AIS plays an important role in maintaining neuronal polarity by regulating the trafficking and distribution of proteins that function in somatodendritic or axonal compartments of the neuron...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739891/quantitative-assessment-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-humans-relative-to-nonhuman-primates
#9
Chad J Donahue, Matthew F Glasser, Todd M Preuss, James K Rilling, David C Van Essen
Humans have the largest cerebral cortex among primates. The question of whether association cortex, particularly prefrontal cortex (PFC), is disproportionately larger in humans compared with nonhuman primates is controversial: Some studies report that human PFC is relatively larger, whereas others report a more uniform PFC scaling. We address this controversy using MRI-derived cortical surfaces of many individual humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. We present two parcellation-based PFC delineations based on cytoarchitecture and function and show that a previously used morphological surrogate (cortex anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum) substantially underestimates PFC extent, especially in humans...
May 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734441/vitrfication-and-slow-freezing-for-cryopreservation-of-germinal-vesicle-stage-human-oocytes-a-bayesian-meta-analysis
#10
H S Youm, J R Choi, D Oh, Y H Rho
BACKGROUND: T he most commonly used methods for the cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos are vitrification and slow freezing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to to investigate whether there are differences in survival, in vitro maturation (IVM), and fertilization rates between cryopreserved immature oocytes, especially germinal vesicle (GV)-stage human oocytes, following vitrification and slow freezing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase databases...
November 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726582/extracellular-vesicles-generated-by-placental-tissues-ex-vivo-a-transport-system-for-immune-mediators-and-growth-factors
#11
Wendy Fitzgerald, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Offer Erez, Roberto Romero, Leonid Margolis
PROBLEM: To study the mechanisms of placenta function and the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in pregnancy, it is necessary to develop an ex vivo system that retains placental cytoarchitecture and the primary metabolic aspects, in particular the release of EVs and soluble factors. Here, we developed such a system and investigated the pattern of secretion of cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular vesicles by placental villous and amnion tissues ex vivo. METHODS OF STUDY: Placental villous and amnion explants were cultured for 2 weeks at the air/liquid interface and their morphology and the released cytokines and EVs were analyzed...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719719/divergent-topological-networks-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-analysis
#12
Jia-Xing Cheng, Hong-Ying Zhang, Zheng-Kun Peng, Yao Xu, Hui Tang, Jing-Tao Wu, Jun Xu
Background: Brain consists of plenty of complicated cytoarchitecture. Gaussian-model based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is far from satisfactory interpretation of the structural complexity. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a tool to determine brain non-Gaussian diffusion properties. We investigated the network properties of DKI parameters in the whole brain using graph theory and further detected the alterations of the DKI networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Magnetic resonance DKI scanning was performed on 21 AD patients and 19 controls...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715481/mapping-of-neuron-soma-size-as-an-effective-approach-to-delineate-differences-between-neural-populations
#13
Alexander J Lingley, Joshua C Bowdridge, Reza Farivar, Kevin R Duffy
BACKGROUND: A single histological marker applied to a slice of tissue often reveals myriad cytoarchitectonic characteristics that can obscure differences between neuron populations targeted for study. Isolation and measurement of a single feature from the tissue is possible through a variety of approaches, however, visualizing the data numerically or through graphs alone can preclude being able to identify important features and effects that are not obvious from direct observation of the tissue...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715271/directed-fusion-of-cardiac-spheroids-into-larger-heterocellular-microtissues-enables-investigation-of-cardiac-action-potential-propagation-via-cardiac-fibroblasts
#14
Tae Yun Kim, Celinda M Kofron, Michelle E King, Alexander R Markes, Amenawon O Okundaye, Zhilin Qu, Ulrike Mende, Bum-Rak Choi
Multicellular spheroids generated through cellular self-assembly provide cytoarchitectural complexities of native tissue including three-dimensionality, extensive cell-cell contacts, and appropriate cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are increasingly suggested as building blocks for larger engineered tissues to achieve shapes, organization, heterogeneity, and other biomimetic complexities. Application of these tissue culture platforms is of particular importance in cardiac research as the myocardium is comprised of distinct but intermingled cell types...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708553/an-alternative-approach-to-study-primary-events-in-neurodegeneration-using-ex-vivo-rat-brain-slices
