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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350846/dissemination-and-genetic-diversity-of-chlamydial-agents-in-polish-wildfowl-isolation-and-molecular-characterisation-of-avian-chlamydia-abortus-strains
#1
Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Agata Mitura, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Kinga Zaręba, Agnieszka Jodełko, Aneta Pluta, Sabine Scharf, Bailey Vitek, Rachid Aaziz, Fabien Vorimore, Karine Laroucau, Christiane Schnee
Wild birds are considered as a reservoir for avian chlamydiosis posing a potential infectious threat to domestic poultry and humans. Analysis of 894 cloacal or fecal swabs from free-living birds in Poland revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 14.8% (n = 132) with the highest prevalence noted in Anatidae (19.7%) and Corvidae (13.4%). Further testing conducted with species-specific real-time PCR showed that 65 samples (49.2%) were positive for C. psittaci whereas only one was positive for C. avium. To classify the non-identified chlamydial agents and to genotype the C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350695/icrp-67-biokinetic-models-for-am-241-applied-to-nonhuman-primates
#2
Nada A Alomairy, Richard R Brey, Raymond A Guilmette
Between 1960 and 1985, Patricia Durbin and colleagues performed studies on the distribution of intravenously and intramuscularly injected Am citrate with dosages ranging from 16 to 32 kBq kg in 30 male and female non-human primates (NHP). Dr. Durbin died unexpectedly in March of 2009, leaving much of the extensive serial blood, bioassay, and autopsy data from these NHP studies unanalyzed. As part of the experimental design, serial blood samples were taken, and urine and feces samples were collected separately for the duration of the study...
May 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#3
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346931/compositional-analysis-and-metabolism-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-infants
#4
Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
It is a great success that biotechnological means are available today to produce amounts of single human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a purity which allows performing metabolic and functional studies even in humans. As recent data indicate that there is a link between the Lewis blood group and the secretor status of an individual and certain inflammatory diseases, this review will also focus on the metabolic fate of secretor- and Lewis blood group-specific components. We conclude that there is no simple urinary or fecal excretion pattern of HMOs, although the pattern in urine often reflects the mother's secretor/nonsecretor status...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346928/diet-and-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#5
Ting-Chin David Shen
Gut microbiota plays an important role in host health maintenance and disease pathogenesis. The development of a stable and diverse gut microbiota is essential to various host physiologic functions such as immunoregulation, pathogen prevention, energy harvest, and metabolism. At the same time, a dysbiotic gut microbiota associated with disease is altered in structure and function, and often characterized by a decrease in species richness and proliferation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. As a shared substrate between the host and the gut microbiota, diet significantly impacts the health and disease states of the host both directly and through gut microbial metabolite production...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346925/microbiota-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#6
Sanjay Patole
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired gastrointestinal inflammatory condition with significant mortality and morbidity in preterm very low birth weight infants. The interplay between toll-like receptors, bacterial endotoxins, developmentally regulated excessive proinflammatory responses of the immature innate immune system, hypoxia, ischemia, reperfusion, free radicals, and the presence of substrates and bacterial endotoxins is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NEC. The association (cause?) of various microbes (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) with NEC has intrigued researchers for many years...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#7
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346839/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-fresh-produces-and-human-fecal-samples
#8
Min-Chan Kim, Min-Hyeok Cha, Jae-Gee Ryu, Gun-Jo Woo
Increased enterococcal infections in hospitals and multidrug-resistant and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from humans, animals, and food sources raised public health concern on the presence of VRE in multiple sources. We performed a comparative analysis of the antimicrobial resistance and genetics of VRE isolates derived from fresh produce and human fecal samples. Of 389 Enterococcus isolates, 8 fecal and 3 produce isolates were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin; all harbored vanA gene...
