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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374502/the-role-of-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-in-the-breast-assessment-clinic-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Suneeta Mall, Sarah Lewis, Patrick Brennan, Jennie Noakes, Claudia Mello-Thoms
Mammography has long been considered as the primary technique in breast cancer detection and assessment. Despite low specificity, mammography has been preferred over other contemporary techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) due to superior sensitivity and significant health economic benefits. The development of a new technique, a limited angle cone beam pseudo-three-dimensional tomosynthesis, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), has gained momentum...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321639/brain-oxygenation-declines-in-elite-kenyan-runners-during-a-maximal-interval-training-session
#2
Jordan Santos-Concejero, F Billaut, L Grobler, J Oliván, T D Noakes, R Tucker
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterise the cerebral oxygenation (Cox) response during a high-intensity interval training session in Kenyan runners, and to examine any relationship with running performance. METHODS: 15 Kenyan runners completed a 5-km time trial (TT) and a Fatigue Training Test on a treadmill (repeated running bouts of 1-km at a pace 5% faster than their mean 5-km TT pace with a 30-s recovery until exhaustion). Changes in Cox were monitored via near-infrared spectroscopy through concentration changes in oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin (Δ[O2Hb] and Δ[HHb]), tissue oxygenation index (TOI), and total hemoglobin index (nTHI)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301326/functional-decline-at-the-aging-neuromuscular-junction-is-associated-with-altered-laminin-%C3%AE-4-expression
#3
Kah Meng Lee, Kirat K Chand, Luke A Hammond, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes
Laminin-α4 is involved in the alignment of active zones to postjunctional folds at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Prior study has implicated laminin-α4 in NMJ maintenance, with altered NMJ morphology observed in adult laminin-α4 deficient mice (lama4(-/-)). The present study further investigated the role of laminin-α4 in NMJ maintenance by functional characterization of transmission properties, morphological investigation of synaptic proteins including synaptic laminin-α4, and neuromotor behavioral testing...
March 14, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281204/erratum-to-effect-of-crystallinity-on-electrostatic-charging-in-drypowder-inhaler-formulations
#4
Jennifer Wong, Philip Chi Lip Kwok, Tim Noakes, Ali Fathi, Fariba Dehghani, Hak-Kim Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277960/seasonal-metabolic-acclimatization-varies-in-direction-and-magnitude-among-populations-of-an-afrotropical-passerine-bird
#5
Matthew J Noakes, Blair O Wolf, Andrew E McKechnie
Avian metabolic responses demonstrate considerable diversity under fluctuating environmental conditions, a well-studied example being the seasonal upregulation of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolism (Msum) in temperate species experiencing harsh winters. Fewer studies have examined seasonal metabolic acclimatization in subtropical or tropical species. We investigated seasonal metabolic variation in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼47 g), at three sites along a climatic gradient of approximately 7°C in winter minimum air temperature (Ta)...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231135/changes-in-food-intake-in-australia-comparing-the-1995-and-2011-national-nutrition-survey-results-disaggregated-into-basic-foods
#6
Bradley Ridoutt, Danielle Baird, Kathryn Bastiaans, Gilly Hendrie, Malcolm Riley, Peerasak Sanguansri, Julie Syrette, Manny Noakes
As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary...
May 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128456/pharmacological-inhibition-of-complement-c5a-c5a1-receptor-signalling-ameliorates-disease-pathology-in-the-hsod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
John D Lee, Vinod Kumar, Jenny N T Fung, Marc J Ruitenberg, Peter G Noakes, Trent M Woodruff
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and rapidly progressing motor neuron disease without effective treatment. The complement system is up-regulated in ALS, with recent studies indicating that the activation product C5a accelerates disease progression via the C5a1 receptor (C5aR1). We therefore examined the therapeutic effect of C5a1 receptor antagonism in hSOD1(G93A) mice, the most widely used preclinical model of ALS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The selective and orally active C5a1 receptor antagonist, PMX205, was administered to hSOD1(G93A) mice in drinking water, both pre- and post-disease onset...
