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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915508/cryptosporidiosis-a-zoonotic-disease-concern
#1
REVIEW
Natapol Pumipuntu, Supawadee Piratae
Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a crucial zoonotic disease caused by worldwide distributing parasitic protozoa called Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis becomes a major public health and veterinary concern by affecting in human and various host range species of animals. Essentially, its importance of infection is increasing because of the high incidence in young children, immunocompromised persons, or immunodeficiency syndrome patients, especially in HIV/AIDS, and it is also one of the most causes of mortality in those patients who infected with Cryptosporidium spp...
May 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915495/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-spp-oocysts-in-dogs-in-lusaka-district-of-zambia
#2
Lamson Mugala, Joyce Siwila, Ngonda Saasa, Girja Shanker Pandey
Aim: Cryptosporidium is one of the causes of diarrheal illness in man and animals worldwide and is zoonotic. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in dogs in Lusaka district of Zambia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lusaka district of Zambia during 2015-2016. A total of 390 dogs (243 males and 147 females) aged 2 months-13 years were enrolled. Fecal samples were collected and stained using modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Auramine O staining techniques and examined microscopically for oocysts...
May 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915443/fecal-calprotectin-reflects-endoscopic-activity-in-patients-with-small-bowel-crohn-s-disease-according-to-double-balloon-endoscopy-findings
#3
Rinzaburo Matsuura, Osamu Watanabe, Masanao Nakamura, Takeshi Yamamura, Masanobu Matsushita, Hiroki Suhara, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Takuya Ishikawa, Kohei Funasaka, Eizaburo Ohno, Hiroki Kawashima, Ryoji Miyahara, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hidemi Goto
Fecal calprotectin (FC) has drawn attention as a biomarker in the evaluation of Crohn's disease (CD). However, few reports have provided a detailed examination of the relationship between small-bowel CD lesions and FC levels. The present study aimed to examine the entire small bowel using double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) and to determine the relationship between the endoscopic activity in small-bowel CD and FC levels. Twenty small-bowel CD patients, who underwent DBE, were prospectively enrolled. Endoscopic evaluation was based on the simple endoscopic score for CD, with the small bowel divided into four regions...
May 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915396/probiotics-in-gastroenterology-how-pro-is-the-evidence-in-adults
#4
REVIEW
Ronald L Koretz
Probiotic usage has become popular with both medical practitioners and the community in general; patients commonly seek advice regarding what, if any, such preparation would be useful for their own diseases. Since such advice should be evidence-based, identified randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for a number of gastrointestinal conditions were reviewed; the data were organized by individual probiotic genera/species. Only trials in adults were considered. Most of the identified RCTs were small and low-quality, so any conclusions to be drawn will be limited at least by methodologic problems...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914912/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
Susy S Hota, Susan M Poutanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914865/a-simple-and-novel-fecal-biomarker-for-colorectal-cancer-ratio-of-fusobacterium-nucleatum-to-probiotics-populations-based-on-their-antagonistic-effect
#6
Songhe Guo, Linfang Li, Banglao Xu, Manghui Li, Qiuyao Zeng, Han Xiao, Ying Xue, Yixian Wu, Yidan Wang, Wanli Liu, Ge Zhang
BACKGROUND: Gut microbial dysbiosis contributes to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the utility of fecal bacterial biomarker candidates identified by our 16S rDNA sequencing analysis for CRC diagnosis. METHODS: We measured the relative abundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum ( Fn ), Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ( Fp ), Bifidobacterium ( Bb ), and Lactobacillus ( Lb ) by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from 2 cohorts of 903 individuals. We evaluated and validated the diagnostic performance of these microbial ratios and investigated the antagonistic effect of Fn against 3 different indicator stains...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914546/sex-and-strain-dependent-differences-in-mucosal-immunology-and-microbiota-composition-in-mice
#7
Marlies Elderman, Floor Hugenholtz, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Adriaan van Beek, Bart de Haan, Huub Savelkoul, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas
BACKGROUND: A dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of several immunological diseases. These diseases often show a sex bias, suggesting sex differences in immune responses and in the intestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that sex differences in immune responses are associated with sex differences in microbiota composition. METHODS: Fecal microbiota composition (MITchip), mRNA expression in intestinal tissue (microarray), and immune cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were studied in male and female mice of two mouse strains (C57B1/6OlaHsd and Balb/cOlaHsd)...
