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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793270/pancreatic-islet-blood-flow-dynamics-in-primates
#1
Juan A Diez, Rafael Arrojo E Drigo, Xiaofeng Zheng, Olga V Stelmashenko, Minni Chua, Rayner Rodriguez-Diaz, Masahiro Fukuda, Martin Köhler, Ingo Leibiger, Sai Bo Bo Tun, Yusuf Ali, George J Augustine, Veluchamy A Barathi, Per-Olof Berggren
Blood flow regulation in pancreatic islets is critical for function but poorly understood. Here, we establish an in vivo imaging platform in a non-human primate where islets transplanted autologously into the anterior chamber of the eye are monitored non-invasively and longitudinally at single-cell resolution. Engrafted islets were vascularized and innervated and maintained the cytoarchitecture of in situ islets in the pancreas. Blood flow velocity in the engrafted islets was not affected by increasing blood glucose levels and/or the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790896/a-quantitative-analysis-of-the-distribution-of-crh-neurons-in-whole-mouse-brain
#2
Jie Peng, Ben Long, Jing Yuan, Xue Peng, Hong Ni, Xiangning Li, Hui Gong, Qingming Luo, Anan Li
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), with widespread expression in the brain, plays a key role in modulating a series of behaviors, including anxiety, arousal, motor function, learning and memory. Previous studies have focused on some brain regions with densely distributed CRH neurons such as paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and revealed some basic structural and functional knowledge of CRH neurons. However, there is no systematic analysis of brain-wide distribution of CRH neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782628/satb2-cre-mouse-as-a-tool-to-investigate-cell-fate-determination-in-the-developing-neocortex
#3
Mateusz Cyryl Ambrozkiewicz, Paraskevi Bessa, Andrea Salazar-Lázaro, Valentina Salina, Victor Tarabykin
BACKGROUND: Generation of different neuronal subtypes during neocortical development is the most important step in the establishment of cortical cytoarchitecture. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed in neocortical projection neurons that send their axons intracortically as opposed to Satb2-negative neurons that preferentially project to subcortical targets. NEW METHOD: In this report, we present a novel method to carry out large scale screening for molecules that control cell fate in the developing neocortex...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758205/clustered-organization-and-region-specific-identities-of-estrogen-producing-neurons-in-the-forebrain-of-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#4
Maaya Z Ikeda, Amanda A Krentzel, Tessa J Oliver, Garrett B Scarpa, Luke Remage-Healey
A fast, neuromodulatory role for estrogen signaling has been reported in many regions of the vertebrate brain. Regional differences in the cellular distribution of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in several species suggest that mechanisms for neuroestrogen signaling differ between and even within brain regions. A more comprehensive understanding of neuroestrogen signaling depends on characterizing the cellular identities of neurons that express aromatase. Calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin and calbindin are molecular markers for interneuron subtypes, and are co-expressed with aromatase in human temporal cortex...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746835/genetic-ataxia-telangiectasia-porcine-model-phenocopies-the-multisystemic-features-of-the-human-disease
#5
Rosanna Beraldi, David K Meyerholz, Alexei Savinov, Attila D Kovács, Jill M Weimer, Jordan A Dykstra, Ryan D Geraets, David A Pearce
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene. Early onset AT in children is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, leading to motor impairment. Lung disease and cancer are the two most common causes of death in AT patients. Accelerated thymic involution may contribute to the cancer, and recurrent and/or chronic respiratory infections may be a contributing factor to lung disease in AT. AT patients have fertility issues, are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and they present oculocutaneous telangiectasia...
