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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640871/nomogram-to-predict-rectal-toxicity-following-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy
#1
Jean-Bernard Delobel, Khemara Gnep, Juan David Ospina, Véronique Beckendorf, Ciprian Chira, Jian Zhu, Alberto Bossi, Taha Messai, Oscar Acosta, Joël Castelli, Renaud de Crevoisier
BACKGROUND: To identify predictors of acute and late rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT), while integrating the potential impact of RT technique, dose escalation, and moderate hypofractionation, thus enabling us to generate a nomogram for individual prediction. METHODS: In total, 972 patients underwent RT for localized prostate cancer, to a total dose of 70 Gy or 80 Gy, using two different fractionations (2 Gy or 2.5 Gy/day), by means of several RT techniques (3D conformal RT [3DCRT], intensity-modulated RT [IMRT], or image-guided RT [IGRT])...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640599/a-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-approach-to-determine-sources-of-fecal-bacteria-in-a-lake-superior-estuary
#2
Clairessa M Brown, Christopher Staley, Ping Wang, Brent Dalzell, Chan Lan Chun, Michael J Sadowsky
Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods, employed to determine sources of fecal contamination in waterways, use molecular markers targeting host-associated bacteria in animal or human feces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about fecal microbiome composition in several animals and imperfect marker specificity and sensitivity. To overcome these issues, a community-based MST method has been developed. Here, we describe a study done in the Lake Superior-St. Louis River estuary using SourceTracker, a program that calculates the source contribution to an environment...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637315/attenuated-effects-of-bile-acids-on-glucose-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-prenatal-undernutrition
#3
Huijuan Ma, Vicencia M Sales, Ashley R Wolf, Sathish Subramanian, Tucker J Matthews, Michael Chen, Aparna Sharma, Walt Gall, Wim Kulik, David E Cohen, Yusuke Adachi, Nicholas W Griffin, Jeffrey I Gordon, Mary-Elizabeth Patti, Elvira Isganaitis
Prenatal undernutrition and low birth weight are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Prenatal caloric restriction results in low birth weight, glucose intolerance, obesity, and reduced plasma bile acids (BA) in offspring mice. Since BAs can regulate systemic metabolism and glucose homeostasis, we hypothesized that BA supplementation could prevent diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in this model of developmental programming. Pregnant dams were food restricted by 50% from gestational days 12...
June 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637300/commercial-rodent-diets-differentially-regulate-autoimmune-glomerulonephritis-epigenetics-and-microbiota-in-mrl-lpr-mice
#4
Michael R Edwards, Rujuan Dai, Bettina Heid, Thomas E Cecere, Deena Khan, Qinghui Mu, Catharine Cowan, Xin M Luo, S Ansar Ahmed
The course and severity of lupus in spontaneous murine lupus models varies among laboratories, which may be due to variations in diet, housing and/or local environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated the influence of common rodent diets while keeping other factors constant. Female lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice were subjected to the same housing conditions and given one of the three diets: Teklad 7013 containing isoflavone rich soy and alfalfa, Harlan 2018 isoflavone rich soy-based diet, or ResearchDiets Inc...
June 15, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637225/characteristics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-commercial-farms-from-a-common-hatchery
#5
H Ozaki, Y Matsuoka, E Nakagawa, T Murase
To investigate the epidemiologic aspects of colibacillosis in broiler chickens, 83 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the pericarditis and perihepatitis lesions in broiler chickens from 4 commercial farms, 5 isolates recovered from 5 samples of yolk sac contents that were pooled from 25 emaciated chicks, and 4 fecal isolates obtained from a hatchery that supplied chicks to the 4 commercial farms mentioned above were genetically and bacteriologically characterized. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a total of 92 isolates were classified into 33 pulsotypes...
June 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636835/use-of-bacteriophages-to-control-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-domestic-ruminants-meat-products-and-fruits-and-vegetables
#6
Lili Wang, Kunli Qu, Xiaoyu Li, Zhenhui Cao, Xitao Wang, Zhen Li, Yaxiong Song, Yongping Xu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen that causes severe bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ruminant manure is a primary source of E. coli O157:H7 contaminating the environment and food sources. Therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence of fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle and sheep and the elimination of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of meat products as well as fruits and vegetables are required. Bacteriophages offer the prospect of sustainable alternative approaches against bacterial pathogens with the flexibility of being applied therapeutically or for biological control purposes...
