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Cytoarchitecture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126813/automated-immunohistochemical-method-to-analyze-large-areas-of-the-human-cortex
#1
Mohamad Abbass, Kathleen Trought, David Long, Anton Semechko, Albert H C Wong
BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistencies in the histological abnormalities found in the cerebral cortex from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Discrepancies in previously published reports may arise from small sample sizes, inconsistent methodology and biased cell counting. New METHOD: We applied automated quantification of neuron density, neuron size and cortical layer thickness in vast regions of human cortex in psychiatric patients. This method accurately segments DAPI positive cells that are also stained with CUX2 and FEZF2...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116443/cytoarchitecture-and-myeloarchitecture-of-the-pulvinar
#2
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we discuss the different ways in which the primate pulvinar has been subdivided, based on cytoarchitectural and myeloarchitectural criteria. One original criterion, based on cytoarchitecture, subdivided the pulvinar into nucleus pulvinaris medialis (PM), nucleus pulvinaris lateralis (PL), and nucleus pulvinaris inferior (PI). Later, the anterior limits of the pulvinar were extended and a subdivision was added to this nucleus, named pulvinar oralis (PO). PO occupies the anterior portion of the pulvinar and appears between the nucleus centrum medianum (CM) and the nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis (VPL)...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116442/introduction
#3
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
The pulvinar can be subdivided into well-delimitated regions based on chemoarchitectural, cytoarchitectural, myeloarchitectural, connectivity, and electrophysiological criteria. Subdivisions of the pulvinar based on its chemoarchitectural features are the most consistently preserved across species of New and Old World monkeys. It is reasonable to speculate that the occurrence and distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the pulvinar, such as calbindin and parvalbumin, have been preserved along evolution...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107546/life-long-neurogenic-activity-of-individual-neural-stem-cells-and-continuous-growth-establish-an-outside-in-architecture-in-the-teleost-pallium
#4
Giacomo Furlan, Valentina Cuccioli, Nelly Vuillemin, Lara Dirian, Anna Janue Muntasell, Marion Coolen, Nicolas Dray, Sébastien Bedu, Corinne Houart, Emmanuel Beaurepaire, Isabelle Foucher, Laure Bally-Cuif
Spatiotemporal variations of neurogenesis are thought to account for the evolution of brain shape. In the dorsal telencephalon (pallium) of vertebrates, it remains unresolved which ancestral neurogenesis mode prefigures the highly divergent cytoarchitectures that are seen in extant species. To gain insight into this question, we developed genetic tools to generate here the first 4-dimensional (3D + birthdating time) map of pallium construction in the adult teleost zebrafish. Using a Tet-On-based genetic birthdating strategy, we identify a "sequential stacking" construction mode where neurons derived from the zebrafish pallial germinal zone arrange in outside-in, age-related layers from a central core generated during embryogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101840/ex%C3%A2-vivo-culture-of-human-atherosclerotic-plaques-a-model-to-study-immune-cells-in-atherogenesis
#5
Anna Lebedeva, Daria Vorobyeva, Murad Vagida, Oxana Ivanova, Eugeny Felker, Wendy Fitzgerald, Natalya Danilova, Vladimir Gontarenko, Alexander Shpektor, Elena Vasilieva, Leonid Margolis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The mechanisms that drive atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization in humans remain largely unknown. Laboratory models are needed to study these mechanisms under controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to establish a new ex vivo model of human atherosclerotic plaques that preserves the main cell types in plaques and the extracellular components in the context of native cytoarchitecture. METHODS: Atherosclerotic plaques from carotid arteries of 28 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were dissected and cultured...
October 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101031/a-deficiency-of-the-glun2c-subunit-of-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-is-neuroprotective-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#6
Adam Holmes, Ning Zhou, Deborah L Donahue, Rashna Balsara, Francis J Castellino
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) ion channel plays a pivotal role in the pathology of ischemic stroke. The functional receptor consists of two GluN1 subunits (a-h) and two GluN2 subunits (A/B/C/D), the expression of which are spatially and temporally regulated in pathological and physiological conditions. While the role of the GluN2A and GluN2B subunit in ischemic stroke has been well developed, the role of the GluN2C subunit in ischemia is not well understood. Following middle carotid artery occlusion (MCAO), GluN2C(-/-) male mice displayed similar volumes of infarct as wild-type (WT) mice...
October 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097157/oral-supplementation-of-melatonin-protects-against-lupus-nephritis-renal-injury-in-a-pristane-induced-lupus-mouse-model
#7
Mariane Dos Santos, Gaia Favero, Francesca Bonomini, Alessandra Stacchiotti, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Francisco Veríssimo Veronese, Rita Rezzani
AIMS: Since lupus nephritis (LN) etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, herein we investigated the morphological basis of LN in mice induced with pristane. MAIN METHODS: To evaluate the melatonin effects in these animals, we studied the renal cytoarchitecture by means of morphological analyses, immunofluorescence expression of specific markers related to fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. KEY FINDINGS: We observed that pristane-LN mice have serious alterations in the kidney cytoarchitecture, i...
