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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437854/is-there-sufficient-evidence-for-a-causal-association-between-antiretroviral-therapy-and-diabetes-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Chidozie U Nduka, Saverio Stranges, Peter K Kimani, Ahmed M Sarki, Olalekan A Uthman
BACKGROUND: The association of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with diabetes is inconsistent and varies widely across primary epidemiological studies. A comprehensive and more precise estimate of this association is fundamental to establishing a plausible causal link between ART and diabetes. METHODS: We identified epidemiological studies that compared mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations and proportions of diabetes and metabolic syndrome between HIV-infected patients naïve and exposed to ART...
April 24, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437825/-quality-of-life-and-functional-outcome-after-microsurgical-decompression-in-lumbar-spinal-stenosis-a-register-study
#2
Kourosh Zarghooni, Frank Beyer, Joanna Papadaki, Christoph Kolja Boese, Jan Siewe, Gereon Schiffer, Peer Eysel, Jan Bredow
Introduction Because of recent increases in life expectancy, lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) has become one of the most common degenerative changes in the spine. In patients not responding to conservative therapy, microsurgical decompression is the gold standard of operative treatment for degenerative LSS. The goal of the current study is to evaluate quality of life after microsurgical decompression for LSS, using data from the DWG Register (previously Spine Tango). Methods 36 patients were included in this single-center, prospective, observational study from January 2013 to June 2014...
April 24, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437803/prevalence-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-among-blood-donors-in-saxony-anhalt-germany-a-region-at-intermediate-risk-for-gastric-cancer
#3
Caspar Franck, Armin Hoffmann, Alexander Link, Christian Schulz, Kerstin Wuttig, Elke Becker, Marcell Heim, Marino Venerito, Peter Malfertheiner
Background In the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, gastric cancer (GC) incidence ranks among the highest in Germany. Helicobacter pylori prevalence is a surrogate marker for GC risk in a given population. In 2010 we reported an H. pylori seroprevalence of 44.4 % in patients at the emergency ward of the University Hospital of Magdeburg, the capital of Saxony-Anhalt. Our aim is to update these findings in a cohort of healthy blood donors from the same region. Materials and methods The sera of 516 consecutive blood donors (40...
April 24, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437802/surveillance-after-resection-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-with-curative-intent-a-multicenter-survey-in-germany-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Thomas J Ettrich, Lucas A Schulte, Natalie Eitel, Kristin Ettrich, Andreas W Berger, Lukas Perkhofer, Thomas Seufferlein
Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with high risk of relapse even after curative-intended resection. There are no evidence-based recommendations for surveillance in actual guidelines. Given this situation and as a basis for prospective studies, we wanted to determine the current practice of surveillance after pancreatic cancer resection in German institutions. Methods A web-based questionnaire was sent in 2015 to 300 German institutions (hospitals, outpatient clinics, and private practices) experienced in the care of patients with PDAC...
April 24, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437748/rational-and-timely-haemostatic-interventions-following-cardiac-surgery-coagulation-factor-concentrates-or-blood-bank-products
#5
Mariann Tang, Christian Fenger-Eriksen, Per Wierup, Jacob Greisen, Jørgen Ingerslev, Vibeke Hjortdal, Benny Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery may cause a serious coagulopathy leading to increased risk of bleeding and transfusion demands. Blood bank products are commonly first line haemostatic intervention, but has been associated with hazardous side effect. Coagulation factor concentrates may be a more efficient, predictable, and potentially a safer treatment, although prospective clinical trials are needed to further explore these hypotheses. This study investigated the haemostatic potential of ex vivo supplementation of coagulation factor concentrates versus blood bank products on blood samples drawn from patients undergoing cardiac surgery...
April 5, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437610/long-acting-release-formulation-of-exendin-4-based-on-biomimetic-mineralization-for-type-2-diabetes-therapy
#6
Wei Chen, Guohao Wang, Bryant C Yung, Gang Liu, Zhiyong Qian, Xiaoyuan Chen
Exendin-4 has been clinically exploited for treating type 2 diabetes, but the short circulation half-life and multiple daily injections limit its widespread application with respect to poor patient compliance, low efficacy, and high treatment cost. In this study, a potent long-acting release system based on biomimetic mineralization was constructed for biocompatible and sustained exendin-4 delivery. Similar to natural biomineralization, exendin-4 can be mineralized to form nano-sized mineral solids by means of the reaction between acidic amino acid residues and calcium ions in a supersaturated environment with negligible influence on peptide bioactivity...