June 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634873/evaluating-two-evidence-based-intervention-strategies-to-promote-crc-screening-among-latino-adults-in-a-primary-care-setting
#7
Sheila F Castañeda, Balambal Bharti, Rebeca Aurora Espinoza-Giacinto, Valerie Sanchez, Shawne O'Connell, Fatima Muñoz, Sylvia Mercado, Marie Elena Meza, Wendy Rojas, Gregory A Talavera, Samir Gupta
Regular use of colorectal cancer screening can reduce incidence and mortality, but participation rates remain low among low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino adults. We conducted two distinct pilot studies testing the implementation of evidence-based interventions to promote fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening among Latinos aged 50-75 years who were not up-to-date with CRC screening (n = 200) at a large Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) in San Diego, CA. One pilot focused on an opportunistic clinic visit "in-reach" intervention including a 30-min session with a patient navigator, review of an educational "flip-chart," and a take-home FIT kit with instructions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634805/comparative-prevalence-of-escherichia-coli-carrying-virulence-genes-and-class-1-and-2-integrons-in-sub-tropical-and-cool-temperate-freshwater
#8
Jatinder P S Sidhu, Paul Jagals, Amy Smith, Simon Toze
Aquatic environments are now recognized secondary habitat of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. In this study, PCR-based analyses were used to determine the phylogenetic composition and frequency of occurrence of eight clinically significant virulence genes (VGs) in E. coli isolates from sub-tropical Brisbane and cool temperate Tasmania freshwater in Australia. In Brisbane, non-commensal E. coli isolates belonging to the B2 and D phylogenetic group were dominant (72%). A significantly higher number (P < 0...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634645/comparative-evaluation-of-preliminary-screening-methods-for-colorectal-cancer-in-a-mass-program
#9
Ding Ye, Qiuchi Huang, Qilong Li, Xiyi Jiang, Mayila Mamat, Mengling Tang, Jianbing Wang, Kun Chen
BACKGROUND: The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has been widely used in preliminary screening for colorectal cancer (CRC). The high-risk factor questionnaire (HRFQ) and quantitative risk-assessment method (QRAM) are recommended for estimating the risk of CRC qualitatively and quantitatively in China. AIM: We aimed to prospectively compare the diagnostic values of CRC preliminary screening methods to identify which method is preferable as a screening strategy. METHODS: Individuals aged 40-74 years old were enrolled in a mass CRC screening program from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014, in Jiashan County, Zhejiang Province, China...
June 20, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634577/commentary-impact-of-fecal-calprotectin-measurement-on-decision-making-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
COMMENT
Andrew S Day, Mustafa Adamji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634353/coronavirus-hku15-in-respiratory-tract-of-pigs-and-first-discovery-of-coronavirus-quasispecies-in-5-untranslated-region
#11
Patrick Cy Woo, Susanna Kp Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Candy Cy Lau, Po-Chun Wong, Franklin Wn Chow, Jordan Yh Fong, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Coronavirus HKU15 is a deltacoronavirus that was discovered in fecal samples of pigs in Hong Kong in 2012. Over the past three years, Coronavirus HKU15 has been widely detected in pigs in East/Southeast Asia and North America and has been associated with fatal outbreaks. In all such epidemiological studies, the virus was generally only detected in fecal/intestinal samples. In this molecular epidemiology study, we detected Coronavirus HKU15 in 9.6% of the nasopharyngeal samples obtained from 249 pigs in Hong Kong...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634191/cd36-knockout-mice-are-protected-against-lithogenic-diet-induced-gallstones
#12
Yan Xie, Vincenza Cifarelli, Terri Pietka, Elizabeth P Newberry, Susan M Kennedy, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Robin Clugston, Kamran Atabai, Nada A Abumrad, Nicholas O Davidson
The scavenger receptor and multiligand transporter CD36 functions to promote cellular free fatty acid uptake and regulates aspects of both hepatic and intestinal cholesterol metabolism. However, the role of CD36 in regulating canalicular and biliary cholesterol transport and secretion is unknown. Here we show that germline Cd36 knockout mice are protected against lithogenic diet (LD) induced gallstones compared to congenic (C57BL6/J) controls. Cd36 knockout mice crossed into congenic L-Fabp knockout mice (DKO mice) demonstrated protection against LD induced gallstones, reversing the susceptibility phenotype observed in L-Fabp knockout mice...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634145/taeniasis-caused-by-taenia-saginata-in-gianyar-townand-taenia-solium-in-karangasem-villagesof-bali-indonesia-2011-2016-how-to-detect-tapeworm-carriers-anamnesis-or-microscopy
#13
Kadek Swastika, Toni Wandra, Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan, I Made Sudarmaja, John Master Saragih, Luh Putu Eka Diarthini, Luh Ariwati, Putu Ayu Asri Damayanti, Dewa Ayu Agus Sri Laksemi, Nengah Kapti, Putu Sutisna, Tetsuya Yanagida, Akira Ito
From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces...
