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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676941/pk-pd-evaluation-of-fimasartan-for-the-treatment-of-hypertension-current-evidences-and-future-perspectives
#1
Fabio Angeli, Paolo Verdecchia, Monica Trapasso, Marina Pane, Sara Signorotti, Gianpaolo Reboldi
Fimasartan is the ninth and latest Angiotensin Receptor Blockers for the treatment of hypertension. Fimasartan is a derivative of losartan in which the imidazole ring has been replaced, a change that provided higher potency and longer duration than losartan. It provides a selective type 1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist effect with noncompetitive, insurmountable binding. Fimasartan is rapidly absorbed following oral administration with an oral bioavailability of 18.6 ± 7.2 %. Fimasartan is relatively stable in terms of metabolism and more than 90 % of circulating fimasartan moieties in the plasma are in the parent form; fecal elimination and biliary excretion are the predominant elimination pathways of fimasartan...
April 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676892/multiple-pathways-to-bacterial-load-reduction-by-stormwater-best-management-practices-tradeoffs-in-performance-volume-and-treated-area
#2
Jordyn Wolfand, Colin D Bell, Alexandria B Boehm, Terri Hogue, Richard G Luthy
Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are implemented to reduce microbial pollution in runoff, but their removal efficiencies differ. Enhanced BMPs, such as those with media amendments, can increase removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in runoff from 0.25-log10 to above 3-log10 ; however, their implications for watershed-scale management are poorly understood. In this work, a computational model was developed to simulate watershed-scale bacteria loading and BMP performance, using the Ballona Creek Watershed (Los Angeles County, CA) as a case study...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676764/distribution-of-human-fecal-marker-gb-124-bacteriophages-in-urban-sewage-and-reclaimed-water-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil
#3
Tatiana Prado, Antônio de Castro Bruni, Mikaela Renata Funada Barbosa, Vilma Marques Santos Bonanno, Suzi Cristina Garcia, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato
Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 have been described as potential markers of human fecal contamination in water sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of GB-124 phages in raw sewage, secondary effluents and reclaimed water of the São Paulo city using a low-cost microbial source tracking method. Samples were collected monthly from April 2015 to March 2016 in four municipal wastewater treatment plants that operate with activated sludge processes followed by different tertiary treatments (sand-anthracite filtration, membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis) and final chlorination...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676763/drivers-of-microbiological-quality-of-household-drinking-water-a-case-study-in-rural-ethiopia
#4
Muhammed A Usman, Nicolas Gerber, Evita H Pangaribowo
This study aims at assessing the determinants of microbiological contamination of household drinking water under multiple-use water systems in rural areas of Ethiopia. For this analysis, a random sample of 454 households was surveyed between February and March 2014, and water samples from community sources and household storage containers were collected and tested for fecal contamination. The number of Escherichia coli (E. coli) colony-forming units per 100 mL water was used as an indicator of fecal contamination...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676108/-fecal-tibetan-medicines
#5
Huan Du, Tong Xu, Hai-Jiao Li, Qi Li, Chen-Lei GangHuan, Gang Fan, Yi Zhang
Fecal Tibetan medicines have a long history of application in China, with a good clinical efficacy. In order to promote the development and modernization of these medicines, we consulted ancient and modern Tibetan medicine literatures to collect and summarize the names, original species, natures, flavor, functions and processing methods of fecal Tibetan medicines. A total of 35 fecal Tibetan medicines were collected, such as Jiufen, Heibingpian, Langfen, Mafen, Goufen, Gezifen. The most commonly used medicines were Jiufen and Heibingpian...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675942/occurrence-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-spp-recovered-from-corvus-brachyrhynchos-and-corvus-corax-roosting-in-canada
#6
Nicol Janecko, Dana Halova, Ivana Jamborova, Ivo Papousek, Martina Masarikova, Monika Dolejska, Ivan Literak
The spread of antimicrobial resistance from human activity derived sources to natural habitats implicates wildlife as potential vectors of antimicrobial resistance transfer. Wild birds, including corvid species can disseminate mobile genetic resistance determinants through feces. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates obtained from winter roosting sites of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and common ravens (Corvus corax) in Canada...