October 30, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096641/acute-in-utero-exposure-to-lipopolysaccharide-induces-inflammation-in-the-pre-and-postnatal-brain-and-alters-the-glial-cytoarchitecture-in-the-developing-amygdala
#8
Elaine O'Loughlin, Janelle M P Pakan, Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke, Kieran W McDermott
BACKGROUND: Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as seizure development. The amygdala is a brain region involved in the regulation of emotions, and amygdalar maldevelopment due to infection-induced MIA may lead to amygdala-related disorders. MIA priming of glial cells during development has been linked to abnormalities seen in later life; however, little is known about its effects on amygdalar biochemical and cytoarchitecture integrity...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094303/high-thickness-histological-sections-as-alternative-to-study-the-three-dimensional-microscopic-human-sub-cortical-neuroanatomy
#9
Eduardo Joaquim Lopes Alho, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Lea Grinberg, Edson Amaro, Gláucia Aparecida Bento Dos Santos, Rafael Emídio da Silva, Ricardo Caires Neves, Maryana Alegro, Daniel Boari Coelho, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Helmut Heinsen
Stereotaxy is based on the precise image-guided spatial localization of targets within the human brain. Even with the recent advances in MRI technology, histological examination renders different (and complementary) information of the nervous tissue. Although several maps have been selected as a basis for correlating imaging results with the anatomical locations of sub-cortical structures, technical limitations interfere in a point-to-point correlation between imaging and anatomy due to the lack of precise correction for post-mortem tissue deformations caused by tissue fixation and processing...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078752/efficient-preparation-of-arabidopsis-pollen-tubes-for-ultrastructural-analysis-using-chemical-and-cryo-fixation
#10
Tohnyui Ndinyanka Fabrice, Andres Kaech, Gery Barmettler, Christof Eichenberger, J Paul Knox, Ueli Grossniklaus, Christoph Ringli
BACKGROUND: The pollen tube (PT) serves as a model system for investigating plant cell growth and morphogenesis. Ultrastructural studies are indispensable to complement data from physiological and genetic analyses, yet an effective method is lacking for PTs of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. METHODS: Here, we present reliable approaches for ultrastructural studies of Arabidopsis PTs, as well as an efficient technique for immunogold detection of cell wall epitopes...
October 27, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056451/the-lamprey-pallium-provides-a-blueprint-of-the-mammalian-layered-cortex
#11
Shreyas M Suryanarayana, Brita Robertson, Peter Wallén, Sten Grillner
The basic architecture of the mammalian neocortex is remarkably similar across species. Pallial structures in the reptilian brain are considered amniote precursors of mammalian neocortex, whereas pallia of anamniotes ("lower" vertebrates) have been deemed largely insignificant with respect to homology. Here, we examine the cytoarchitecture of the lateral pallium in the lamprey, the phylogenetically oldest group of extant vertebrates. We reveal a three-layered structure with similar excitatory cell types as in the mammalian cortex and GABAergic interneurons...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053697/stereotactically-guided-ablation-of-the-rat-auditory-cortex-and-localization-of-the-lesion-in-the-brain
#12
Verónica Lamas, Sheila Estévez, Marianni Pernía, Ignacio Plaza, Miguel A Merchán
The rat auditory cortex (AC) is becoming popular among auditory neuroscience investigators who are interested in experience-dependence plasticity, auditory perceptual processes, and cortical control of sound processing in the subcortical auditory nuclei. To address new challenges, a procedure to accurately locate and surgically expose the auditory cortex would expedite this research effort. Stereotactic neurosurgery is routinely used in pre-clinical research in animal models to engraft a needle or electrode at a pre-defined location within the auditory cortex...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024431/the-cytoarchitecture-of-the-telencephalon-of-betta-splendens-regan-1910-perciformes-anabantoidei-with-a-stereological-approach-to-the-supracommissural-and-postcommissural-nuclei
#13
Ângelo Cássio Magalhães Horn, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
Teleostean fish brains are useful models to study cellular and functional specializations along the phylogenesis. The Betta splendens Regan 1910 (Siamese fighting fish; Perciformes:Anabantoidei) is known for its aggressive display, courtship behavior, nest building, and offspring care. Here, we present novel and detailed data about the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulb and the telencephalic hemispheres of this fish. The hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl techniques served to identify brain nuclei (n = 19 males and n = 21 females) and for the stereological evaluation of the numerical density of cells and the proportion of neurons and glial cells in the ventral telencephalon supracommissural (Vs) and postcommissural (Vp) nuclei of adult males and females...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021835/progressive-changes-in-hippocampal-cytoarchitecture-in-a-neurodevelopmental-rat-model-of-epilepsy-implications-for-understanding-presymptomatic-epileptogenesis-predictive-diagnosis-and-targeted-treatments
#14
Paul B Bernard, Leslie A Ramsay, Debra S MacDonald, R Andrew Tasker
Epilepsies affect about 4% of the population and are frequently characterized by a prolonged "silent" period before the onset of spontaneous seizures. Most current animal models of epilepsy either involve acute seizure induction or kindling protocols that induce repetitive seizures. We have developed a rat model of epilepsy that is characterized by a slowly progressing series of behavioral abnormalities prior to the onset of behavioral seizures. In the current study, we further describe an accompanying progression of cytoarchitectural changes in the hippocampal formation...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017866/as-psoct-volumetric-microscopic-imaging-of-human-brain-architecture-and-connectivity
#15
Hui Wang, Caroline Magnain, Ruopeng Wang, Jay Dubb, Ani Varjabedian, Lee S Tirrell, Allison Stevens, Jean C Augustinack, Ender Konukoglu, Iman Aganj, Matthew P Frosch, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Bruce Fischl, David A Boas
Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) with serial sectioning has enabled the investigation of 3D structures in mouse and human brain tissue samples. By using intrinsic optical properties of back-scattering and birefringence, PSOCT reliably images cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and fiber orientations. In this study, we developed a fully automatic serial sectioning polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (as-PSOCT) system to enable volumetric reconstruction of human brain samples with unprecedented sample size and resolution...
