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Cytoarchitecture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068280/landolphia-owariensis-attenuates-alcohol-induced-cerebellar-neurodegeneration-significance-of-neurofilament-protein-alteration-in-the-purkinje-cells
#1
Charles A Oyinbo, Patrick S Igbigbi, Godwin O Avwioro
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced cerebellar neurodegeneration is a neuroadaptation that is associated with chronic alcohol abuse. Conventional drugs have been largely unsatisfactory in preventing neurodegeneration. Yet, multimodal neuro-protective therapeutic agents have been hypothesised to have high therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS conditions; there is yet a dilemma of how this would be achieved. Contrarily, medicinal botanicals are naturally multimodal in their mechanism of action...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063930/systematic-time-dependent-visualization-and-quantitation-of-the-neurogenic-rate-in-brain-organoids
#2
Yoichi Kosodo, Taeko Suetsugu, Tetsuya J Kobayashi, Fumio Matsuzaki
Organoids mimicking the formation of the brain cortex have been demonstrated to be powerful tools for developmental studies as well as pathological investigations of brain malformations. Here, we report an integrated approach for the quantification of temporal neural production (neurogenic rate) in organoids derived from embryonic brains. Spherical tissue fragments with polarized cytoarchitectures were incubated in multiple cavities arranged in a polymethylmethacrylate chip. The time-dependent neurogenic rate in the organoids was monitored by the level of EGFP under the promoter of Tbr2, a transcription factor that is transiently expressed in neural fate-committed progenitors during corticogenesis...
January 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062214/in-utero-exposure-to-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone-effects-on-fetal-neurotoxicity-in-hippocampal-region-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rat-offspring
#3
K P Singh, Manoj Kr Singh
Clinical studies indicate that about one-third of pregnant women with psychotic symptoms are exposed to either typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Reports on prenatal subject/model are lacking hence, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to risperidone (RIS) on the fetal hippocampus, and their related functional changes in young rat offspring. In this study, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS at 0.8mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg, and 2...
January 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054634/within-brain-area-tractography-suggests-local-modularity-using-high-resolution-connectomics
#4
Peter N Taylor, Yujiang Wang, Marcus Kaiser
Previous structural brain connectivity studies have mainly focussed on the macroscopic scale of around 1,000 or fewer brain areas (network nodes). However, it has recently been demonstrated that high resolution structural connectomes of around 50,000 nodes can be generated reproducibly. In this study, we infer high resolution brain connectivity matrices using diffusion imaging data from the Human Connectome Project. With such high resolution we are able to analyse networks within brain areas in a single subject...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042008/does-time-heal-all-wounds-experimental-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-results-in-persisting-histopathology-in-the-thalamus
#5
Theresa Currier Thomas, Sarah B Ogle, Benjamin M Rumney, Hazel G May, P David Adelson, Jonathan Lifshitz
BACKGROUND: Thalamic dysfunction has been implicated in overall chronic neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI), however little is known about the underlying histopathology. In experimental diffuse TBI (dTBI), we hypothesize that persisting histopathological changes in the ventral posteromedial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus is indicative of progressive circuit reorganization. Since circuit reorganization in the VPM impacts the whisker sensory system, the histopathology could explain the development of hypersensitivity to whisker stimulation by 28days post-injury; similar to light and sound hypersensitivity in human TBI survivors...