July 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744208/neurodevelopmental-hypothesis-about-the-etiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#6
Toshio Inui, Shinichiro Kumagaya, Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi
Previous models or hypotheses of autism spectral disorder (ASD) failed to take into full consideration the chronological and causal developmental trajectory, leading to the emergence of diverse phenotypes through a complex interaction between individual etiologies and environmental factors. Those phenotypes include persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction (criteria A in DSM-5), and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities (criteria B in DSM-5). In this article, we proposed a domain-general model that can explain criteria in DSM-5 based on the assumption that the same etiological mechanism would trigger the various phenotypes observed in different individuals with ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733832/seasonal-reorganization-of-hypothalamic-neurogenic-niche-in-adult-sheep
#7
Lucile Butruille, Martine Batailler, Danièle Mazur, Vincent Prévot, Martine Migaud
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated. This process, well established during development, persists in adulthood owing to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) localized in specific brain areas called neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis has recently been shown to occur in the hypothalamus, a structure involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction and metabolism, among others. In the adult sheep-a long-lived mammalian model-we have previously reported the existence of such a neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the median eminence...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729941/hippocampal-slice-preparation-in-rats-acutely-suppresses-immunoreactivity-of-microtubule-associated-protein-map2-%C3%A2-and-glycogen-levels-without-affecting-numbers-of-glia%C3%A2-or-levels-of-the-glutamate-transporter-vglut1
#8
Liana R Stein, Charles F Zorumski, Yukitoshi Izumi
INTRODUCTION: With its preservation of cytoarchitecture and synaptic circuitry, the hippocampal slice preparation has been a critical tool for studying the electrophysiological effects of pharmacological and genetic manipulations. To analyze the maximum number of slices or readouts per dissection, long incubation times postslice preparation are commonly used. We were interested in how slice integrity is affected by incubation postslice preparation. METHODS: Hippocampal slices were prepared by three different methods: a chopper, a vibratome, and a rotary slicer...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716715/functional-parcellation-using-time-courses-of-instantaneous-connectivity
#9
REVIEW
Erik S B van Oort, Maarten Mennes, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Vinod J Kumar, Nestor I Zaragoza Jimenez, Wolfgang Grodd, Christian F Doeller, Christian F Beckmann
Functional neuroimaging studies have led to understanding the brain as a collection of spatially segregated functional networks. It is thought that each of these networks is in turn composed of a set of distinct sub-regions that together support each network's function. Considering the sub-regions to be an essential part of the brain's functional architecture, several strategies have been put forward that aim at identifying the functional sub-units of the brain by means of functional parcellations. Current parcellation strategies typically employ a bottom-up strategy, creating a parcellation by clustering smaller units...
July 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715662/preaged-remodeling-of-myofibrillar-cytoarchitecture-in-skeletal-muscle-expressing-r349p-mutant-desmin
#10
Stefanie Diermeier, Andreas Buttgereit, Sebastian Schürmann, Lilli Winter, Hongyang Xu, Robyn M Murphy, Christoph S Clemen, Rolf Schröder, Oliver Friedrich
The majority of hereditary and acquired myopathies are clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness. We hypothesized that ongoing derangement of skeletal muscle cytoarchitecture at the single fiber level may precede and be responsible for the progressive muscle weakness. Here, we analyzed the effects of aging in wild-type (wt) and heterozygous (het) and homozygous (hom) R349P desmin knock-in mice. The latter harbor the ortholog of the most frequently encountered human R350P desmin missense mutation...
June 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705817/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumor-of-the-cerebrum-a-new-leave-me-alone-lesion-with-a-characteristic-imaging-pattern
#11
R H Nunes, C C Hsu, A J da Rocha, L L F do Amaral, L F S Godoy, T W Watkins, V H Marussi, M Warmuth-Metz, H C Alves, F G Goncalves, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, A G Osborn
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum is a recently reported benign, mixed glial neuronal lesion that is included in the 2016 updated World Health Organization classification of brain neoplasms as a unique cytoarchitectural pattern of gangliocytoma. We report 33 cases of presumed multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum that exhibit a remarkably similar pattern of imaging findings consisting of a subcortical cluster of nodular lesions located on the inner surface of an otherwise normal-appearing cortex, principally within the deep cortical ribbon and superficial subcortical white matter, which is hyperintense on FLAIR...
July 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701923/cell-polarity-in-cerebral-cortex-development-cellular-architecture-shaped-by-biochemical-networks
#12
REVIEW
Andi H Hansen, Christian Duellberg, Christine Mieck, Martin Loose, Simon Hippenmeyer
The human cerebral cortex is the seat of our cognitive abilities and composed of an extraordinary number of neurons, organized in six distinct layers. The establishment of specific morphological and physiological features in individual neurons needs to be regulated with high precision. Impairments in the sequential developmental programs instructing corticogenesis lead to alterations in the cortical cytoarchitecture which is thought to represent the major underlying cause for several neurological disorders including neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692740/switching-of-%C3%AE-catenin-from-epithelial-to-neuronal-type-during-lens-epithelial-cell-differentiation
#13
Rupalatha Maddala, Ponugoti Vasantha Rao
Purpose: Ocular lens fiber cell elongation, differentiation, and compaction are associated with extensive reorganization of cell adhesive interactions and cytoskeleton; however, our knowledge of proteins critical to these events is still evolving. This study characterizes the distribution pattern of neuronal-specific α-catenin (αN-catenin) and its interaction with the N-cadherin-associated adherens junctions (AJs) and their stability in the mouse lens fibers. Methods: Expression and distribution of αN-catenin in developing mouse and adult human lenses was determined by RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681399/distribution-of-calretinin-immunoreactivity-in-the-lateral-nucleus-of-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-amygdala
#14
A M Rambaldi, B Cozzi, A Grandis, M Canova, M Mazzoni, C Bombardi
The amgdaloid complex consists of different nuclei, each with unique cytoarchitectonic, chemoarchitectonic and connectional characteristics. Most of the inputs coming from cortical and subcortical areas enter the amygdala via the lateral nucleus, which makes it the main receiving structure of the complex. The activity of its neurons is coordinated and modulated by different inhibitory, GABAergic-interneurons, which can be classified for their expression of various calcium-binding proteins, as well as by morphological characteristics...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678676/early-signs-of-toxicity-in-testes-and-sperm-of-rats-exposed-to-low-cadmium-doses
#15
Marcela Fátima Medina, María Celeste Arrieta, Marcela Noemí Villafañe, Sandra María Roxana Klyver, Iris María Aybar Odstrcil, María Elina González
The cadmium (Cd) concentration in the environment has increased as a consequence of anthropogenic activity. The objective of this study was to determine early signs of Cd toxicity in testes and sperm as possible biomarkers. The dose orally administered to Wistar rats was within the range where chronic toxicity can appear. At the light microscopic level, gonads presented preserved cytoarchitecture throughout treatment; however, after the second month, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed disruption of the blood-testis barrier...