April 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675592/late-assessment-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-rectal-carcinoma-comparison-between-sphincter-preservation-and-definitive-colostomy
#7
Mariane Messias Reis Lima Silva, Samuel Aguiar Junior, Juliana de Aguiar Pastore, Érica Maria Monteiro Santos, Fábio de Oliveira Ferreira, Ranyell Matheus S B Spencer, Vinicius F Calsavara, Wilson Toshihiko Nakagawa, Ademar Lopes
PURPOSE: Patients with cancer of the lower and middle rectum who are candidates for curative surgery often have negative opinions on definitive colostomy. The purpose of this study is to compare the quality of life (QoL) of patients who undergo standard treatment for rectal cancer with sphincter preservation or definitive colostomy. METHODS: A total of 125 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lower or middle rectum who underwent radical surgery with curative intent with a follow-up ≥ 1 year were recruited: 83 patients (group 1) were subjected to low anterior resection and low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis-thus preserving their sphincter-and 42 (group 2) were treated with abdominoperineal resection, followed by terminal definitive colostomy...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675461/antibiotic-treatment-leads-to-fecal-escherichia-coli-and-coliphage-expansion-in-severely-malnourished-diarrhea-patients
#8
Silas Kieser, Shafiqul A Sarker, Bernard Berger, Shamima Sultana, Mohammod J Chisti, Shoeb B Islam, Francis Foata, Nadine Porta, Bertrand Betrisey, Coralie Fournier, Patrick Descombes, Annick Mercenier, Olga Sakwinska, Harald Brüssow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674785/effects-of-prolonged-immunocontraception-on-the-breeding-behavior-of-american-bison
#9
Calvin L Duncan, Julie L King, Paul Stapp
In late 2009, the Catalina Island Conservancy began using fertility control to replace periodic removals to manage an introduced population of American bison ( Bison bison ) on the island. Through the application of the immunocontraceptive vaccine porcine zona pellucida (PZP), population growth was slowed within 1 year, and halted over time. In response to lingering questions about the use of PZP to manage large, free-ranging wildlife populations, we sought to determine the reversibility of PZP by ceasing the annual application to a subset of 15 bison cows and monitoring for subsequent calf arrival, and to document changes in the timing and length of the breeding season in response to PZP by monitoring breeding behavior and assessing fecal progesterone (FP) levels for all 60 resident cows over a 13-month period...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674425/impact-of-gut-colonization-with-butyrate-producing-microbiota-on-respiratory-viral-infection-following-allo-hct
#10
Bastiaan W Haak, Eric R Littmann, Jean-Luc Chaubard, Amanda J Pickard, Emily Fontana, Fatima Adhi, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Lilan Ling, Sejal M Morjaria, Jonathan U Peled, Marcel R van den Brink, Alexander I Geyer, Justin R Cross, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674329/regional-variability-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-practices-a-survey-of-the-southern-ontario-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-movement
#11
Susy S Hota, Salman Surangiwala, Aimee S Paterson, Bryan Coburn, Susan M Poutanen
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but little guidance exists for implementation of FMT programs. The objective of this study is to describe the program characteristics and protocols of 9 planned or operating FMT programs in the Southern Ontario Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (SOFT) Movement, to help guide future FMT program implementation. METHODS: A 59-item survey was administered electronically to clinical leads of the SOFT Movement on June 2, 2016...
April 18, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673868/corrigendum-to-acute-and-repeated-exposure-to-social-stress-reduces-gut-microbiota-diversity-in-syrian-hamsters-behav-brain-res-345-2018-39-48
#12
Katherine A Partrick, Benoit Chassaing, Linda Q Beach, Katharine E McCann, Andrew T Gewirtz, Kim L Huhman
Social stress can promote a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses, many of which have a high co-morbidity with gastrointestinal disorders. Recent data indicate that gastrointestinal microbiota can affect their host's brain and behavior. Syrian hamsters are ideal subjects for social stress research because they are territorial, aggressive, and rapidly form dominant/subordinate relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to social stress in hamsters alters gut microbiota in dominants and subordinates after an agonistic encounter and if pre-stress gut microbiota composition is correlated with the outcome of such a conflict...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673790/molecular-detection-and-quantification-of-viable-probiotic-strains-in-animal-feedstuffs-using-the-commercial-direct-fed-microbial-lactobacillus-animalis-np51-as-a-model
#13
D I Ayala, J Chen, M Bugarel, G H Loneragan, H C den Bakker, K R Kottapalli, M M Brashears, K K Nightingale
Lactobacillus animalis NP51 is a direct-fed microbial strain (DFM) extensively used as a pre-harvest food safety mitigation in feedlot cattle due to its antagonistic effects against human foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7. NP51 not only promotes overall gut health but interferes with the ability of these pathogens to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. As a result, NP51 reduces fecal shedding of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in cattle presented for harvest and the load of these pathogens that enter the human food chain...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673583/novel-artificial-stool-material-for-external-quality-assurance-eqa-on-a-fecal-immunochemical-test-for-hemoglobin-fit-the-confirmed-utility-of-stable-hemoglobin-and-an-internal-standard-material
#14
Ryota Yasui, Miyu Yamada, Shizuka Takehara, Ikunosuke Sakurabayashi, Katsunori Watanabe
The fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT), which detects lower gastrointestinal bleeding, is widely accepted for population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs. However, the FIT screening process has not been standardized yet, and standardizing the pre-analytical phase and establishing an external quality assurance (EQA) program compliant with ISO requirements is urgently needed. Although there have been various attempts to establish EQA materials suitable for FIT, no materials have yet been reported to have sufficient uniformity and acceptable immunochemical stability of hemoglobin (Hb)...