December 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018170/mrna-transcriptomics-of-galectins-unveils-heterogeneous-organization-in-mouse-and-human-brain
#6
Sebastian John, Rashmi Mishra
Background: Galectins, a family of non-classically secreted, β-galactoside binding proteins is involved in several brain disorders; however, no systematic knowledge on the normal neuroanatomical distribution and functions of galectins exits. Hence, the major purpose of this study was to understand spatial distribution and predict functions of galectins in brain and also compare the degree of conservation vs. divergence between mouse and human species. The latter objective was required to determine the relevance and appropriateness of studying galectins in mouse brain which may ultimately enable us to extrapolate the findings to human brain physiology and pathologies...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012853/rat-brain-sagittal-organotypic-slice-cultures-as-an-ex-vivo-dopamine-cell-loss-system
#7
Amy McCaughey-Chapman, Bronwen Connor
BACKGROUND: Organotypic brain slice cultures are a useful tool to study neurological function as they provide a more complex, 3-dimensional system than standard 2-dimensional in vitro cell cultures. NEW METHOD: Building on a previously developed mouse brain slice culture protocol, we have developed a rat sagittal brain slice culture system as an ex vivo model of dopamine cell loss. RESULTS: We show that rat brain organotypic slice cultures remain viable for up to 6 weeks in culture...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009019/label-free-multi-scale-imaging-of-ex-vivo-mouse-brain-using-spatial-light-interference-microscopy
#8
Eunjung Min, Mikhail E Kandel, CheMyong J Ko, Gabriel Popescu, Woonggyu Jung, Catherine Best-Popescu
Brain connectivity spans over broad spatial scales, from nanometers to centimeters. In order to understand the brain at multi-scale, the neural network in wide-field has been visualized in detail by taking advantage of light microscopy. However, the process of staining or addition of fluorescent tags is commonly required, and the image contrast is insufficient for delineation of cytoarchitecture. To overcome this barrier, we use spatial light interference microscopy to investigate brain structure with high-resolution, sub-nanometer pathlength sensitivity without the use of exogenous contrast agents...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003243/interleukin-2-improves-amyloid-pathology-synaptic-failure-and-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#9
Sandro Alves, Guillaume Churlaud, Mickael Audrain, Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse, Romain Fol, Benoit Souchet, Jérôme Braudeau, Martin Korte, David Klatzmann, Nathalie Cartier
Interleukin-2 (IL-2)-deficient mice have cytoarchitectural hippocampal modifications and impaired learning and memory ability reminiscent of Alzheimer's disease. IL-2 stimulates regulatory T cells whose role is to control inflammation. As neuroinflammation contributes to neurodegeneration, we investigated IL-2 in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated IL-2 levels in hippocampal biopsies of patients with Alzheimer's disease relative to age-matched control individuals. We then treated APP/PS1ΔE9 mice having established Alzheimer's disease with IL-2 for 5 months using single administration of an AAV-IL-2 vector...
December 20, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001295/gradients-in-cytoarchitectural-landscapes-of-the-isocortex-diprotodont-marsupials-in-comparison-to-eutherian-mammals
#10
Christine J Charvet, Cheryl D Stimpson, Young Do Kim, Mary Ann Raghanti, Albert H Lewandowski, Patrick R Hof, Aida Gómez-Robles, Fenna M Krienen, Chet C Sherwood
Although it has been claimed that marsupials possess a lower density of isocortical neurons compared with other mammals, little is known about cross-cortical variation in neuron distributions in this diverse taxonomic group. We quantified upper layer (layers II-IV) and lower layer (layers V-VI) neuron numbers per unit of cortical surface area in three diprotodont marsupial species (two macropodiformes, the red kangaroo and the parma wallaby, and a vombatiform, the koala) and compared these results to eutherian mammals (e...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909003/the-cytoarchitecture-of-domain-specific-regions-in-human-high-level-visual-cortex
#11
Kevin S Weiner, Michael A Barnett, Simon Lorenz, Julian Caspers, Anthony Stigliani, Katrin Amunts, Karl Zilles, Bruce Fischl, Kalanit Grill-Spector
A fundamental hypothesis in neuroscience proposes that underlying cellular architecture (cytoarchitecture) contributes to the functionality of a brain area. However, this hypothesis has not been tested in human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) that contains domain-specific regions causally involved in perception. To fill this gap in knowledge, we used cortex-based alignment to register functional regions from living participants to cytoarchitectonic areas in ex vivo brains. This novel approach reveals 3 findings...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908658/cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-peptide-and-calcium-binding-proteins-immunoreactivity-in-the-superficial-layers-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-the-guinea-pig-implications-for-visual-sensory-processing
#12
Janusz Najdzion
The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution and colocalization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin) in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SCs) in the guinea pig. The CART immunoreactivity was observed exclusively in the solitary fibers and neuropil, which formed various CART-ir tiers, that corresponded partially or entirely to anatomically defined layers of the SCs. The CART-ir structures exhibited a characteristic morphology with bundles of densely intermingled neuronal fibers and terminals...
January 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907859/near-infrared-mediated-quantum-dots-and-paclitaxel-co-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-for-cancer-theragnostic
#13
Livesey David Olerile, Yongjun Liu, Bo Zhang, Tianqi Wang, Shengjun Mu, Jing Zhang, Lesego Selotlegeng, Na Zhang
Timing is an important factor in cancer management. Theragnostic systems have benefit of improving patients' life-quality by expediting therapeutic decisions. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of co-loaded [quantum dots (CdTe/CdS/ZnS) and paclitaxel] NLC (nanostructured lipid carriers) as a parenteral multifunctional delivery system. The co-loaded NLC was prepared by emulsion-evaporation and low temperature-solidification method utilising glyceryl monostearate, oleic acid, and soya phosphatidylcholine as lipid matrix...
