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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532666/transcription-of-immune-related-genes-in-solea-senegalensis-vaccinated-against-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-piscicida-identification-of-surrogates-of-protection
#1
J A Núñez-Díaz, I García de la Banda, C Lobo, M A Moriñigo, M C Balebona
Solea senegalensis is a flatfish with a great potential for aquaculture, but infectious diseases restrict its production, being this fish species highly susceptible to Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp) infections. A better understanding of the mechanisms related to fish immune response is crucial for the development of effective approaches in disease management. In the present work, transcriptional changes of immune related genes have been evaluated in farmed S. senegalensis specimens vaccinated against Phdp by intraperitoneal injection (IP) and immersion (IM)...
May 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530155/an-oncolytic-adenovirus-encoding-decorin-and-gm-csf-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-a-colorectal-tumor-model-by-targeting-pro-tumorigenic-signals-and-via-immune-activation
#2
Zhao Liu, Yuefeng Yang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Hao Wang, Weidong Xu, Hua Wang, FengJun Xiao, Zhigang Bai, Hongwei Yao, Xuemei Ma, Lan Jin, Chu-Tse Wu, Prem Seth, Zhongtao Zhang, Lisheng Wang
In advanced and metastatic stages of colorectal cancer (CRC), reduced sensitivity to conventional strategies is still a major obstacle to successful treatments. Decorin is an important regulator in the development and progression of various cancers. To examine if CRC patients have altered decorin levels, expression of decorin and its target genes, Met and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were analyzed in their tumors. Compared to normal tissues, decorin expression was reduced in CRC patients' tumors, while, there were increased Met and VEGFA levels...
May 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529588/downregulation-of-calbindin-1-a-calcium-binding-protein-reduces-the-proliferation-of-osteosarcoma-cells
#3
Zhengxiang Huang, Guojun Fan, Dongliang Wang
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor and has a high propensity to metastasize to the lungs and bones. Calbindin 1 (CALB1) is a constituent Ca2+ binding protein, which can prevent apoptotic death in several cell types induced through various pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. To investigate whether CALB1 is implicated in the tumor growth of human osteosarcoma, two different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against CALB1 were used for CALB1-knockdown in osteosarcoma U2OS cells. The U2OS cells were divided into three groups: Two groups with CALB1 knockdown (CALB1-shRNA 1 and CALB1-shRNA 2) and one control group (Con-shRNA)...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526132/old-and-novel-functions-of-caspase-2
#4
M A Miles, T Kitevska-Ilioski, C J Hawkins
Although caspase-2 is a highly conserved protease that has received a lot of research attention, consensus about its roles and the molecular mechanisms that underpin them has been elusive. Recent improvements to our understanding of the activities of caspase-2 have been facilitated by the development and refinement of techniques allowing identification of cellular processes instigated by this caspase. Following DNA damage, caspase-2 can be activated in a molecular complex called the "PIDDosome"; however, other stimuli provoke caspase-2-dependent activities that do not appear to involve this complex...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525837/differentially-expressed-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-genes-and-target-micrornas-in-the-spleen-of-necrotic-enteritis-afflicted-chicken-lines
#5
Anh Duc Truong, Deivendran Rengaraj, Yeojin Hong, Cong Thanh Hoang, Yeong Ho Hong, Hyun S Lillehoj
The JAK signal transducer and STAT signaling pathway is an important regulator of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, motility, apoptosis, immune response, and development. In this study, we used RNA-Sequencing, qRT-PCR, and bioinformatics tools to investigate the differential expression of JAK-STAT pathway genes, their interactions, and regulators in the spleen of two genetically disparate chicken lines (Marek's disease-resistant line 6.3 and MD-susceptible line 7.2) induced necrotic enteritis (NE) disease by co-infection with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens...
