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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350183/integrated-biocircuits-engineering-functional-multicellular-circuits-and-devices
#1
Jordan Prox, Tory Smith, Chad Holl, Nick Chehade, Liang Guo
Novel in vitro platforms are currently revolutionizing the study and reconstruction of cellular circuitry to bypass the pertaining obstacles of data retrieval in vivo. While earlier approaches have provided great insights into culturing circuits in planar dissociated cell culture systems, the lack of full control over network activity and formation limits our understanding of their functionality. Thus, integrating various controllable parameters are required in creating a suitable microenvironment including cell patterning, highly-specified electrical and chemical stimuli, and rational circuit formation via logic functions...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317649/synchrotron-generated-microbeams-induce-hippocampal-transections-in-rats
#2
Erminia Fardone, Benoît Pouyatos, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, Stefan Bartzsch, Hervè Mathieu, Herwig Requardt, Domenico Bucci, Giacomo Barbone, Paola Coan, Giuseppe Battaglia, Geraldine Le Duc, Alberto Bravin, Pantaleo Romanelli
Synchrotron-generated microplanar beams (microbeams) provide the most stereo-selective irradiation modality known today. This novel irradiation modality has been shown to control seizures originating from eloquent cortex causing no neurological deficit in experimental animals. To test the hypothesis that application of microbeams in the hippocampus, the most common source of refractory seizures, is safe and does not induce severe side effects, we used microbeams to induce transections to the hippocampus of healthy rats...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311338/faulty-neuronal-determination-and-cell-polarization-are-reverted-by-modulating-hd-early-phenotypes
#3
P Conforti, D Besusso, V D Bocchi, A Faedo, E Cesana, G Rossetti, V Ranzani, C N Svendsen, L M Thompson, M Toselli, G Biella, M Pagani, E Cattaneo
Increasing evidence suggests that early neurodevelopmental defects in Huntington's disease (HD) patients could contribute to the later adult neurodegenerative phenotype. Here, by using HD-derived induced pluripotent stem cell lines, we report that early telencephalic induction and late neural identity are affected in cortical and striatal populations. We show that a large CAG expansion causes complete failure of the neuro-ectodermal acquisition, while cells carrying shorter CAGs repeats show gross abnormalities in neural rosette formation as well as disrupted cytoarchitecture in cortical organoids...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307662/moringa-oleifera-phytochemicals-protect-the-brain-against-experimental-nicotine-induced-neurobehavioral-disturbances-and-cerebellar-degeneration
#4
Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Shakirat Opeyemi Dada-Habeeb, Tolulope Timothy Arogundade, Emmanuel Olusola Yawson
Nicotine is a neuro-stimulant that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many brain diseases. The need to prevent or alleviate the resulting dysfunction is therefore paramount, which has also given way to the use of medicinal plants in the management of brain conditions. This study was designed to determine the histomorphological and neurobehavioural changes in the cerebellum of Wistar rats following nicotine insult and how such injuries respond to Moringa intervention. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups...
January 4, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304389/the-expression-of-oxidative-stress-response-genes-is-modulated-by-a-combination-of-resveratrol-and-n-acetylcysteine-to-ameliorate-ototoxicity-in-the-rat-cochlea
#5
Fernando García-Alcántara, Silvia Murillo-Cuesta, Sara Pulido, Jose M Bermúdez-Muñoz, Raquel Martínez-Vega, Marta Milo, Isabel Varela-Nieto, Teresa Rivera
Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used widely in medicine despite their ototoxic side-effects. Oxidative stress and inflammation are key mechanisms determining the extent and severity of the damage. Here we evaluate the protective effect of a treatment with resveratrol plus N-acetylcysteine on the ototoxic actions of kanamycin and furosemide in the rat. Resveratrol (10 mg/kg) and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg/kg) were administered together to Wistar rats on 5 consecutive days. The second day, a concentrated solution of kanamycin and furosemide was placed on the round window to induce ototoxicity...
December 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300915/in-vivo-identification-of-thick-thin-and-pale-stripes-of-macaque-area-v2-using-submillimeter-resolution-f-mri-at-3-t
#6
Xiaolian Li, Qi Zhu, Thomas Janssens, John T Arsenault, Wim Vanduffel
Primate area V2 contains a repetitive pattern of thick, thin and pale cytochrome oxidase stripes that are characterized by largely discrete in- and output channels, as well as differences in function, and myelo- and cytoarchitecture. Stripes have been identified mainly using microscope-based imaging of tiny portions of superficially located V2, or by postmortem methods, hence, the quest for (quasi) noninvasive tools to study these mesoscale functional units. Only recently, stripe-like V2 patterns have been demonstrated in humans with high-field (functional) magnetic resonance imaging (f)MRI, but in both such studies only 2 stripe compartments could be identified...
