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Cytoarchitecture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336441/chronic-stress-induced-dendritic-reorganization-and-abundance-of-synaptosomal-pka-dependent-cp-ampa-receptor-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression
#1
Eun-Surk Yi, Seikwan Oh, Jang-Kyu Lee, Yea-Hyun Leem
Chronic stress is a precipitating factor for disorders including depression. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical substrate that interconnects with stress-modulated neural networks to generate emotion- and mood-related behaviors. The current study shows that 3 h per day of restraint stress for 14 days caused mice to exhibit long-term depressive behaviors, manifested by disrupted sociality and despair levels, which were rescued by fluoxetine. These behavioral changes corresponded with morphological and molecular changes in BLA neurons, including chronic stress-elicited increases in arborization, dendritic length, and spine density of BLA principal neurons...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315813/the-case-for-applying-tissue-engineering-methodologies-to-instruct-human-organoid-morphogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Carlos R Marti-Figueroa, Randolph S Ashton
Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i...
March 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294456/functional-organization-of-the-human-posterior-cingulate-cortex-revealed-by-multiple-connectivity-based-parcellation-methods
#3
Jungho Cha, Hang Joon Jo, William S Gibson, Jong-Min Lee
Based on cytoarchitecture, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is thought to be comprised of two distinct functional subregions: the dorsal and ventral PCC (dPCC and vPCC). However, functional subregions do not completely match anatomical boundaries in the human brain. To understand the relationship between the functional organization of regions and anatomical features, it is necessary to apply parcellation algorithms based on functional properties. We therefore defined functionally informed subregions in the human PCC by parcellation of regions with similar patterns of functional connectivity in the resting brain...
March 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283561/alteration-of-neuronal-excitability-and-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-of-mental-illness
#4
Gregg W Crabtree, Ziyi Sun, Mirna Kvajo, Jantine Ac Broek, Karine Fénelon, Heather McKellar, Lan Xiao, Bin Xu, Sabine Bahn, James M O'Donnell, Joseph A Gogos
Employing a genetic mouse model that faithfully recapitulates a DISC1 genetic alteration strongly associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, we examined the impact of this mutation within the prefrontal cortex. Although cortical layering, cytoarchitecture and proteome were found to be largely unaffected, electrophysiological examination of the mPFC revealed both neuronal hyper-excitability and alterations in short-term synaptic plasticity consistent with enhanced neurotransmitter release...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255341/proton-mr-spectroscopy-and-diffusion-mr-imaging-monitoring-to-predict-tumor-response-to-interstitial-photodynamic-therapy-for-glioblastoma
#5
Magali Toussaint, Sophie Pinel, Florent Auger, Nicolas Durieux, Magalie Thomassin, Eloise Thomas, Albert Moussaron, Dominique Meng, François Plénat, Marine Amouroux, Thierry Bastogne, Céline Frochot, Olivier Tillement, François Lux, Muriel Barberi-Heyob
Despite recent progress in conventional therapeutic approaches, the vast majority of glioblastoma recur locally, indicating that a more aggressive local therapy is required. Interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) appears as a very promising and complementary approach to conventional therapies. However, an optimal fractionation scheme for iPDT remains the indispensable requirement. To achieve that major goal, we suggested following iPDT tumor response by a non-invasive imaging monitoring. Nude rats bearing intracranial glioblastoma U87MG xenografts were treated by iPDT, just after intravenous injection of AGuIX® nanoparticles, encapsulating PDT and imaging agents...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242287/chronic-administration-of-gabapentin-and-a-gabapentin-carbamazepine-combination-reversibly-suppress-testicular-function-in-male-wistar-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#6
Opeyemi Samson Osuntokun, Gbola Olayiwola, Ayowole Oladele, Idowu Ola, Oludele AyokaAbiodun
The effect of chronic administration of gabapentin, carbamazepine or a gabapentin-carbamazepine combination on testicular function in male rats was investigated to determine the effect of combining reduced doses of anti-epileptic drugs on the management of seizures, particularly with respect to the testis sequellae of chronic anti-epileptic administration. Male rats were randomized into four groups (n=10). Each group received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections for 28days as follows: Group I, normal saline 0...
