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Saeedullah Jan, Abid Hussain, Muhammad Ibrahim, Sarah Saeed
This study was planned to examine the hard and soft form of learning resources available on the internet accessed by the teaching faculty. This study was conducted at the Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan from January 2to April 2017. As the target population was not too large, no sampling technique was employed and census-based approach was adopted. For data collection, the pre-tested questionnaire was distributed among 115 faculty members of both basic and clinical sciences groups with a response rate of 66(57...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Vessela Stamenova, Brian Levine
Our objective was to review the literature and quantitatively summarise the effectiveness of Goal Management Training® (GMT) (alone or in combination with other training approaches) in improving executive functions in adult populations. Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global were searched for articles citing "goal management training". Any group trials (n > 3) in adults that used multiple-session GMT programmes were included in the analyses. Outcome variables were extracted and classified into one of nine cognitive measures domains: executive functioning tasks, everyday executive functioning tasks, subjective executive tasks rated by the patient, subjective executive tasks rated by proxy, working memory, speed of processing, long-term memory, instrumental activities of daily living and general mental health status questionnaires...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Yuqing Zhang, Xinyu Zhou, Lining Yang, Sarah E Hetrick, John R Weisz, Pim Cuijpers, Jürgen Barth, Cinzia Del Giovane, Shuai Yuan, David Cohen, Donna Gillies, Xiaofeng Jiang, Teng Teng, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among children and adolescents who are exposed to trauma, and it is often associated with significant negative impacts on their psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Many types of psychotherapies have been found to be effective for PTSD in children and adolescents. However, due to the lack of direct comparisons between different psychotherapies, the hierarchy of treatment efficacy is still unclear. Therefore, we plan to conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of various types of psychotherapies for PTSD in children and adolescents...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Shi-Jun Liu, Zhi-Shu Tang, Zhi-Xin Liao, Chun-Li Cui, Hong-Bo Liu, Yan-Ni Liang, Yu Zhang, Hong-Bo Xu, Dong-Bo Zhang, Ya-Ting Zheng, Huan-Xian Shi, Shi-Ying Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ligularia przewalskii (Maxim.) Diels (LP) (called zhangyetuowu in Chinese), is generally found in moist forest areas in the western regions of China. The root, leaves and flower of LP are utilized as a common traditional medicine in China. It has been utilized conventionally in herbal remedies for the remedy of haemoptysis, asthma, pulmonary phthisis, jaundice hepatitis, food poisoning, bronchitis, cough, fever, wound healing, measles, carbuncle, swelling and phlegm diseases...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
P J Asikainen, A M Kullaa, A Koistinen, E A J M Schulten, C M Ten Bruggenkate
The treatment of oral cancer usually consists of surgical removal of the tumour, possibly followed by radiotherapy. The purpose of this dissertation research was to investigate the effects of radiotherapy on the oral tissues, in particular the superficially positioned epithelial cells in the oral mucosa. Earlier studies with electron microscopy revealed that unradiated oral mucosa cells, when observed at high magnification, contain microplicae (ridges or folds). Together with various saliva components, these microplicae form a protective layer that offers defence against, for instance, microorganisms...
March 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
H J A Meijer
Changes in the bone around permucosal endosseous implants can be caused by biomechanical factors. Computer models are used to calculate the location and magnitude of stresses in the bone. The finite element method is used for the construction and calculation of models. The ongoing development of software and hardware 25 years ago made it possible to construct more complex 3-dimensional models. The general aim of the dissertation was to develop a state-of-the-art computer model of an edentulous mandible with dental implants and then to calculate the influence of a number of parameters on the location and magnitude of stresses in the bone...
March 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Manasi Murthy Mittinty, Amy Marshall, Gillian Harvey
INTRODUCTION: According to the 2013 WHO Global Forum on Innovation for Ageing Populations, disabilities and morbidities associated with ageing could be minimised by accessing preventive care. One way of improving the management of multimorbidity in the older population is through the provision of 'integrated care'. Although integrated care means different things to different people, it typically symbolises continuity in care, thus preventing older patients' from falling through gaps in the health care system...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Janessa M Graves, Julie Postma, Janet R Katz, Leanne Kehoe, Eileen Swalling, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker
PURPOSE: Among research-focused nursing doctoral (PhD) programs in the United States, the traditional dissertation format has recently given way to a series of publication-ready manuscripts, often bookended by introduction and conclusion chapters. To help programs make decisions about the use of these formats, this study undertook a national survey of programs offering PhDs in nursing. The purpose of this study was to explore the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional format versus manuscript option for dissertations among nursing PhD programs in the United States...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Maria Faurholt-Jepsen
Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Fiona J Rowe, Kerry Hanna, Jennifer R Evans, Carmel P Noonan, Marta Garcia-Finana, Caroline S Dodridge, Claire Howard, Kathryn A Jarvis, Sonia L MacDiarmid, Tallat Maan, Lorraine North, Helen Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury can cause eye movement disorders which may include: strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus, causing visual symptoms of double, blurred or 'juddery' vision and reading difficulties. A wide range of interventions exist that have potential to alleviate or ameliorate these symptoms. There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions and the timing of their implementation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of any intervention and determine the effect of timing of intervention in the treatment of strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus due to acquired brain injury...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shi-Man Gao, Jiu-Shi Liu, Min Wang, Ting-Ting Cao, Yao-Dong Qi, Ben-Gang Zhang, Xiao-Bo Sun, Hai-Tao Liu, Pei-Gen Xiao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Species of the genus Codonopsis are perennial herbs mainly distributed throughout East, Southeast and Central Asia. As recorded, they have been used as traditional Chinese medicines since the Qing Dynasty, where they were claimed for strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia, such as tea, wine, soup, plaster, and porridge...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Eleni Petkari, Ana I Masedo Gutiérrez, Miguel Xavier, Berta Moreno Küstner
CONTEXT: In university programmes preparing students to work with patients with mental illness, clerkship is proposed as a component that may contribute to the battle against stigma, through bringing students into contact with the patients' reality. Yet, the precise contribution of clerkship remains unclear, perhaps because of the variety of university programmes, clerkship characteristics or types of stigma explored. This is the first systematic meta-analysis of available evidence determining the precise effect size of the influence of clerkship on stigma and the potential moderators...