July 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663864/measurement-of-multispectral-scattering-properties-in-mouse-brain-tissue
#16
Eunjung Min, Sungbea Ban, Yanyan Wang, Sung Chul Bae, Gabriel Popescu, Catherine Best-Popescu, Woonggyu Jung
We present the scattering properties of mouse brain using multispectral diffraction phase microscopy. Typical diffraction phase microscopy was incorporated with the broadband light source which offers the measurement of the scattering coefficient and anisotropy in the spectral range of 550-900 nm. The regional analysis was performed for both the myeloarchitecture and cytoarchitecture of the brain tissue. Our results clearly evaluate the multispectral scattering properties in the olfactory bulb and corpus callosum...
March 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662698/mov10-suppresses-retroelements-and-regulates-neuronal-development-and-function-in-the-developing-brain
#17
Geena Skariah, Joseph Seimetz, Miles Norsworthy, Monica C Lannom, Phillip J Kenny, Mohamed Elrakhawy, Craig Forsthoefel, Jenny Drnevich, Auinash Kalsotra, Stephanie Ceman
BACKGROUND: Moloney leukemia virus 10 (Mov10) is an RNA helicase that mediates access of the RNA-induced silencing complex to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Until now, its role as an RNA helicase and as a regulator of retrotransposons has been characterized exclusively in cell lines. We investigated the role of Mov10 in the mouse brain by examining its expression over development and attempting to create a Mov10 knockout mouse. Loss of both Mov10 copies led to early embryonic lethality. RESULTS: Mov10 was significantly elevated in postnatal murine brain, where it bound retroelement RNAs and mRNAs...
June 29, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644906/cholinesterases-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-primary-olfactory-gyrus
#18
Hayam Hamodat, Meghan K Cash, John D Fisk, Sultan Darvesh
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Olfactory abnormalities often precede cognitive symptoms in AD, indicating early involvement of pathology in olfactory structures. The cholinergic system is important not only in cognition but also in modulation of the olfactory system. The primary olfactory gyrus (POG) is comprised of the olfactory tract, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and olfactory area (OA)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643417/congenital-deafness-affects-deep-layers-in-primary-and-secondary-auditory-cortex
#19
Christoph Berger, Daniela Kühne, Verena Scheper, Andrej Kral
Congenital deafness leads to functional deficits in the auditory cortex for which early cochlear implantation can effectively compensate. Most of these deficits have been demonstrated functionally. Furthermore, the majority of previous studies on deafness have involved the primary auditory cortex; knowledge of higher-order areas is limited to effects of cross-modal reorganization. In this study, we compared the cortical cytoarchitecture of four cortical areas in adult hearing and congenitally deaf cats (CDCs): the primary auditory field A1, two secondary auditory fields, namely the dorsal zone and second auditory field (A2); and a reference visual association field (area 7) in the same section stained either using Nissl or SMI-32 antibodies...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639357/cerebellar-projections-to-the-ventral-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-the-cat
#20
Hiroyuki Nakamura
The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) is a retinorecipient part of the ventral thalamus and in cats, it consists of medial (M), medial intermediate (IM), lateral intermediate (IL), lateral (L), and dorsal (D) subdivisions. These subdivisions can be differentiated not only by their cytoarchitecture, but also by their connectivity and putative functions. The LGNv may play a role in visuomotor gating, in that there is evidence of cerebellar afferent projections to the intermediate subdivisions. The cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) and lateral (LC) nuclei are known to project to IM and IL, but the specifics of these projections are unclear...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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