April 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437540/characterization-of-gene-expression-phenotype-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-monocytes
#7
Weihua Zhao, David R Beers, Kristopher G Hooten, Douglas H Sieglaff, Aijun Zhang, Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram, Christopher M Traini, Wendy S Halsey, Ashley M Hughes, Ganesh M Sathe, George P Livi, Guo-Huang Fan, Stanley H Appel
Importance: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Patients with ALS have persistent peripheral and central inflammatory responses including abnormally functioning T cells and activated microglia. However, much less is known about the inflammatory gene profile of circulating innate immune monocytes in these patients. Objective: To characterize the transcriptomics of peripheral monocytes in patients with ALS...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437539/safety-and-efficacy-of-antiviral-therapy-for-prevention-of-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-in-immunocompetent-critically-ill-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Nicholas J Cowley, Andrew Owen, Sarah C Shiels, Joanne Millar, Rebecca Woolley, Natalie Ives, Husam Osman, Paul Moss, Julian F Bion
Importance: Latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is present in more than half the adult population, and a viral reactivation (ie, when the virus becomes measurable in body fluids such as blood) can occur in up to one-third of these individuals during episodes of critical illness. Objective: To determine whether antiviral therapy is safe and effective for preventing CMV reactivation in a general population of critically ill patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial recruited 124 CMV-seropositive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours in the intensive care unit between January 1, 2012, and January 31, 2014...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437520/academic-performance-motor-function-and-behavior-11-years-after-neonatal-caffeine-citrate-therapy-for-apnea-of-prematurity-an-11-year-follow-up-of-the-cap-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Barbara Schmidt, Robin S Roberts, Peter J Anderson, Elizabeth V Asztalos, Lorrie Costantini, Peter G Davis, Deborah Dewey, Judy D'Ilario, Lex W Doyle, Ruth E Grunau, Diane Moddemann, Harvey Nelson, Arne Ohlsson, Alfonso Solimano, Win Tin
Importance: Caffeine citrate therapy for apnea of prematurity reduces the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy, and neurodevelopmental disability at 18 months and may improve motor function at 5 years. Objective: To evaluate whether neonatal caffeine therapy is associated with improved functional outcomes 11 years later. Design, Setting, and Participants: A follow-up study was conducted at 14 academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom from May 7, 2011, to May 27, 2016, of English- or French-speaking children who had been enrolled in the randomized, placebo-controlled Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial between October 11, 1999, and October 22, 2004...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437385/before-or-after-transplantation-a-review-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-treating-waitlisted-patients-with-hepatitis-c
#10
Elliot B Tapper, Nezam H Afdhal, Michael P Curry
All patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections can and should be treated. Though highly effective direct-acting antiviral therapies are costly, the price of a cure is a 1-time investment that is outweighed by future benefits. For clinicians caring for patients requiring liver transplant, the key question relates to the timing of treatment: before or after liver transplantation? On 1 hand, treating HCV often improves our patients' model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, decreasing costs, and potentially improving longevity by reducing our patients' risk of death and transplantation...
May 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437326/favorable-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-with-parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-treated-with-intravenous-fish-oil-based-lipid-emulsion
#11
Michael Sorrell, Alvaro Moreira, Kay Green, Rachel Jacob, Robin Tragus, Laura Keller, Amy Quinn, Donald McCurnin, Alice Gong, Abeer El Sakka, Naveen Mittal, Cynthia Blanco
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the acute and long-term outcomes of preterm infants treated with an intravenous fish oil-based lipid emulsion (FishLE) for parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). METHODS: Preterm infants 14 days to 24 months of age with anatomic short gut or severe intestinal dysmotility, serum direct bilirubin ≥4 mg/dL, and requiring >60% calories from parenteral nutrition were eligible. Enrolled infants received 1 g · kg · day of FishLE until resolution of direct hyperbilirubinemia or return of enteral nutrition...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437285/monitoring-protein-unbound-valproic-acid-serum-concentrations-in-clinical-practice
#12
Eveline Wallenburg, Bas Klok, Karin de Jong, Monique de Maat, Nielka van Erp, Sonja Stalpers-Konijnenburg, Guus Essink, Matthijs van Luin
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer. A key characteristic of VPA is its high and saturable protein binding at higher concentrations. While the unbound concentration of VPA is responsible for its pharmacological activity, total drug concentrations are monitored in routine clinical practice. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of unbound VPA is recommended for specific clinical situations. The goal of this study was to evaluate TDM requests for unbound VPA in clinical practice...
April 6, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437284/a-retrospective-study-on-mycophenolic-acid-drug-interactions-effect-of-prednisone-sirolimus-and-tacrolimus-with-mpa
#13
Ana Catalina Alvarez-Elías, Elisa Catherine Yoo, Ekaterina Kirilova Todorova, Ram Nivas Singh, Guido Filler
Mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active compound of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), is widely used as an antirejection drug following renal transplantation. There is growing evidence supporting the notion that there is substantial variability in the intra- and inter-patient exposure to MPA. Drug interactions involving MPA with tacrolimus, steroids, and sirolimus have been understudied. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between MPA, steroids, tacrolimus, and sirolimus. MPA trough concentrations from 37 pediatric renal transplant recipients (mean age 7...