June 18, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914168/association-of-low-fecal-elastase-1-and-non-ulcer-dyspepsia
#8
Mustafa Tahtaci, Huseyin Koseoglu, Murat Alisik, Oyku Tayfur Yurekli, Gozde Tahtaci, Ozcan Erel, Osman Ersoy
Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) is a term used to define a set of symptoms that are believed to originate from the gastroduodenal region, and no underlying organic, systemic, or metabolic reason can be found. The majority of patients suffer from chronic symptoms although half of the patients report improvement in symptoms with time. The potential role exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in NUD patients has not been clarified yet. We aimed to identify exocrine pancreas function with pancreatic fecal elastase-1 in patients diagnosed with non-ulcer dyspepsia and no typical exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) symptoms...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914163/intestinal-microbiota-ecological-response-to-oral-administrations-of-hydrogen-rich-water-and-lactulose-in-female-piglets-fed-a-fusarium-toxin-contaminated-diet
#9
Weijiang Zheng, Xu Ji, Qing Zhang, Wen Yao
The objective of the current experiment was to explore the intestinal microbiota ecological response to oral administrations of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) and lactulose (LAC) in female piglets fed a Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated diet. A total of 24 individually-housed female piglets (Landrace × large × white; initial average body weight, 7.25 ± 1.02 kg) were randomly assigned to receive four treatments (six pigs/treatment): uncontaminated basal diet (negative control, NC), mycotoxin-contaminated diet (MC), MC diet + HRW (MC + HRW), and MC diet + LAC (MC + LAC) for 25 days...
June 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913545/fecal-carriage-of-antimicrobial-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-healthy-korean-adults
#10
Eun-Jeong Joo, Sun Ju Kim, MiSuk Baek, Yujin Choi, Jungyu Seo, Joon-Sup Yeom, Kwan Soo Ko
The spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceaein the community is one of the main challenges for antibiotic treatment of community-onset infections. We evaluated the microbiological and molecular characteristics of stool samples from adults with comprehensive health examinations. Of 109 fecal samples, bacterial growth was observed in 86 samples and 61 Gram-negative bacterial isolates were identified, of which 45 were Escherichia coli isolates (73.8%). Two isolates of Raoultella showed imipenem resistance, and both, E...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913338/sample-treatment-optimization-for-fish-stool-metabolomics
#11
Takeshi Hano, Mana Ito, Katsutoshi Ito, Motoharu Uchida
Gut microbiota play an essential role in an organism's health. The fecal metabolite profiling content reflects these microbiota-mediated physiological changes in various organisms, including fish. Therefore, metabolomics analysis of fish feces should provide insight into the dynamics linking physiology and gut microbiota. However, metabolites are often unstable in aquatic environments, making fecal metabolites difficult to examine in fish. In this study, a novel method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and optimized for the preparation of metabolomics samples from the feces of the marine fish, red sea bream (Pagrus major)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913172/physiological-impacts-of-housing-maned-wolves-chrysocyon-brachyurus-with-female-relatives-or-unrelated-males
#12
Marieke K Jones, Lauren E Reiter, Michael P Gilmore, Elizabeth W Freeman, Nucharin Songsasen
The maned wolf is a threatened canid species native to South America. Previous studies have suggested the species exhibits induced ovulation. In captive breeding facilities, reproductive success is low while rates of neonatal mortality are high. Females that are not recommended for breeding are frequently housed together. However there has never been a systematic study of the reproductive consequences of co-housing females. This study was conducted for three purposes, to: (1) corroborate the presence of induced ovulation, (2) determine whether elevated cortisol is implicated in neonatal pup mortality, and (3) evaluate the endocrine correlates of group housed females...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912980/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-commensal-escherichia-coli-among-the-children-in-rural-hill-communities-of-northeast-india
#13
Ashish Kumar Singh, Saurav Das, Samer Singh, Varsha Rani Gajamer, Nilu Pradhan, Yangchen Doma Lepcha, Hare Krishna Tiwari
Commensal bacteria are the representative of the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes present in a community. The usage of antibiotics along with the demographic factors is generally associated with an increase in antibiotics resistance in pathogens. Northeast (NE) India is untapped with regard to antibiotic resistance prevalence and spread. In the current study, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli in pre-school and school-going children (n = 550, 1-14 years old) from the rural areas of the state of Sikkim-an NE Indian state, with respect to associated demographic factors was investigated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912930/occurrence-and-genetic-characterization-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-from-adult-goats-in-sichuan-province-china
#14
Zhijun Zhong, Rui Tu, Hongping Ou, Guangwen Yan, Jiaming Dan, Qicheng Xiao, Ya Wang, Suizhong Cao, Liuhong Shen, Junliang Deng, Zhicai Zuo, Xiaoping Ma, Ziyao Zhou, Haifeng Liu, Shumin Yu, Zhihua Ren, Yanchun Hu, Guangneng Peng