May 13, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525333/germocyte-lesions-caused-by-porcine-circovirus-type-2b-in-kunming-mice
#6
A W Yuan, P Pang, Q L Gong, Z B Deng
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been known as a causative agent of reproductive failure in the sow. In the present study mouse model was used to investigate PCV2 infection. In order to investigate whether PCV2 can induce lesions of spermatocytes and oocytes, 6 male and 6 female mice were each inoculated intraperitoneally with PCV2b, and 3 male and 3 female mice mock-infected with cell culture supernatant served as controls. Samples of testes and ovaries from PCV2b-inoculated and mock-infected mice were investigated using PCR, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunofluorescent histochemical methods at 14 and 21 day post infection (dpi)...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522817/lactobacillus-johnsonii-ameliorates-intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-following-murine-campylobacter-jejuni-infection
#7
Stefan Bereswill, Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Escher, Ulrike Fiebiger, Kerstin Stingl, Markus M Heimesaat
Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic treatment might open novel therapeutic or even prophylactic approaches to combat campylobacteriosis. In the present study secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally reassociated with a commensal murine Lactobacillus johnsonii strain either 14 days before (i.e. prophylactic regimen) or 7 days after (i.e. therapeutic regimen) peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection. Following peroral reassociation both C...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522156/the-role-of-erbb-receptors-in-infection
#8
REVIEW
Jemima Ho, David L Moyes, Mahvash Tavassoli, Julian R Naglik
Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB family) possess a wide distribution and diverse functions ranging from cellular growth to migration and apoptosis. Though highly implicated in a variety of cancers, their involvement in infectious disease is less recognised. A growing body of evidence now highlights the importance of the ErbB family in a variety of infections. Their role as growth factor receptors, along with other characteristics, such as surface expression and continuous intracellular trafficking, make this receptor family ideally placed for exploitation by pathogens...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521297/human-menstrual-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-cellular-vehicle-for-malignant-glioma-gene-therapy
#9
Xiao-Jun Wang, Bing-Yu Xiang, Ya-Hui Ding, Lu Chen, Hai Zou, Xiao-Zhou Mou, Charlie Xiang
Despite many advances in conventional treatment strategies, there is no effective treatment modality for malignant gliomas. Gene therapy may offer a promising option for gliomas and several gene therapy approaches have shown anti-tumor efficiency in previous studies. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapies, in which stem cells are genetically engineered to express therapeutic molecules, have shown tremendous potential because of their innate homing ability. In this study, human menstrual blood-derived MSCs (MenSC), a novel type of multipotential MSCs displays tropism for human malignant glioma when used as a gene delivery vehicle for therapeutics...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508421/subversion-of-host-kinases-a-key-network-in-cellular-signaling-hijacked-by-helicobacter-pylori-caga
#10
REVIEW
Nicole Tegtmeyer, Matthias Neddermann, Carmen Isabell Asche, Steffen Backert
Helicobacter pylori is a paradigm of persistent pathogens and major risk factor for developing severe diseases including adenocarcinoma in the human stomach. An important bacterial factor linked to gastric disease progression is the cag pathogenicity island-encoded type-IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein CagA. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at EPIYA-motifs and then activates or inactivates multiple host signaling proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent fashion...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507954/with-friends-like-these-the-complex-role-of-neutrophils-in-the-progression-of-severe-pneumonia
#11
REVIEW
Roger D Pechous
Pneumonia is a leading cause of death from infection in the United States and across the globe. During pulmonary infection, clear resolution of host inflammatory responses occurs in the absence of appreciable lung damage. Neutrophils are the first wave of leukocytes to arrive in the lung upon infection. After activation, neutrophils traffic from the vasculature via transendothelial migration through the lung interstitium and into the alveolar space. Successful pulmonary immunity requires neutrophil-mediated killing of invading pathogens by phagocytosis and release of a myriad of antimicrobial molecules, followed by resolution of inflammation, neutrophil apoptosis, and clearing of dead or dying neutrophils by macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507953/influence-of-microbes-on-neutrophil-life-and-death
#12
REVIEW
Scott D Kobayashi, Natalia Malachowa, Frank R DeLeo
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte in humans and they are among the first white cells recruited to infected tissues. These leukocytes are essential for the innate immune response to bacteria and fungi. Inasmuch as neutrophils produce or contain potent microbicides that can be toxic to the host, neutrophil turnover and homeostasis is a highly regulated process that prevents unintended host tissue damage. Indeed, constitutive neutrophil apoptosis and subsequent removal of these cells by mononuclear phagocytes is a primary means by which neutrophil homeostasis is maintained in healthy individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507545/clinical-and-molecular-heterogeneity-of-rtel1-deficiency
#13
Carsten Speckmann, Sushree Sangita Sahoo, Marta Rizzi, Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Axel Karow, Nina Kathrin Serwas, Marc Hoemberg, Natalja Damatova, Detlev Schindler, Jean-Baptiste Vannier, Simon J Boulton, Ulrich Pannicke, Gudrun Göhring, Kathrin Thomay, J J Verdu-Amoros, Holger Hauch, Wilhelm Woessmann, Gabriele Escherich, Eckart Laack, Liliana Rindle, Maximilian Seidl, Anne Rensing-Ehl, Ekkehart Lausch, Christine Jandrasits, Brigitte Strahm, Klaus Schwarz, Stephan R Ehl, Charlotte Niemeyer, Kaan Boztug, Marcin W Wlodarski
Typical features of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) resulting from excessive telomere shortening include bone marrow failure (BMF), mucosal fragility, and pulmonary or liver fibrosis. In more severe cases, immune deficiency and recurring infections can add to disease severity. RTEL1 deficiency has recently been described as a major genetic etiology, but the molecular basis and clinical consequences of RTEL1-associated DC are incompletely characterized. We report our observations in a cohort of six patients: five with novel biallelic RTEL1 mutations p...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507027/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lipoprotein-mpt83-induces-apoptosis-of-infected-macrophages-by-activating-the-tlr2-p38-cox-2-signaling-pathway
#14
Lin Wang, Mianyong Zuo, Hao Chen, Siyu Liu, Xiangyang Wu, Zhenling Cui, Hua Yang, Haipeng Liu, Baoxue Ge
Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to pose a serious global health threat. The attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin, as the only licensed vaccine, has limited protective efficacy against TB. The development of more effective antituberculosis vaccines is urgent and demands for further identification and understanding of M. tuberculosis Ags. MPT83 (Rv2873), a secreted mycobacterial lipoprotein, has been applied into subunit vaccine development and shown protective effects against M...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506643/epithelial-basement-membrane-injury-and-regeneration-modulates-corneal-fibrosis-after-pseudomonas-corneal-ulcers-in-rabbits
#15
Gustavo K Marino, Marcony R Santhiago, Santhanam Abirami, Luciana L Dibbin, Thangavadivel Shanmugapriya, Carla S Medeiros, Karthikeyan Bose, Kwai Ping Tam, Steven E Wilson
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myofibroblast-related fibrosis (scarring) after microbial keratitis was modulated by the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) injury and regeneration. Rabbits were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa after epithelial scrape injury and the resultant severe keratitis was treated with topical tobramycin. Corneas were analyzed from one to four months after keratitis with slit lamp photos, immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and monocyte lineage marker CD11b, and transmission electron microscopy...
