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Dean Falk, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Marcia Ponce de León, Katerina Semendeferi, José Luis Alatorre Warren, William D Hopkins
The only direct source of information about hominin brain evolution comes from the fossil record of endocranial casts (endocasts) that reproduce details of the external morphology of the brain imprinted on the walls of the braincase during life. Surface traces of sulci that separate the brain's convolutions (gyri) are reproduced sporadically on early hominin endocasts. Paleoneurologists rely heavily on published descriptions of sulci on brains of great apes, especially chimpanzees (humans' phylogenetically closest living relatives), to guide their identifications of sulci on ape-sized hominin endocasts...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Xiangyun Yin, Jixiu Zhao, Hong Jiang, Liangliang Li, Jian Jiang, Hongmin Xi, Xiangli Peng, Xiaohang Yin, Xiaotong Shi, Lulu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Premature birth is a significant health care burden. Xenon (Xe) is a general anesthetic with neuroprotective effects. OBJECTIVES: Here, we investigate the neuroprotective role of Xe in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced white matter damage (WMD) model. METHODS: Three-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham group (group A, n = 24), an LPS + HI group (group B, n = 24), and an LPS + HI + Xe group (group C, n = 72)...
March 8, 2018: Neonatology
S Sastre-Riba, T Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: From a differential perspective, high intellectual ability is an expression of intellectual functioning with characteristic functional correlates and structural correlates of the underlying neural activity that suggests an improved executive capacity as a relevant characteristic, highlighting in it a more effective working memory. DEVELOPMENT: The neuroscientific evidences about the neural mechanisms that can explain the differences are analyzed between the intellectual functioning of the high intellectual ability and the typical intellectual capacity...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Karina E Guziewicz, Artur V Cideciyan, William A Beltran, András M Komáromy, Valerie L Dufour, Malgorzata Swider, Simone Iwabe, Alexander Sumaroka, Brian T Kendrick, Gordon Ruthel, Vince A Chiodo, Elise Héon, William W Hauswirth, Samuel G Jacobson, Gustavo D Aguirre
Mutations in the BEST1 gene cause detachment of the retina and degeneration of photoreceptor (PR) cells due to a primary channelopathy in the neighboring retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The pathophysiology of the interaction between RPE and PR cells preceding the formation of retinal detachment remains not well-understood. Our studies of molecular pathology in the canine BEST1 disease model revealed retina-wide abnormalities at the RPE-PR interface associated with defects in the RPE microvillar ensheathment and a cone PR-associated insoluble interphotoreceptor matrix...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Colin D Donohoe, Gábor Csordás, Andreia Correia, Marek Jindra, Corinna Klein, Bianca Habermann, Mirka Uhlirova
Interplay between apicobasal cell polarity modules and the cytoskeleton is critical for differentiation and integrity of epithelia. However, this coordination is poorly understood at the level of gene regulation by transcription factors. Here, we establish the Drosophila activating transcription factor 3 (atf3) as a cell polarity response gene acting downstream of the membrane-associated Scribble polarity complex. Loss of the tumor suppressors Scribble or Dlg1 induces atf3 expression via aPKC but independent of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling...