February 13, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242136/braf-signaling-pathway-inhibition-podocyte-injury-and-nephrotic-syndrome
#7
Luca Perico, Mario Mandalà, Arrigo Schieppati, Camillo Carrara, Paola Rizzo, Sara Conti, Lorena Longaretti, Ariela Benigni, Giuseppe Remuzzi
Dabrafenib and trametinib, BRAF and MEK inhibitors, respectively, are effective targeted metastatic melanoma therapies, but little is known about their nephrotoxicity. Although tubulointerstitial injury has been the most widely reported renal side effect of targeted melanoma therapy, nephrotic syndrome has not been reported before. We report on a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed nephrotic syndrome during dabrafenib and trametinib treatment. Kidney biopsy showed diffuse loss of podocyte cytoarchitecture, extensive foot-process effacement, and glomerular endothelial injury...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240235/three-dimensional-mouse-brain-cytoarchitecture-revealed-by-laboratory-based-x-ray-phase-contrast-tomography
#8
Mareike Töpperwien, Martin Krenkel, Daniel Vincenz, Franziska Stöber, Anja M Oelschlegel, Jürgen Goldschmidt, Tim Salditt
Studies of brain cytoarchitecture in mammals are routinely performed by serial sectioning of the specimen and staining of the sections. The procedure is labor-intensive and the 3D architecture can only be determined after aligning individual 2D sections, leading to a reconstructed volume with non-isotropic resolution. Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography offers a unique potential for high-resolution 3D imaging of intact biological specimen due to the high penetration depth and potential resolution...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235566/tests-of-cortical-parcellation-based-on-white-matter-connectivity-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#9
Yurui Gao, Kurt G Schilling, Iwona Stepniewska, Andrew J Plassard, Ann S Choe, Xia Li, Bennett A Landman, Adam W Anderson
The cerebral cortex is conventionally divided into a number of domains based on cytoarchitectural features. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables non-invasive parcellation of the cortex based on white matter connectivity patterns. However, the correspondence between DTI-connectivity-based and cytoarchitectural parcellation has not been systematically established. In this study, we compared histological parcellation of New World monkey neocortex to DTI connectivity-based classification and clustering in the same brains...
February 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213120/a-cross-validated-cytoarchitectonic-atlas-of-the-human-ventral-visual-stream
#10
Mona Rosenke, Kevin S Weiner, Michael A Barnett, Karl Zilles, Katrin Amunts, Rainer Goebel, Kalanit Grill-Spector
The human ventral visual stream consists of several areas that are considered processing stages essential for perception and recognition. A fundamental microanatomical feature differentiating areas is cytoarchitecture, which refers to the distribution, size, and density of cells across cortical layers. Because cytoarchitectonic structure is measured in 20-micron-thick histological slices of postmortem tissue, it is difficult to assess (a) how anatomically consistent these areas are across brains and (b) how they relate to brain parcellations obtained with prevalent neuroimaging methods, acquired at the millimeter and centimeter scale...
February 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206669/characterization-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-with-balloon-cells-by-layer-specific-markers-evidence-for-differential-vulnerability-of-interneurons
#11
Julia M Nakagawa, Catharina Donkels, Susanne Fauser, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Marco Prinz, Josef Zentner, Carola A Haas
OBJECTIVE: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Little is known about the pathomechanisms underlying the characteristic cytoarchitectural abnormalities associated with FCD. In the present study, a broad panel of markers identifying layer-specific neuron subpopulations was applied to characterize dyslamination and structural alterations in FCD with balloon cells (FCD 2b). METHODS: Pan-neuronal neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and layer-specific protein expression (Reelin, Calbindin, Calretinin, SMI32 (nonphosphorylated neurofilament H), Parvalbumin, transducin-like enhancer protein 4 (TLE4), and Vimentin) was studied by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections of FCD2b cases (n = 22) and was compared to two control groups with (n = 7) or without epilepsy (n = 4 postmortem cases)...
February 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165465/apical-dendrite-degeneration-a-novel-cellular-pathology-for-betz-cells-in-als
#12
Barış Genç, Javier H Jara, Amiko K B Lagrimas, Peter Pytel, Raymond P Roos, M Marsel Mesulam, Changiz Geula, Eileen H Bigio, P Hande Özdinler
Apical dendrites of Betz cells are important sites for the integration of cortical input, however their health has not been fully assessed in ALS patients. We investigated the primary motor cortices isolated from post-mortem normal control subjects, patients with familial ALS (fALS), sporadic ALS (sALS), ALS with frontotemporal dementia (FTD-ALS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and found profound apical dendrite degeneration of Betz cells in both fALS and sALS, as well as FTD-ALS patients. In contrast, Betz cells of AD patients and normal controls retain cellular integrity in the motor cortex, and CA1 pyramidal neurons show abnormalities predominantly within their soma, rather than the apical dendrite...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163122/comparison-of-bold-diffusion-weighted-fmri-and-adc-fmri-for-stimulation-of-the-primary-visual-system-with-a-block-paradigm
#13
R Nicolas, H Gros-Dagnac, F Aubry, P Celsis
The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) effect is extensively used for functional MRI (fMRI) but presents some limitations. Diffusion-weighted fMRI (DfMRI) has been proposed as a method more tightly linked to neuronal activity. This work proposes a protocol of DfMRI acquired for several b-values and diffusion directions that is compared to gradient-echo BOLD (GE-BOLD) and to repeated spin-echo BOLD (SE-BOLD, acquisitions performed with b=0s/mm(2)), which was also used to ensure the reproducibility of the response...