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common gastrointestinal protozoa in mammals. Many studies have been conducted on the distribution of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in sheep and cattle. However, in China, information about molecular characterization and genetic analysis of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in goats is limited. In this study, 342 fecal samples from adult goats were collected from 12 farms in Sichuan Province, China. The occurrence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912755/antibiotic-and-modulation-of-microbiota-a-new-paradigm
#15
Gianenrico Rizzatti, Gianluca Ianiro, Antonio Gasbarrini
Recently new insights on gut microbiota have revolutionized many concepts of the modern medicine. The alteration of microbiota, which is called dysbiosis, has been associated with an expanding list of diseases and conditions. The development of next-generation sequencing techniques allowed comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota composition without the limitations of classic culture methods. Furthermore, introduction of functional techniques such as metabolomics and proteomics allowed for integrated analysis thus obtaining more robust insights on microbiota functions in health and disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912356/effects-of-a-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fermentation-product-in-receiving-diets-of-newly-weaned-beef-steers-ii-digestibility-and-response-to-a-vaccination-challenge
#16
E L Deters, R S Stokes, O N Genther-Schroeder, S L Hansen
Thirty-six newly weaned, crossbred beef steers (323 ± 12 kg; SD) from a single-source were used in a 56-d study to examine the effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XPC, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) on total tract nutrient digestibility and response to a vaccination challenge. Twelve d after arrival, steers were blocked by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned to treatments: SCFP at 0 (CON), 14 (SCFP14), or 28 (SCFP28) g·steer-1·d-1. Steers were fed via bunks that measured individual intake and received ear tags (CowManager, Select Sires, Plain City, OH) that recorded rumination and activity...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912338/relationship-of-weight-gain-with-infrared-temperatures-in-nelore-and-f1-nelore-x-angus-heifers-reared-in-two-forage-production-systems
#17
T P Paim, R de O Goulart, D A L da Silva, J de A Sousa, L F Gonçalves, F L Claudio, G Calgaro Júnior, A A Gléria, L C Santos, E M Alves
Intensive production systems require high-yield genetics as obtained in Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbreeding. Generally, high-producing taurine cattle are more susceptible to parasites and heat stress. This study evaluated animal performance, heat-stress measurement (infrared temperatures) and internal parasite infection with daily weight gain in heifers from two genetic groups (Nelore and F1 - Nelore x Angus) reared in two forage production systems (with or without crop-livestock system) during one year...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912263/-prevalence-and-antimicrobial-behavior-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-in-children-with-diarrhea-in-loja-city-ecuador
#18
Rosa Simaluiza, Zorayda Toledo, Heriberto Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Campylobacter is an important agent of diarrhea in humans. In Ecuador, the information on Campylobacter is scarce and there are not antecedents about antimicrobial susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To describe Campylobacter prevalence in children with diarrhea and their behavior against five antimicrobials in vitro. METHOD: We studied 253 children with diarrhea aging 7 months to 9 years who consulted for diarrhea in two hospitals in the city of Loja...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911322/metagenomic-insights-into-the-roles-of-proteobacteria-in-the-gastrointestinal-microbiomes-of-healthy-dogs-and-cats
#19
REVIEW
Christina D Moon, Wayne Young, Paul H Maclean, Adrian L Cookson, Emma N Bermingham
Interests in the impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on health and wellbeing have extended from humans to that of companion animals. While relatively fewer studies to date have examined canine and feline gut microbiomes, analysis of the metagenomic DNA from fecal communities using next-generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the microbes that are present, their function, and potential to contribute to overall host nutrition and health. As carnivores, healthy dogs and cats possess fecal microbiomes that reflect the generally higher concentrations of protein and fat in their diets, relative to omnivores and herbivores...
June 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910564/early-results-of-fecal-microbial-transplantation-protocol-implementation-at-a-community-based-university-hospital
#20
Rodrigo Duarte-Chavez, Thomas R Wojda, Thomas B Zanders, Berhanu Geme, Gloria Fioravanti, Stanislaw P Stawicki
Introduction: Clostridium difficile (CD) is a serious and increasingly prevalent healthcare-associated infection. The pathogenesis of CD infection (CDI) involves the acquisition of CD with a concurrent disruption of the native gut flora. Antibiotics are a major risk although other contributing factors have also been identified. Clinical management combines discontinuation of the offending antibiotic, initiation of CD-specific antibiotic therapy, probiotic agent use, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and surgery as the "last resort" option...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
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