April 6, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437262/loss-of-resistance-a-randomised-controlled-trial-assessing-four-low-fidelity-epidural-puncture-simulators
#14
Tina H Pedersen, Jonas Meuli, Eike J Plazikowski, Maximilian Buttenberg, Maren Kleine-Brueggeney, Christian Seidl, Lorenz Theiler, Robert Greif
BACKGROUND: Detecting loss of resistance (LOR) can either be taught with dedicated simulators, with a cost ranging from &OV0556;1500 to 3000, or with the 'Greengrocer's Model', requiring simply a banana. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare three dedicated epidural puncture training simulators and a banana in their ability to simulate LOR. Our hypothesis was that there was a difference between the four simulators when comparing the detection of LOR...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437237/proteomics-in-hypothermia-as-adjunctive-therapy-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-a-chill-mi-substudy
#15
Moman A Mohammad, Marco Noc, Irene Lang, Michael Holzer, Peter Clemmensen, Ulf Jensen, Bernhard Metzler, David Erlinge
Cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers in therapeutic hypothermia have been studied in cardiac arrest, but data on patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with therapeutic hypothermia are currently unavailable. A multiplex proximity extension assay allowed us to measure 157 cardiovascular disease (CVD) and inflammatory disease-related biomarkers in patients from the international, multicenter, and randomized trial; CHILL-myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore the associations of cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers...
March 2, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437147/comparison-of-two-types-of-meditation-on-patients-psychosocial-responses-during-radiation-therapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#16
Gisela Boxleitner, Shelley Jolie, Dana Shaffer, Nicholas Pasacreta, Mei Bai, Ruth McCorkle
OBJECTIVES: Radiation treatment for head and neck cancer introduces adaptive demands and subjects patients to significant and unique psychosocial challenges. There is growing evidence that meditation is useful in lessening anxiety and depression in cancer patients. This study compared the effects of two types of meditation training on the psychological responses of patients with head and neck cancer during radiation therapy. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436889/design-and-implementation-of-a-tactile-stimulation-device-to-increase-auditory-discrimination
#17
Shahrzad Abbasi Baharanchi, Majid MohammadBeigi, Fatemeh Abnavi, Samira Tavakol
Reading is a complex process that requires various simultaneous brain processes. One of the most common types of reading disorders is developmental dyslexia, and one of the objectives of speech therapy sessions for children with developmental dyslexia is to increase their auditory discrimination. One of the most commonly used Auditory Discrimination Tests (ADTs) is Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test (WADT). It includes minimal pair words categorized by characteristics of vowels and consonants. The goal of this research is to design and implement a tactile stimulation device based on Wepman's test to increase auditory discrimination in children with developmental dyslexia in therapy sessions, so that while playing each word for the children, vibrational cues are presented to their left palm and fingers...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436782/subverting-space-an-exploration-of-a-dance-therapy-workshop-apparatus-for-schizophrenics
#18
Silvia Lippi, Laetitia Petit
The authors created a dance workshop for schizophrenic patients designed to address their singular experience of space, in which the categories of interior and exterior do not function as limits. The space of the workshop, which, paradoxically, is thought in terms of the psychic space of schizophrenic patients by playing on its borderless quality, creates a continuity between the psychiatric hospital and the external world, and thus helps to prevent the segregation and isolation of such patients. This continuity is established on the basis of both the physical architecture of the workshop setting and the practice of dancing itself...
April 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436746/penetration-time-profiles-for-two-class-3b-lasers-in-in-situ-human-achilles-at-rest-and-stretched
#19
Daniel Huseby Bordvik, Sturla Haslerud, Ingvill Fjell Naterstad, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão Lopes-Martins, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior, Jan Magnus Bjordal, Jon Joensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The majority of studies investigating penetration of laser light are performed in vitro on skin flaps, with measures of immediate penetration depth and energy loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the penetration time profiles for two different lasers used in low-level laser therapy, during 150 sec of exposure both in stretched and relaxed human Achilles in situ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four Achilles tendons from 17 healthy volunteers were irradiated by an 810 nm, 200 mW, continuous- and a 904 nm, 60 mW, super-pulsed laser...
April 21, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436727/impact-of-switching-from-different-treatment-regimens-to-a-fixed-dose-combination-pill-polypill-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-or-similarly-high-risk
#20
Melvin Lafeber, Wilko Spiering, Frank Lj Visseren, Diederick E Grobbee, Michiel L Bots, Alice Stanton, Anushka Patel, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Ruth Webster, Simon Thom, Anthony Rodgers
Aims Cardiovascular fixed-dose combination pills, or polypills, may help address the widespread lack of access and adherence to proven medicines. Initiation of polypill-based care typically entails switching from current separately taken medications. Given the heterogeneity in usual care, there is interest in the impact of polypill treatment across different patterns of prior medication regimen. Methods A total of 2004 participants with established cardiovascular disease or estimated 5-year cardiovascular risk of over 15% were randomised to polypill-based treatment (aspirin 75 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, lisinopril 10 mg and either atenolol 50 mg or hydrochlorothiazide 12...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
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