March 1, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Chen-Ching Yuan, Katarzyna Kazmierczak, Jingsheng Liang, Zhiqun Zhou, Sunil Yadav, Aldrin V Gomes, Thomas C Irving, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a devastating heart disease that affects about 1 million people in the United States, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the biomechanical and structural causes of DCM in transgenic mice carrying a novel mutation in the MYL2 gene, encoding the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain. Transgenic D94A (aspartic acid-to-alanine) mice were created and investigated by echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic and molecular structural and functional assessments...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Theodoros Varakliotis, Gianluca Bellocchi, Alberto Eibenstein, Gilberto Acquaviva, Francesco Casorati
INTRODUCTION: Ossifying fibromixoid tumor of soft parts (OFMT) is a rare soft tissue and bone tumor. In its classic form, is considered benign, nevertheless aggressive clinical behaviour tumors with a different cytoarchitectural features of a malignant variant, have been described.The classification contains "typical", "atypical" and "malignant" variants. METHODS: A CT ear scan without contrast enhancement was carried out (October 2015), with coronal, sagittal and 3D reconstructions...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
N Pokhrel, E Ben-Tal Cohen, O Genin, M Ruzal, D Sela-Donenfeld, Y Cinnamon
Storing eggs at low temperature prior to incubation is common practice in the broiler hatchery industry; however, prolonged storage (beyond 7 d) is known to increase early embryonic mortality and reduce chick quality and performance. To better understand the basis of this mortality, we previously published milestone criteria to evaluate morphological and cellular properties of the freshly laid embryo. Using these criteria, in the present study we checked the effects of storage at 18°C and 12°C for up to 28 d on hatchability and chick quality...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Vigneswaran Veeramuthu, Pohchoo Seow, Vairavan Narayanan, Jeannie Hsiu Ding Wong, Li Kuo Tan, Aditya Tri Hernowo, Norlisah Ramli
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive imaging technique that allows for reliable assessment of microscopic changes in brain cytoarchitecture, neuronal injuries, and neurochemical changes resultant from traumatic insults. We aimed to evaluate the acute alteration of neurometabolites in complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients in comparison to control subjects using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy)...
February 12, 2018: Academic Radiology
Zhong Chen, Na Xu, Danyang Chong, Shan Guan, Chen Jiang, Zhongzhou Yang, Chaojun Li
Aims: With the maturation of placenta, ventricular chamber maturation enhances cardiac contractile performance to adapt to the metabolic demand of growing embryo. The organization of cardiomyocytes is required for the morphological remodeling in ventricular chamber maturation. However, the mechanism governing the establishment of cardiac cytoarchitecture during ventricular chamber maturation is still poorly studied. Methods and results: Here, we found that the expression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (Ggpps), which mediates protein geranylgeranylation, increased in the mouse heart after the onset of placental function...
February 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Florin Muselin, Eugenia Dumitrescu, Adina Berbecea, Alexandru Octavian Doma, Diana Brezovan, Jelena Savici, Alexandra Trif, Romeo Teodor Cristina
BACKGROUND: A clinically active structure with known antitumor activities is cisplatin (CDDP), but this it comes with toxicity characteristics which can be faded by the beneficial effects of Silver birch (Betula pendula) sap. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the cisplatin activity on: Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn homeostasis in rats and to observe the effect of birch sap. METHODS: Healthy Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were divided in four groups: Control: receiving 1 mL saline I...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Damilare H Adeyemi, Ibukun P Oyeyipo, Kikelomo A Akanbi, Tolulope Oluwole
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the effect of nicotine on serum progesterone and estradiol levels as possible cause of abortion during first trimester of gestation in female Wistar rats. METHODS: Fourteen female rats with regular estrous cycles in the same phase of cycle were divided into two groups (Control and Nicotine-treated) with each group receiving 1ml of distilled water and 1mg/kg of nicotine respectively for the first seven days of pregnancy (GD1-7)...
February 1, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Tanja Eisemann, Barbara Costa, Jens Strelau, Michel Mittelbronn, Peter Angel, Heike Peterziel
BACKGROUND: The poor prognosis for glioblastoma patients is caused by the diffuse infiltrative growth pattern of the tumor. Therefore, the molecular and cellular processes underlying cell migration continue to be a major focus of glioblastoma research. Emerging evidence supports the concept that the tumor microenvironment has a profound influence on the functional properties of tumor cells. Accordingly, substantial effort must be devoted to move from traditional two-dimensional migration assays to three-dimensional systems that more faithfully recapitulate the complex in vivo tumor microenvironment...