June 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633964/sampling-methods-for-recovery-of-human-enteric-viruses-from-environmental-surfaces
#14
REVIEW
Nicole L Turnage, Kristen E Gibson
Acute gastroenteritis causes the second highest infectious disease burden worldwide. Human enteric viruses have been identified as leading causative agents of acute gastroenteritis as well as foodborne illnesses in the U.S. and are generally transmitted by fecal-oral contamination. There is growing evidence of transmission occurring via contaminated fomite including food contact surfaces. Additionally, human enteric viruses have been shown to remain infectious on fomites over prolonged periods of time. To better understand viral persistence, there is a need for more studies to investigate this phenomenon...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633630/clinical-characteristics-of-acute-hepatitis-a-outbreak-in-taiwan-2015-2016-observations-from-a-tertiary-medical-center
#15
Nan-Yu Chen, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Shian-Sen Shie, Tsung-Hsing Chen, Ting-Shu Wu
BACKGROUND: Acute hepatitis A is a fecal-oral transmitted disease related to inadequate sanitary conditions. In addition to its traditional classification, several outbreaks in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population have resulted in acute hepatitis A being recognized as a sexually transmitted disease. However, few studies have clarified the clinical manifestations in these outbreaks involving the MSM population. METHODS: Beginning in June 2015, there was an outbreak of acute hepatitis A involving the MSM population in Northern Taiwan...
June 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633521/consideration-of-natural-sources-in-a-bacteria-tmdl-lines-of-evidence-including-beach-microbial-source-tracking
#16
Kelly D Goodwin, Alexander Schriewer, Andrew Jirik, Kathryn Curtis, Andrea Crumpacker
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) stipulations remained unmet at a southern California beach despite a suite of management actions carried out since 2001, prompting exploration of a Natural Sources Exclusion (NSE) provision within the TMDL. Quantitative Microbial Source Tracking (MST) was employed from 2012-2015 to inventory sources of natural and anthropogenic fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Data suggested FIB exceedances could be traced to gulls based on gull marker prevalence and correlations with FIB concentrations in seawater, sand and eelgrass...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632416/survival-of-escherichia-coli-on-lettuce-under-field-conditions-encountered-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#18
Daniel L Weller, Jasna Kovac, Sherry Roof, David J Kent, Jeffrey I Tokman, Barbara Kowalcyk, David Oryang, Renata Ivanek, Anna Aceituno, Christopher Sroka, Martin Wiedmann
Although wildlife intrusion and untreated manure have been associated with microbial contamination of produce, relatively few studies have examined the survival of Escherichia coli on produce under field conditions following contamination (e.g., via splash from wildlife feces). This experimental study was performed to estimate the die-off rate of E. coli on preharvest lettuce following contamination with a fecal slurry. During August 2015, field-grown lettuce was inoculated via pipette with a fecal slurry that was spiked with a three-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant nonpathogenic E...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631730/finding-freedom-from-fecal-incontinence-with-my-orange-tote
#19
Sigrid LaFata, Stacy B Menees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631727/my-approach-to-fecal-incontinence-it-s-all-about-consistency-stool-that-is
#20
Stacy B Menees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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