December 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297931/mapping-the-distribution-of-language-related-genes-foxp1-foxp2-and-cntnap2-in-the-brains-of-vocal-learning-bat-species
#7
Pedro M Rodenas-Cuadrado, Janine Mengede, Laura Baas, Paolo Devanna, Tobias A Schmid, Michael Yartsev, Uwe Firzlaff, Sonja C Vernes
Genes including FOXP2, FOXP1 and CNTNAP2, have been implicated in human speech and language phenotypes, pointing to a role in the development of normal language-related circuitry in the brain. Although speech and language are unique human phenotypes, a comparative approach is possible by addressing language-relevant traits in animal model systems. One such trait, vocal learning, represents an essential component of human spoken language, and is shared by cetaceans, pinnipeds, elephants, some birds and bats...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276487/hippocampal-transcriptomic-profiles-subfield-vulnerability-to-age-and-cognitive-impairment
#8
Lara Ianov, Matt De Both, Monica K Chawla, Asha Rani, Andrew J Kennedy, Ignazio Piras, Jeremy J Day, Ashley Siniard, Ashok Kumar, J David Sweatt, Carol A Barnes, Matthew J Huentelman, Thomas C Foster
The current study employed next-generation RNA sequencing to examine gene expression differences related to brain aging, cognitive decline, and hippocampal subfields. Young and aged rats were trained on a spatial episodic memory task. Hippocampal regions CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus were isolated. Poly-A mRNA was examined using two different sequencing platforms, Illumina, and Ion Proton. The Illumina platform was used to generate seed lists of genes that were statistically differentially expressed across regions, ages, or in association with cognitive function...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273475/plectin-controls-biliary-tree-architecture-and-stability-in-cholestasis
#9
Marketa Jirouskova, Katerina Nepomucka, Gizem Oyman-Eyrilmez, Alzbeta Kalendova, Helena Havelkova, Lenka Sarnova, Karel Chalupsky, Bjoern Schuster, Oldrich Benada, Petra Miksatkova, Martin Kuchar, Ondrej Fabian, Radislav Sedlacek, Gerhard Wiche, Martin Gregor
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Plectin, a highly versatile cytolinker protein, controls intermediate filament (IF) cytoarchitecture and cellular stress response. In the present study, we investigate the role of plectin in the liver under basal conditions and in experimental cholestasis. METHODS: We generated liver-specific Plectin knockout (PleΔalb) mice and analyzed them using two cholestatic liver injury models: bile duct ligation (BDL) and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) feeding...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249943/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-the-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius-cytoarchitecture-and-neurochemical-anatomy
#10
Khalid El Allali, Mohamed R Achaâban, Mohammed Piro, Mohammed Ouassat, Etienne Challet, Mohammed Errami, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, André Calas, Paul Pévet
In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246925/a%C3%AE-mediates-f-actin-disassembly-in-dendritic-spines-leading-to-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Reddy Peera Kommaddi, Debajyoti Das, Smitha Karunakaran, Siddharth Nanguneri, Deepti Bapat, Ajit Ray, Eisha Shaw, David A Bennett, Deepak Nair, Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath
Dendritic spine loss is recognized as an early feature of Alzheimer's disease, however the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic spine structure is defined by filamentous actin (F-actin) and we observed depolymerization of synaptosomal F-actin accompanied by increased G-actin, as early as 1 month of age in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD; APPswe/PS1ΔE9, male mice). This led to recall deficit after contextual fear conditioning (cFC) at 2 months of age in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 male mice, which could be reversed by actin polymerizing agent, jasplakinolide...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223496/multi-modal-imaging-investigation-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-cytoarchitecture-in-neurodevelopment
#12
Natalie J Forde, Jilly Naaijen, David J Lythgoe, Sophie E A Akkermans, Thaïra J C Openneer, Andrea Dietrich, Marcel P Zwiers, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jan K Buitelaar
Multi-modal imaging may improve our understanding of the relationship between cortical morphology and cytoarchitecture. To this end we integrated the analyses of several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) metrics within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Considering the ACCs role in neurodevelopmental disorders, we also investigated the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms and the various metrics. T1 and diffusion-weighted MRI and 1H-MRS (ACC voxel) data along with phenotypic information were acquired from children (8-12 years) with various neurodevelopmental disorders (n=95) and healthy controls (n=50)...