November 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895982/extended-focus-optical-coherence-microscopy-for-high-resolution-imaging-of-the-murine-brain
#14
Szymon Tamborski, Hong Chou Lyu, Hubert Dolezyczek, Monika Malinowska, Grzegorz Wilczynski, Daniel Szlag, Theo Lasser, Maciej Wojtkowski, Maciej Szkulmowski
We propose a new method and optical instrumentation for mouse brain imaging based on extended-focus optical coherence microscopy. This in vivo imaging technique allows the evaluation of the cytoarchitecture at cellular level and the circulation system dynamics in three dimensions. This minimally invasive and non-contact approach is performed without the application of contrasting agents. The optical design achieved a resolution of 2.2 μm over a distance of 800 μm, which was sufficient to obtain a detailed three-dimensional image of a wild-type mouse's brain down to the layer III of the cortex...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884738/development-of-the-human-oculomotor-nuclear-complex-centrally-projecting-edinger-westphal-nucleus
#15
Katsuyuki Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: The cytoarchitecturally defined Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) is now referred to by many investigators as the centrally-projecting EW (EWcp) in humans. Although the mature structure is well-characterized, there have been few reports describing the precise morphology of this nucleus during the second half of gestation. SUBJECTS/DESIGN: Eleven brains were examined from preterm infants, aged 20-39 postmenstrual weeks, who died of various causes. After fixation, the brains were embedded in celloidin and serial sections of 30-μm thickness were cut in the horizontal plane...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873132/mechanisms-of-excessive-extracellular-glutamate-accumulation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Jan Albrecht, Magdalena Zielińska
There is compelling evidence that initiation and maintenance of epileptic seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is facilitated by excessive accumulation in the extracellular (perisynaptic) space of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (Glu). This review discusses the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Glu released from neurons is taken up by astrocytes and activated there by glutamine synthetase (GS) to form glutamine (Gln) which upon entry to neurons is degraded back to Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG): this chain of reactions has been defined as the glutamine/glutamate/cycle (GGC)...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863275/cytoarchitecture-of-zika-virus-infection-in-human-neuroblastoma-and-aedes-albopictus-cell-lines
#17
Danielle K Offerdahl, David W Dorward, Bryan T Hansen, Marshall E Bloom
The Zika virus (ZIKV) pandemic is a global concern due to its role in the development of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. This mosquito-borne flavivirus alternates between mammalian and mosquito hosts, but information about the biogenesis of ZIKV is limited. Using a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) and an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36), we characterized ZIKV infection by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography (ET) to better understand infection in these disparate host cells...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846150/exercise-maintains-dendritic-complexity-in-an-animal-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Jay R Hoffman, Hadas Cohen, Ishay Ostfeld, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar, Hagit Cohen
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the effect of endurance exercise on dendritic arborization in the dentate gyrus subregion in rodents exposed to a predator scent stress (PSS). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. In two of the groups, rats were unexposed to PSS but either remained sedentary (SED + UNEXP) or were exercised (EX + UNEXP). In the other two groups, rats were exposed to the PSS but either remained sedentary (SED + PSS) or were exercised (EX + PSS)...
December 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832493/control-of-skeletal-muscle-cell-growth-and-size-through-adhesion-gpcrs
#19
James P White
Skeletal muscle homeostasis is regulated by a constant influx of chemicals and exposure to mechanical stimuli. A number of key signaling pathways that translate these stimuli into changes in muscle physiology have been established. The GPCR family known as adhesion GPCRs (aGPCRs) has largely elusive roles in skeletal muscle biology; however, their unique capacity to activate adhesion and G protein signaling pathways makes them an attractive point of investigation. The skeletal muscle myofiber contains a highly organized cytoarchitecture to ensure contractile function...
2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803994/neuronal-electrical-ongoing-activity-as-a-signature-of-cortical-areas
#20
Carlo Cottone, Camillo Porcaro, Andrea Cancelli, Elzbieta Olejarczyk, Carlo Salustri, Franca Tecchio
Brodmann's pioneering work resulted in the classification of cortical areas based on their cytoarchitecture and topology. Here, we aim at documenting that diverse cortical areas also display different neuronal electric activities. We investigated this notion in the hand-controlling sections of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) areas, in both hemispheres. We identified S1 and M1 in 20 healthy volunteers by applying functional source separation (FSS) to their recorded electroencephalograms (EEG). Our results show that S1 and M1 can be clearly differentiated by their neuroelectric activities in both hemispheres and independently of the subject's state (i...
November 1, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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