April 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094058/association-between-dietary-patterns-cadmium-intake-and-chronic-kidney-disease-among-adults
#8
Zumin Shi, Anne W Taylor, Malcolm Riley, Julie Byles, Jianghong Liu, Manny Noakes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Almost one in ten Chinese adults has chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the link between dietary patterns, dietary cadmium intake and CKD has not been studied in China. METHOD: Adults (n = 8429) in the China Health and Nutrition Survey who had at least one 3-day 24 h food record in combination with household food inventory in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009 and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measured in 2009. Dietary pattern was identified using factor analysis...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075355/the-csiro-healthy-diet-score-an-online-survey-to-estimate-compliance-with-the-australian-dietary-guidelines
#9
Gilly A Hendrie, Danielle Baird, Rebecca K Golley, Manny Noakes
There are few dietary assessment tools that are scientifically developed and freely available online. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Healthy Diet Score survey asks questions about the quantity, quality, and variety of foods consumed. On completion, individuals receive a personalised Diet Score-reflecting their overall compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Over 145,000 Australians have completed the survey since it was launched in May 2015. The average Diet Score was 58...
January 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074293/-management-of-noak-administration-during-invasive-or-surgical-interventions-when-and-how-to-pause-and-when-to-restart
#10
M Buerke, H M Hoffmeister
Many patients under oral anticoagulation therapy need percutaneous or surgical interventions/operations. For vitamin K antagonists (VKA), there are recommendations regarding preoperative or postoperative administration. Management of the new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) was supposed to be easier - but some aspects must be considered. Due to the different pharmacokinetic profiles of substances such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, different recommendations are given.Upon periprocedural management, thromboembolic risk has to be considered in patients treated with NOACs...
January 10, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053201/evidence-that-supports-the-prescription-of-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diets-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Timothy David Noakes, Johann Windt
Low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are a highly contentious current topic in nutrition. This narrative review aims to provide clinicians with a broad overview of the effects of LCHF diets on body weight, glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors while addressing some common concerns and misconceptions. Blood total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations show a variable, highly individual response to LCHF diets, and should be monitored in patients adhering to this diet. In contrast, available evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that LCHF diets consistently improve all other markers of cardiovascular risk-lowering elevated blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, ApoB and saturated fat (especially palmitoleic acid) concentrations, reducing small dense LDL particle numbers, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, blood pressure and body weight while increasing low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reversing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
January 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007901/a-rat-model-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-evidence-for-a-neurodegenerative-phenotype
#12
Hazel Quek, John Luff, KaGeen Cheung, Sergei Kozlov, Magtouf Gatei, C Soon Lee, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes, Yi Chieh Lim, Nigel L Barnett, Steven Dingwall, Ernst Wolvetang, Tomoji Mashimo, Tara L Roberts, Martin F Lavin
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the ATM gene is characterised by cerebellar atrophy and progressive neurodegeneration which has been poorly recapitulated in Atm mutant mice. Consequently, pathways leading to neurodegeneration in A-T are poorly understood. We describe here the generation of an Atm knockout rat model that does not display cerebellar atrophy but instead paralysis and spinal cord atrophy, reminiscent of that seen in older patients and milder forms of the disorder...
January 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998908/loss-of-laminin-%C3%AE-4-results-in-pre-and-postsynaptic-modifications-at-the-neuromuscular-junction
#13
Kirat K Chand, Kah Meng Lee, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes
Synaptic basal lamina such as laminin-421 (α4β2γ1) mediate differentiation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Laminins interact with their pre- or postsynaptic receptors to provide stability and alignment of the pre- to postsynaptic specializations. Knockout of the lama4 gene does not alter gross NMJ morphogenesis. However, mice deficient in laminin-α4 (lama4(-/-)) display disruptions in the alignment of the active zones and postsynaptic folds at the NMJ, although the physiological consequences of this loss have not been examined...
December 20, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956032/alterations-in-hypoglossal-motor-neurons-due-to-gad67-and-vgat-deficiency-in-mice
#14
Matthew J Fogarty, Refik Kanjhan, Yuchio Yanagawa, Peter G Noakes, Mark C Bellingham
There is an emerging body of evidence that glycinergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs onto motor neurons (MNs) help regulate the final number of MNs and axonal muscle innervation patterns. Using mutant glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VGAT) deficient mice, we describe the effect that deficiencies of presynaptic GABAergic and/or glycinergic release have on the post-synaptic somato-dendritic structure of motor neurons, and the development of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to MNs...