April 16, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672249/urinary-tract-infection-by-strongyloides-stercoralis-a-case-report
#15
Nilo Manoel Pereira Vieira Barreto, Joelma Nascimento de Souza, Weslei Almeida Costa Araujo, Nadia Andrade Khouri, Ernesto Pereira de Oliveira, Márcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira, Neci Matos Soares
The objective of this study was to report a case of a hydronephrotic patient with Strongyloides stercoralis infection, with discharge of rhabditoid larva exclusively in urine. In 2013, a 72-yr-old, male patient, hypertensive, obese and diagnosed with hydronephrosis secondary to renal calculi, reported lumbar pain, polyuria, polaciuria and dysuria, as well as frequent urinary tract infections. The microscopic analysis of urine sediment showed the presence of S. stercoralis rabditoid larva. However, parasitological examinations by Baermann-Moraes, agar plate culture and spontaneous sedimentation, performed with 3 fecal samples on alternate days had negative results...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672169/functional-bla-kpc-2-sequences-are-present-in-u-s-beef-cattle-feces-regardless-of-antibiotic-use
#16
Amit Vikram, John W Schmidt
Carbapenems are classified as critically important antibiotics since they are employed when resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections fail to respond to other antibiotic therapies. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) were traditionally understood to be rare in the U.S. food-producing animals. Recently, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), our group detected blaKPC-2 in all 72 metagenomic DNA (mgDNA) samples prepared from the feces of 36 lots of beef cattle "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and 36 lots raised "conventionally" (CONV)...
April 19, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670798/anca-vasculitis-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-following-a-fecal-microbiota-transplant
#17
Adam Amlani, Amy Bromley, Aurore Fifi-Mah
A 69-year-old female with antisynthetase syndrome, a history of multiple recurrent infections, and documented previous negative titres for anti-neutrophil cystoplasmic antibody (ANCA) suddenly developed a de novo MPO-ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis three weeks after a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. Six months following her FMT and less than two weeks following treatment for urosepsis, she developed severe cholestasis, a markedly elevated ferritin and hypertriglyceridemia...
2018: Case Reports in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670403/variation-of-diagnostic-performance-of-fecal-immunochemical-testing-for-hemoglobin-by-sex-and-age-results-from-a-large-screening-cohort
#18
Hermann Brenner, Jing Qian, Simone Werner
Objective: Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) for hemoglobin in stool are increasingly used for colorectal cancer screening. Reported sensitivities and specificities have strongly varied between studies, but it is unclear to what extent such variation reflects differences between tests or between study population characteristics. We aimed to evaluate the key parameters of FIT performance for detecting advanced neoplasia (AN) according to sex and age. Methods: Sex- and age-specific sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) for detecting AN of a quantitative FIT (FOB Gold®) were evaluated among 3211 men and women aged 50-79 years who underwent screening colonoscopy in Germany...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670381/molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-in-two-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-shandong-province-china
#19
Ying Luo, Wen Zhang, Jing-Wei Cheng, Meng Xiao, Gui-Rong Sun, Cheng-Jie Guo, Ming-Jun Liu, Pei-Shan Cong, Timothy Kudinha
Purpose: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have markedly increased over the past decade. However, there is very limited epidemiological data on CDI in China so far, specifically no data in Shandong Province. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic algorithm for CDI and to gain data on molecular epidemiology of CDI in the Shandong Province of China. Materials and methods: Nonrepetitive unformed fecal specimens (n=504) were investigated by the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), C...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670255/a-combination-of-lactobacillus-mali-aps1-and-dieting-improved-the-efficacy-of-obesity-treatment-via-manipulating-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#20
Yung-Tsung Chen, Ning-Sun Yang, Yu-Chun Lin, Shang-Tse Ho, Kuan-Yi Li, Jin-Seng Lin, Je-Ruei Liu, Ming-Ju Chen
The difficulty of long-term management has produced a high rate of failure for obesity patients. Therefore, improving the efficacy of current obesity treatment is a significant goal. We hypothesized that combining a probiotic Lactobacillus mali APS1 intervention with dieting could improve the efficacy of obesity and hepatic steatosis treatment compared to dieting alone. Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then treated with: saline + normal diet and APS1 + normal diet (NDAPS1) for 3 weeks. NDAPS1 accelerated body weight loss and reduced caloric intake and fat accumulation...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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