May 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506058/differential-protein-analysis-of-ipec-j2-cells-infected-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pandemic-and-classical-strains-elucidates-the-pathogenesis-of-infection
#16
Huixing Lin, Bin Li, Lei Chen, Zhe Ma, Kongwang He, Hongjie Fan
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) re-emerged in China in late 2010 and has now become widespread. Accumulated evidence indicates that this large-scale outbreak of diarrhea was caused by variants of the highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). A pandemic PEDV YC2014 strain (YC2014) was isolated from clinical samples. An iTRAQ-based comparative quantitative proteomic study of IPEC-J2 cells infected with YC2014 and a classical CV777 strain (CV777) was performed to determine the differences between pandemic and classical PEDV strain infection...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504646/the-rna-binding-protein-tristetraprolin-schedules-apoptosis-of-pathogen-engaged-neutrophils-during-bacterial-infection
#17
Florian Ebner, Vitaly Sedlyarov, Saren Tasciyan, Masa Ivin, Franz Kratochvill, Nina Gratz, Lukas Kenner, Andreas Villunger, Michael Sixt, Pavel Kovarik
Protective responses against pathogens require a rapid mobilization of resting neutrophils and the timely removal of activated ones. Neutrophils are exceptionally short-lived leukocytes, yet it remains unclear whether the lifespan of pathogen-engaged neutrophils is regulated differently from that in the circulating steady-state pool. Here, we have found that under homeostatic conditions, the mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin (TTP) regulates apoptosis and the numbers of activated infiltrating murine neutrophils but not neutrophil cellularity...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504273/legionella-effector-lpg1137-shuts-down-er-mitochondria-communication-through-cleavage-of-syntaxin-17
#18
Kohei Arasaki, Yumi Mikami, Stephanie R Shames, Hiroki Inoue, Yuichi Wakana, Mitsuo Tagaya
During infection of macrophages, the pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila secretes effector proteins that induce the conversion of the plasma membrane-derived vacuole into an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like replicative vacuole. These ER-like vacuoles are ultimately fused with the ER, where the pathogen replicates. Here we show that the L. pneumophila effector Lpg1137 is a serine protease that targets the mitochondria and their associated membranes. Lpg1137 binds to and cleaves syntaxin 17, a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein that is known to participate in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics through interaction with the mitochondrial fission factor Drp1 in fed cells and in autophagy through interaction with Atg14L and other SNAREs in starved cells...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503708/stress-and-the-nonsense-mediated-rna-decay-pathway
#19
REVIEW
Alexandra E Goetz, Miles Wilkinson
Cells respond to internal and external cellular stressors by activating stress-response pathways that re-establish homeostasis. If homeostasis is not achieved in a timely manner, stress pathways trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) to preserve organism integrity. A highly conserved stress pathway is the unfolded protein response (UPR), which senses excessive amounts of unfolded proteins in the ER. While a physiologically beneficial pathway, the UPR requires tight regulation to provide a beneficial outcome and avoid deleterious consequences...
May 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503132/protecting-mammalian-hair-cells-from-aminoglycoside-toxicity-assessing-phenoxybenzamine-s-potential
#20
Paromita Majumder, Paulette A Moore, Guy P Richardson, Jonathan E Gale
Aminoglycosides (AGs) are widely used antibiotics because of their low cost and high efficacy against gram-negative bacterial infection. However, AGs are ototoxic, causing the death of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Strategies aimed at developing or discovering agents that protect against aminoglycoside ototoxicity have focused on inhibiting apoptosis or more recently, on preventing antibiotic uptake by the hair cells. Recent screens for ototoprotective compounds using the larval zebrafish lateral line identified phenoxybenzamine as a potential protectant for aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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