December 10, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917760/the-universities-of-stellenbosch-cape-town-low-carbohydrate-diet-review-mistake-or-mischief
#15
Z Harcombe, T D Noakes
A 2014 meta-analysis from the universities of Stellenbosch and Cape Town reported that diets with a lower-carbohydrate (CHO) content are no more effective for producing weight loss than are high-CHO diets, so-called isoenergetic 'balanced' diets. We have re-examined the article and found numerous errors, many material in nature. Studies were included that failed the authors' own inclusion criteria; invalid and subjective meta-analysis sub-grouping was used; and data extraction was repeatedly inaccurate. All but one error favoured the balanced diet...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913293/differential-role-of-calpain-dependent-protein-cleavage-in-intermediate-and-long-term-operant-memory-in-aplysia
#16
Lisa C Lyons, Jacob S Gardner, Cassidy T Lentsch, Catherine E Gandour, Harini C Krishnan, Eric J Noakes
In addition to protein synthesis, protein degradation or protein cleavage may be necessary for intermediate (ITM) and long-term memory (LTM) to remove molecular constraints, facilitate persistent kinase activity and modulate synaptic plasticity. Calpains, a family of conserved calcium dependent cysteine proteases, modulate synaptic function through protein cleavage. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica to investigate the in vivo role of calpains during intermediate and long-term operant memory formation using the learning that food is inedible (LFI) paradigm...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900189/novel-coaching-cricket-bat-can-it-be-used-to-enhance-the-backlift-and-performance-of-junior-cricket-batsmen
#17
M Habib Noorbhai, Russell C Woolmer, Timothy D Noakes
BACKGROUND: In the current literature, it is questionable whether cricket bats in their current form and dimensions allow a young cricketer to hit the ball effectively. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a novel coaching cricket bat among junior cricket batsmen with regard to enhancing performance and the direction of the backlift. METHODS: A cross-sectional research study with analytical research methods was employed, in which 2 groups (coached: n=12 and uncoached: n=35) of participants (ages 9-13) took part in a pilot and intervention study...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899447/a-mixed-methods-investigation-of-psychological-factors-relevant-to-weight-maintenance
#18
Amanda Ellen Dibb-Smith, Emily Brindal, Janine Chapman, Manny Noakes
This study investigated perceptions of and engagement with the concepts of planning and problem-solving, within a weight management sample. A total of 53 participants (62% female, 20-74 years old) completed a semi-structured interview and quantitative measures after a 16-week weight maintenance period. Preliminary weight maintainers (who had maintained losses of, at least 10% of their original weight) were compared with heavier-than-baseline participants (who had re-gained more weight than was originally lost)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897242/cortical-synaptic-and-dendritic-spine-abnormalities-in-a-presymptomatic-tdp-43-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Matthew J Fogarty, Paul M Klenowski, John D Lee, Joy R Drieberg-Thompson, Selena E Bartlett, Shyuan T Ngo, Massimo A Hilliard, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes
Layer V pyramidal neurons (LVPNs) within the motor cortex integrate sensory cues and co-ordinate voluntary control of motor output. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) LVPNs and spinal motor neurons degenerate. The pathogenesis of neural degeneration is unknown in ALS; 10% of cases have a genetic cause, whereas 90% are sporadic, with most of the latter showing TDP-43 inclusions. Clinical and experimental evidence implicate excitotoxicity as a prime aetiological candidate. Using patch clamp and dye-filling techniques in brain slices, combined with high-resolution confocal microscopy, we report increased excitatory synaptic inputs and dendritic spine densities in early presymptomatic mice carrying a TDP-43(Q331K) mutation...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895165/rats-with-a-missense-mutation-in-atm-display-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-subsequent-to-accumulation-of-cytosolic-dna-following-unrepaired-dna-damage
#20
Hazel Quek, John Luff, KaGeen Cheung, Sergei Kozlov, Magtouf Gatei, C Soon Lee, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes, Yi Chieh Lim, Nigel L Barnett, Steven Dingwall, Ernst Wolvetang, Tomoji Mashimo, Tara L Roberts, Martin F Lavin
Mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)-mutated (ATM) gene give rise to the human genetic disorder A-T, characterized by immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, and neurodegeneration. Whereas a series of animal models recapitulate much of the A-T phenotype, they fail to present with ataxia or neurodegeneration. We describe here the generation of an Atm missense mutant [amino acid change of leucine (L) to proline (P) at position 2262 (L2262P)] rat by intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of mutant sperm into oocytes...
April 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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