March 2, 2018: Medical Education
Chloe C Hudson, Layla Hall, Kate L Harkness
Substantial uncertainty exists about the prevalence of depressive disorders in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-analysis quantitatively summarized studies that assessed the lifetime and current prevalence of unipolar depressive disorders in children, adolescents, and adults with ASD. We also examined demographic, methodological, and study moderators. This meta-analysis adhered to PRISMA guidelines. A total of 7857 articles were identified through 5 databases (PubMed, Web of Science, PYSCInfo, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses), forward searches, and backward searches...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Giuliano Russo, Inês Fronteira, Tiago Silva Jesus, James Buchan
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that holding multiple concurrent jobs in public and private (dual practice) is common among health workers in low- as well as high-income countries. Nurses are world's largest health professional workforce and a critical resource for achieving Universal Health Coverage. Nonetheless, little is known about nurses' engagement with dual practice. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of the literature on nurses' dual practice with the objective of generating hypotheses on its nature and consequences, and define a research agenda on the phenomenon...
February 22, 2018: Human Resources for Health
Spencer C Evans, Christina M Amaro, Robyn Herbert, Jennifer B Blossom, Michael C Roberts
If a doctoral dissertation represents an original investigation that makes a contribution to one's field, then dissertation research could, and arguably should, be disseminated into the scientific literature. However, the extent and nature of dissertation publication remains largely unknown within psychology. The present study investigated the peer-reviewed publication outcomes of psychology dissertation research in the United States. Additionally, we examined publication lag, scientific impact, and variations across subfields...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth H Golembiewski, Ann M Holmes, Joanna R Jackson, Brittany L Brown-Podgorski, Nir Menachemi
OBJECTIVES: Given the call for more interdisciplinary research in public health, the objectives of this study were to (1) examine the correlates of interdisciplinary dissertation completion and (2) identify secondary fields most common among interdisciplinary public health graduates. METHODS: We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data from 11 120 doctoral graduates in the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2003-2015. The primary outcome was interdisciplinary dissertation completion...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
Franziska Kühne, Destina Sevde Ay, Mara Jasmin Otterbeck, Florian Weck
OBJECTIVES: The use of simulated and standardized patients (SP) is widely accepted in the medical field and, from there, is beginning to disseminate into clinical psychology and psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was therefore to systematically review barriers and facilitators that should be considered in the implementation of SP interventions specific to clinical psychology and psychotherapy. METHODS: Following current guidelines, a scoping review was conducted...
February 8, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Gwenith G Fisher, Lindsay H Ryan
Twenty five years ago, the largest academic behavioral and social science project ever undertaken in the U.S. began: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The HRS is an invaluable publicly available dataset for investigating work, aging, and retirement and informing public policy on these issues. This biennial longitudinal study began in 1992 and has studied more than 43,000 individuals and produced almost 4000 journal articles, dissertations, books, book chapters, and reports to date. The purpose of this special issue of Work, Aging and Retirement is to describe the HRS and highlight relevant research that utilizes this rich and complex dataset...
January 2018: Work, Aging and Retirement
Marcos Pereira-Santos, José Yure Gomes Dos Santos, Gisele Queiroz Carvalho, Djanilson Barbosa Dos Santos, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira
Studies conducted among populations of tropical countries have reported high prevalences of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Information resulting from meta-analyses on the spatial distribution of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in tropical countries is still rare. The aim of this review was investigated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among the Brazilian population. Observational studies were searched in eight electronically databases. Additionally, theses and dissertations and abstracts were screened...
February 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Sandra Small, Caroline Porr, Michelle Swab, Cynthia Murray
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence to address two questions: i) what is the experience of smoking during pregnancy for Indigenous women? and ii) what are the smoking cessation needs of Indigenous women who smoke during pregnancy? INTRODUCTION: Smoking during pregnancy not only affects pregnant women's general health but also causes such serious problems as pre-term delivery, low birth weight, and sudden infant death...
February 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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