December 6, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207649/sulodexide-recovers-endothelial-function-through-reconstructing-glycocalyx-in-the-balloon-injury-rat-carotid-artery-model
#13
Tianjia Li, Xinnong Liu, Zhewei Zhao, Leng Ni, Changwei Liu
Disruption of endothelial cell function is a principle event in cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, therapies have mostly focused on repairing the endothelium, but little attention has been paid to the reconstruction of glycocalyx, which covers the endothelium and protects the function of endothelial cells. Sulodexide has a similar glycosaminoglycan structure to glycocalyx, so it is assumed to be effective in remodeling the glycocalyx following damage. We assessed the effect of sulodexide on glycocalyx remodeling and endothelial function in the balloon-injury rat carotid artery model...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205371/characterization-of-the-canine-rostral-ventricular-subventricular-zone-morphological-immunohistochemical-ultrastructural-and-neurosphere-assay-studies
#14
Francisco Fernández-Flores, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Raquel Martín-Ibáñez, Cristina Herranz, Dolors Fondevila, Josep María Canals, Carles Arús, Martí Pumarola
The mammalian ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) presents the highest neurogenic potential in the brain of the adult individual. In rodents, it is mainly composed of chains of neuroblasts. In humans, it is organized in layers where neuroblasts do not form chains. The aim of this study is to describe the cytoarchitecture of canine V-SVZ (cV-SVZ), to assess its neurogenic potential, and to compare our results with those previously described in other species. We have studied by histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), electron microscopy and neurosphere assay the morphology, cytoarchitecture and neurogenic potential of cV-SVZ...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193520/physiological-significance-of-multipolar-cells-generated-from-neural-stem-cells-and-progenitors-for-the-establishment-of-neocortical-cytoarchitecture
#15
REVIEW
Ken-Ichi Mizutani
Neurogenesis encompasses an entire set of events that leads to the generation of newborn neurons from neural stem cells and more committed progenitor cells, including cell division, the production of migratory precursors and their progeny, differentiation and integration into circuits. In particular, the precise control of neuronal migration and morphological changes is essential for the development of the neocortex. Postmitotic cells within the intermediate zone have been found to transiently assume a characteristic "multipolar" morphology, after which a multipolar-to-bipolar transition occurs before the cells enter the cortical plate; however, the importance of this multipolar phase in the establishment of mature cortical cytoarchitecture and the precise genetic control of this phase remains largely unknown...
November 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189906/individual-variability-in-the-structural-properties-of-neurons-in-the-human-inferior-olive
#16
Joan S Baizer, Keit Men Wong, Chet C Sherwood, Patrick R Hof, Sandra F Witelson
The inferior olive (IO) is the sole source of the climbing fibers innervating the cerebellar cortex. We have previously shown both individual differences in the size and folding pattern of the principal nucleus (IOpr) in humans as well as in the expression of different proteins in IOpr neurons. This high degree of variability was not present in chimpanzee samples. The neurochemical differences might reflect static differences among individuals, but might also reflect age-related processes resulting in alterations of protein synthesis...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188378/receptor-driven-multimodal-mapping-of-the-human-amygdala
#17
Olga Kedo, Karl Zilles, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Axel Schleicher, Hartmut Mohlberg, Sebastian Bludau, Katrin Amunts
The human amygdala consists of subdivisions contributing to various functions. However, principles of structural organization at the cellular and molecular level are not well understood. Thus, we re-analyzed the cytoarchitecture of the amygdala and generated cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of ten subdivisions in stereotaxic space based on novel workflows and mapping tools. This parcellation was then used as a basis for analyzing the receptor expression for 15 receptor types. Receptor fingerprints, i.e...
November 29, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184206/a-multiregional-proteomic-survey-of-the-postnatal-human-brain
#18
Becky C Carlyle, Robert R Kitchen, Jean E Kanyo, Edward Z Voss, Mihovil Pletikos, André M M Sousa, TuKiet T Lam, Mark B Gerstein, Nenad Sestan, Angus C Nairn
Detailed observations of transcriptional, translational and post-translational events in the human brain are essential to improving our understanding of its development, function and vulnerability to disease. Here, we exploited label-free quantitative tandem mass-spectrometry to create an in-depth proteomic survey of regions of the postnatal human brain, ranging in age from early infancy to adulthood. Integration of protein data with existing matched whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) from the BrainSpan project revealed varied patterns of protein-RNA relationships, with generally increased magnitudes of protein abundance differences between brain regions compared to RNA...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176903/axonal-and-myelinic-pathology-in-5xfad-alzheimer-s-mouse-spinal-cord
#19
Tak-Ho Chu, Karen Cummins, Joseph S Sparling, Shigeki Tsutsui, Craig Brideau, K Peter R Nilsson, Jeffrey T Joseph, Peter K Stys
As an extension of the brain, the spinal cord has unique properties which could allow us to gain a better understanding of CNS pathology. The brain and cord share the same cellular components, yet the latter is simpler in cytoarchitecture and connectivity. In Alzheimer's research, virtually all focus is on brain pathology, however it has been shown that transgenic Alzheimer's mouse models accumulate beta amyloid plaques in spinal cord, suggesting that the cord possesses the same molecular machinery and conditions for plaque formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163756/effect-of-chronic-administration-of-resveratrol-on-cognitive-performance-during-aging-process-in-rats
#20
A R Navarro-Cruz, R Ramírez Y Ayala, C Ochoa-Velasco, E Brambila, R Avila-Sosa, S Pérez-Fernández, J C Morales-Medina, P Aguilar-Alonso
The increase in the elderly population has generated concern to meet health demands. The research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms of damage associated with aging have also been significantly increased, especially in order to avoid the reduction of the cognitive abilities in geriatric patients, resulting from the damage generated mainly at the level of the hippocampus during old age. At present, many studies describe resveratrol as an antiaging component. There are reports that it can activate the Sirt1 gene related to antiaging, emulating the effects obtained by caloric restriction in rodents...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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