February 3, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118619/characterization-of-nadph-diaphorase-and-doublecortin-positive-neurons-in-the-lizard-hippocampal-formation
#14
Matheus Macedo-Lima, Marco Aurélio M Freire, Hugo de Carvalho Pimentel, Lívia Cristina Rodrigues Ferreira Lins, Katty Anne Amador de Lucena Medeiros, Giordano Gubert Viola, José Ronaldo Dos Santos, Murilo Marchioro
The lizard cortex has remarkable similarities with the mammalian hippocampus. Both regions process memories, have similar cytoarchitectural properties, and are important neurogenic foci in adults. Lizards show striking levels of widespread neurogenesis in adulthood and can regenerate entire cortical areas after injury. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulatory factor of mammalian neurogenesis and hippocampal function. However, little is known about its role in nonmammalian neurogenesis. Here, we analyzed the distribution, morphology, and dendritic complexity (Neurolucida reconstructions) of NO-producing neurons through NADPH diaphorase (NADPHd) activity, and how they compare with the distribution of doublecortin-positive (DCX+) neurons in the hippocampal formation of the neotropical lizard Tropidurus hispidus...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117903/cytology-of-the-healthy-canine-and-feline-ocular-surface-comparison-between-cytobrush-and-impression-technique
#15
Anna Perazzi, Federico Bonsembiante, Maria Elena Gelain, Marco Patruno, Enzo Di Iorio, Angelo Migliorati, Ilaria Iacopetti
BACKGROUND: Impression cytology (IC) is a noninvasive technique in which filters are used to sample superficial layers of ocular epithelium. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare cytology specimens obtained by IC and cytobrush from healthy canine and feline eyes. METHODS: Dogs and cats were prospectively sampled using polytetrafluorethylene filters on the right eye, and cytobrush on the left eye. Wright-Giemsa-stained specimens were evaluated by 2 observers...
January 24, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105729/whole-genome-grey-and-white-matter-dna-methylation-profiles-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Jose Vicente Sanchez-Mut, Holger Heyn, Enrique Vidal, Raúl Delgado-Morales, Sebastian Moran, Sergi Sayols, Juan Sandoval, Isidre Ferrer, Manel Esteller, Johannes Gräff
The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood...
January 20, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099088/mother-gestational-exposure-to-organophosphorus-pesticide-induces-neuron-and-glia-loss-in-daughter-adult-brain
#17
Xiao P Chen, Yong S Chao, Wen Z Chen, Jing Y Dong
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide with developmental neurotoxicity such as morphogenesis toxicity. In the present study, we assessed the effects of prenatal CPF exposure on systemic parameters and cytoarchitecture of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in adulthood. Gestational dams were exposed to 5mg/kg/d of CPF during gestational days 13-17, while body weight, organ coefficient, and neuron and glia counts of offspring were determined on postnatal day 60. Our results showed that CPF treatment induced little or no effects on body weight and organ coefficients...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096290/the-epidermal-polarity-protein-par3-is-a-non-cell-autonomous-suppressor-of-malignant-melanoma
#18
Melina Mescher, Peter Jeong, Sina K Knapp, Matthias Rübsam, Michael Saynisch, Marina Kranen, Jennifer Landsberg, Max Schlaak, Cornelia Mauch, Thomas Tüting, Carien M Niessen, Sandra Iden
Melanoma, an aggressive skin malignancy with increasing lifetime risk, originates from melanocytes (MCs) that are in close contact with surrounding epidermal keratinocytes (KCs). How the epidermal microenvironment controls melanomagenesis remains poorly understood. In this study, we identify an unexpected non-cell autonomous role of epidermal polarity proteins, molecular determinants of cytoarchitecture, in malignant melanoma. Epidermal Par3 inactivation in mice promotes MC dedifferentiation, motility, and hyperplasia and, in an autochthonous melanoma model, results in increased tumor formation and lung metastasis...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090785/thymic-cytoarchitecture-changes-in-mice-exposed-to-vanadium
#19
Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Isabel Garcia-Pelaez, Silvana Cervantes-Yepez, Nelly Lopez-Valdez, Teresa I Fortoul
The thymus is a vital immune system organ wherein selection of T-lymphocytes occurs in a process regulated by dendritic and epithelial thymic cells. Previously, we have reported that in a mouse model of vanadium inhalation, a decrease in CD11c dendritic cells was observed. In the present study, we report on a thymic cortex-medulla distribution distortion in these hosts due to apparent effects of the inhaled vanadium on cytokeratin-5 (K5(+)) epithelial cells in the same mouse model - after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of exposure - by immunohistochemistry...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068280/landolphia-owariensis-attenuates-alcohol-induced-cerebellar-neurodegeneration-significance-of-neurofilament-protein-alteration-in-the-purkinje-cells
#20
Charles A Oyinbo, Patrick S Igbigbi, Godwin O Avwioro
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced cerebellar neurodegeneration is a neuroadaptation that is associated with chronic alcohol abuse. Conventional drugs have been largely unsatisfactory in preventing neurodegeneration. Yet, multimodal neuro-protective therapeutic agents have been hypothesised to have high therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS conditions; there is yet a dilemma of how this would be achieved. Contrarily, medicinal botanicals are naturally multimodal in their mechanism of action...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
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