January 30, 2018: BMC Cancer
Kritika S Katiyar, Carla C Winter, Wisberty J Gordián-Vélez, John C O'Donnell, Yeri J Song, Nicole S Hernandez, Laura A Struzyna, D Kacy Cullen
Neurotrauma and neurodegenerative disease often result in lasting neurological deficits due to the limited capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to replace lost neurons and regenerate axonal pathways. However, during nervous system development, neuronal migration and axonal extension often occur along pathways formed by other cells, referred to as "living scaffolds". Seeking to emulate these mechanisms and to design a strategy that circumvents the inhibitory environment of the CNS, this manuscript presents a protocol to fabricate tissue engineered astrocyte-based "living scaffolds"...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xiao Chen, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qiuyuan Zhong, Qingtao Sun, Jie Peng, Hui Gong, Jing Yuan
Acquiring an accurate orientation reference is a prerequisite for precisely analysing the morphological features of Golgi-stained neurons in the whole brain. However, the same reflective imaging contrast of Golgi staining for morphology and Nissl staining for cytoarchitecture leads to the failure of distinguishing soma morphology and simultaneously co-locate cytoarchitecture. Here, we developed the dual-mode micro-optical sectioning tomography (dMOST) method to simultaneously image the reflective and fluorescent signals in three dimensions...
January 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Jordan Prox, Tory Smith, Chad Holl, Nick Chehade, Liang Guo
Novel in vitro platforms are currently revolutionizing the study and reconstruction of cellular circuitry to bypass the pertaining obstacles of data retrieval in vivo. While earlier approaches have provided great insights into culturing circuits in planar dissociated cell culture systems, the lack of full control over network activity and formation limits our understanding of their functionality. Thus, integrating various controllable parameters are required in creating a suitable microenvironment including cell patterning, highly-specified electrical and chemical stimuli, and rational circuit formation via logic functions...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Erminia Fardone, Benoît Pouyatos, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, Stefan Bartzsch, Hervè Mathieu, Herwig Requardt, Domenico Bucci, Giacomo Barbone, Paola Coan, Giuseppe Battaglia, Geraldine Le Duc, Alberto Bravin, Pantaleo Romanelli
Synchrotron-generated microplanar beams (microbeams) provide the most stereo-selective irradiation modality known today. This novel irradiation modality has been shown to control seizures originating from eloquent cortex causing no neurological deficit in experimental animals. To test the hypothesis that application of microbeams in the hippocampus, the most common source of refractory seizures, is safe and does not induce severe side effects, we used microbeams to induce transections to the hippocampus of healthy rats...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
P Conforti, D Besusso, V D Bocchi, A Faedo, E Cesana, G Rossetti, V Ranzani, C N Svendsen, L M Thompson, M Toselli, G Biella, M Pagani, E Cattaneo
Increasing evidence suggests that early neurodevelopmental defects in Huntington's disease (HD) patients could contribute to the later adult neurodegenerative phenotype. Here, by using HD-derived induced pluripotent stem cell lines, we report that early telencephalic induction and late neural identity are affected in cortical and striatal populations. We show that a large CAG expansion causes complete failure of the neuro-ectodermal acquisition, while cells carrying shorter CAGs repeats show gross abnormalities in neural rosette formation as well as disrupted cytoarchitecture in cortical organoids...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Shakirat Opeyemi Dada-Habeeb, Tolulope Timothy Arogundade, Emmanuel Olusola Yawson
Nicotine is a neuro-stimulant that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many brain diseases. The need to prevent or alleviate the resulting dysfunction is therefore paramount, which has also given way to the use of medicinal plants in the management of brain conditions. This study was designed to determine the histomorphological and neurobehavioural changes in the cerebellum of Wistar rats following nicotine insult and how such injuries respond to Moringa intervention. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups...
January 4, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Fernando García-Alcántara, Silvia Murillo-Cuesta, Sara Pulido, Jose M Bermúdez-Muñoz, Raquel Martínez-Vega, Marta Milo, Isabel Varela-Nieto, Teresa Rivera
Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used widely in medicine despite their ototoxic side-effects. Oxidative stress and inflammation are key mechanisms determining the extent and severity of the damage. Here we evaluate the protective effect of a treatment with resveratrol plus N-acetylcysteine on the ototoxic actions of kanamycin and furosemide in the rat. Resveratrol (10 mg/kg) and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg/kg) were administered together to Wistar rats on 5 consecutive days. The second day, a concentrated solution of kanamycin and furosemide was placed on the round window to induce ototoxicity...
December 14, 2017: Hearing Research
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