#15
Emanuele Brai, Antonella Cogoni, Susan A Greenfield
Despite numerous studies that attempt to develop reliable animal models which reflecting the primary processes underlying neurodegeneration, very few have been widely accepted. Here, we propose a new procedure adapted from the well-known ex vivo brain slice technique, which offers a closer in vivo-like scenario than in vitro preparations, for investigating the early events triggering cell degeneration, as observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This variation consists of simple and easily reproducible steps, which enable preservation of the anatomical cytoarchitecture of the selected brain region and its local functionality in a physiological milieu...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696467/ocular-sebaceous-gland-carcinoma-an-update-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Swathi Kaliki
PURPOSE: To review and summarize the newest update on ocular sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC) focusing on diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A PubMed search was carried out using the terms "Sebaceous Carcinoma", "Meibomian Gland Carcinoma", "Sebaceous Cell Carcinoma", and "Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma". All studies published in English up to October 2017 were included in this review. RESULTS: Globally, the overall incidence of SGC is increasing making it the third most common eyelid malignancy after basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma...
April 25, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679609/cannabis-sativa-marijuana-alters-blood-chemistry-and-the-cytoarchitecture-of-some-organs-in-sprague-dawley-rat-models
#17
Nosarieme Omoregie Abey
There is evidence that Cannabis whose active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly abused neuroactive substance, among young adults. This work investigated the effects of Cannabis sativa on the cytoarchitecture of some key organs and the blood chemistry of rat models. Twenty-one (21) male Sprague Dawley rats were fed different percentage of cannabis chow (0%, 5% and 10%) for a period of seven (7) weeks. Rats were subjected to intermittent cognitive function test and sacrificed after the seventh week, collecting the blood, brain and other important tissues for analysis which include; brain total protein and nitric oxide concentration, blood chemistry and histopathology...
April 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663692/profiles-of-gene-expression-in-the-hippocampal-formation-of-rats-with-experimentally-induced-brain-dysplasia
#18
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Krzysztof Janeczko
Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a common cause of intractable seizures in humans. Among these, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) poses an outstanding challenge. There are several subtypes of FCD that show significant variation in pathology and clinical presentation. All types exhibit disturbed cortical cytoarchitecture and increased propensity for seizures. The etiology is likely heterogenous, with mutations, specifically in genes related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), identified in only a subset of cases...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629512/-l-theanine-decreases-orofacial-dyskinesia-induced-by-reserpine-in-rats
#19
Hung-Sheng Soung, Mao-Hsien Wang, Kuo-Chi Chang, Cheng-Neng Chen, Yi Chang, Chih-Chuan Yang, Hsiang-Chien Tseng
Reserpine (RES)-induced orofacial dyskinesia (OD) has been used as an animal model for human tardive dyskinesia (TD) for decades, due to its strong pathophysiological association with striatal oxidative stress and neural cytoarchitecture alteration. L -Theanine (LT), one of the major amino acid components in green tea, has potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of LT on RES-induced behavioral and neurochemical dysfunction in rats...
April 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621597/mesenchymal-stem-cells-encapsulated-into-biomimetic-hydrogel-scaffold-gradually-release-ccl2-chemokine-in-situ-preserving-cytoarchitecture-and-promoting-functional-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injury
#20
S Papa, I Vismara, A Mariani, M Barilani, S Rimondo, M De Paola, N Panini, E Erba, E Mauri, F Rossi, G Forloni, L Lazzari, P Veglianese
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an acute neurodegenerative disorder caused by traumatic damage of the spinal cord. The neuropathological evolution of the primary trauma involves multifactorial processes that exacerbate the pathology, worsening the neurodegeneration and limiting neuroregeneration. This complexity suggests that multi-therapeutic approaches, rather than any single treatment, might be more effective. Encouraging preclinical results indicate that stem cell-based treatments may improve the disease outcome due to their multi-therapeutic ability...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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