October 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967147/optical-clearing-of-small-intestine-for-three-dimensional-visualization-of-cellular-proliferation-within-crypts
#16
Jason A Kaufman, Monica J Castro, Noemy Sandoval-Skeet, Layla Al-Nakkash
New methods on optical clearing provide a valuable alternative to traditional physical section histology. Optical clearing allows investigation of relatively large tissue samples at histological resolution while maintaining the three-dimensional architecture of the intact system. There is significant potential for applying optical clearing to gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, intestinal crypts contain high concentrations of stem cells, making these structures especially important for research on cellular proliferation in the intestinal epithelium...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965517/not-a-one-trick-pony-diverse-connectivity-and-functions-of-the-rodent-lateral-geniculate-complex
#17
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Ubadah Sabbagh, Michael A Fox
Often mislabeled as a simple relay of sensory information, the thalamus is a complicated structure with diverse functions. This diversity is exemplified by roles visual thalamus plays in processing and transmitting light-derived stimuli. Such light-derived signals are transmitted to the thalamus by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole projection neurons of the retina. Axons from RGCs innervate more than ten distinct nuclei within thalamus, including those of the lateral geniculate complex. Nuclei within the lateral geniculate complex of nocturnal rodents, which include the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), are each densely innervated by retinal projections, yet, exhibit distinct cytoarchitecture and connectivity...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951610/managing-competing-goals-a-key-role-for-the-frontopolar-cortex
#18
REVIEW
Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri, Etienne Koechlin, Marcello G P Rosa, Mark J Buckley
Humans are set apart from other animals by many elements of advanced cognition and behaviour, including language, judgement and reasoning. What is special about the human brain that gives rise to these abilities? Could the foremost part of the prefrontal cortex (the frontopolar cortex), which has become considerably enlarged in humans during evolution compared with other animals, be important in this regard, especially as, in primates, it contains a unique cytoarchitectural field, area 10? The first studies of the function of the frontopolar cortex in monkeys have now provided critical new insights about its precise role in monitoring the significance of current and alternative goals...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947904/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-myeloid-malignancies-a-focus-on-immune-escaping-and-therapeutic-implications
#19
REVIEW
Nicola Stefano Fracchiolla, Bruno Fattizzo, Agostino Cortelezzi
The importance of the bone marrow microenvironment forming the so-called niche in physiologic hemopoiesis is largely known, and recent evidences support the presence of stromal alterations from the molecular to the cytoarchitectural level in hematologic malignancies. Various alterations in cell adhesion, metabolism, cytokine signaling, autophagy, and methylation patterns of tumor-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been demonstrated, contributing to the genesis of a leukemic permissive niche. This niche allows both the ineffective haematopoiesis typical of myelodysplastic syndromes and the differentiation arrest, proliferation advantage, and clone selection which is the hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935522/beyond-chemoattraction-multifunctionality-of-chemokine-receptors-in-leukocytes
#20
REVIEW
Pilar López-Cotarelo, Carolina Gómez-Moreira, Olga Criado-García, Lucas Sánchez, José Luis Rodríguez-Fernández
The word chemokine is a combination of the words chemotactic and cytokine, in other words cytokines that promote chemotaxis. Hence, the term chemokine receptor refers largely to the ability to regulate chemoattraction. However, these receptors can modulate additional leukocyte functions, as exemplified by the case of CCR7 which, apart from chemotaxis, regulates survival, migratory speed, endocytosis, differentiation and cytoarchitecture. We present evidence highlighting that multifunctionality is a common feature of chemokine receptors...
September 18, 2017: Trends in Immunology
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