March 27, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346561/reduced-intestinal-motility-mucosal-barrier-function-and-inflammation-in-aged-monkeys
#9
E L Mitchell, A T Davis, K Brass, M Dendinger, R Barner, R Gharaibeh, A A Fodor, K Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the general health and intestinal physiology of young and old non-human primates with comparable life histories and dietary environments. DESIGN: Vervet monkeys (Chlorcebus aethiops sabaeus) in stable and comparable social and nutritional environments were selected for evaluation. Health phenotype, circulating cytokines and biomarkers of microbial translocation (MT) were measured (n=26-44). Subsets of monkeys additionally had their intestinal motility, intestinal permeability, and fecal microbiomes characterized...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346408/gut-microbial-metabolites-limit-the-frequency-of-autoimmune-t-cells-and-protect-against-type-1-diabetes
#10
Eliana Mariño, James L Richards, Keiran H McLeod, Dragana Stanley, Yu Anne Yap, Jacinta Knight, Craig McKenzie, Jan Kranich, Ana Carolina Oliveira, Fernando J Rossello, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Christian M Nefzger, Laurence Macia, Alison Thorburn, Alan G Baxter, Grant Morahan, Lee H Wong, Jose M Polo, Robert J Moore, Trevor J Lockett, Julie M Clarke, David L Topping, Leonard C Harrison, Charles R Mackay
Gut dysbiosis might underlie the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In mice of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) strain, we found that key features of disease correlated inversely with blood and fecal concentrations of the microbial metabolites acetate and butyrate. We therefore fed NOD mice specialized diets designed to release large amounts of acetate or butyrate after bacterial fermentation in the colon. Each diet provided a high degree of protection from diabetes, even when administered after breakdown of immunotolerance...
March 27, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346396/a-pcr-based-molecular-detection-of-strongyloides-stercoralisin-human-stool-samples-from-tabriz-city-iran
#11
Reza Ghasemikhah, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Seyed Ali Shariatzadeh, Abbas Shahbazi, Teymour Hazratian
Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode causing serious infections in immunocompromised patients. In chronically infected patients, the low parasitic content as well as the resemblance of the larvae to several other species make diagnosis basedonmorphology difficult. In the present study, a PCR-based method targeting the internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS2) of the rDNA region was examined for the molecular detection of S. stercoralis infection from the stool samples. A total of 1800 patients were included...
March 27, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346394/engineered-resistant-starch-ers-diet-shapes-colon-microbiota-profile-in-parallel-with-the-retardation-of-tumor-growth-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pancreatic-cancer-models
#12
Concetta Panebianco, Kaarel Adamberg, Signe Adamberg, Chiara Saracino, Madis Jaagura, Kaia Kolk, Anna Grazia Di Chio, Paolo Graziano, Raivo Vilu, Valerio Pazienza
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model...
March 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346392/impact-of-novel-sorghum-bran-diets-on-dss-induced-colitis
#13
Lauren E Ritchie, Stella S Taddeo, Brad R Weeks, Raymond J Carroll, Linda Dykes, Lloyd W Rooney, Nancy D Turner
We have demonstrated that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets alter fecal microbiota; however, little is known regarding their effect on colon inflammation. Our aim was to characterize the effect of sorghum bran diets on intestinal homeostasis during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 20/diet) were provided diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins) or Hi Tannin Black (both) sorghum bran. Colitis was induced (N = 10/diet) with three separate 48-h exposures to 3% DSS, and feces were collected...
March 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346274/the-effect-of-disease-activity-on-birth-outcomes-in-a-nationwide-cohort-of-women-with-moderate-to-severe-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Heidi Kammerlander, Jan Nielsen, Jens Kjeldsen, Torben Knudsen, Sonia Friedman, Bente Nørgård
BACKGROUND: Active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during conception and pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. Former studies have examined heterogeneous groups of women with varying degrees of IBD severity. We aimed to examine the effect of active IBD on birth outcomes in a more homogeneous group of women with a moderate to severe disease course. Since in Denmark, moderate to severe IBD is an indication for use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, we examined all women who used anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy during pregnancy...
March 24, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346102/phage-display-derived-ligand-for-mucosal-transcytotic-receptor-gp-2-promotes-antigen-delivery-to-m-cells-and-induces-antigen-specific-immune-response
#15
Inam Ullah Khan, Jiansheng Huang, Rui Liu, Jingbo Wang, Jun Xie, Naishuo Zhu
Successful oral immunization depends on efficient delivery of antigens (Ags) to the mucosal immune induction site. Glycoprotein-2 (GP-2) is an integral membrane protein that is expressed specifically on M cells within follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and serves as transcytotic receptor for luminal Ags. In this study, we selected peptide ligands against recombinant human GP-2 by screening a phage display library and evaluated their interaction with GP-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Selected peptides were conjugated to the C-terminal of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and evaluated for their ability to induce an immune response in mice...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345822/the-optimal-cut-off-level-of-the-fecal-immunochemical-test-for-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-a-country-with-limited-colonoscopy-resources-a-multi-center-study-from-thailand
#16
Satimai Aniwan, Thawee Ratanachu Ek, Supot Pongprasobchai, Julajak Limsrivilai, Ong Ard Praisontarangkul, Pises Pisespongsa, Pisaln Mairiang, Apichat Sangchan, Jaksin Sottisuporn, Naruemon Wisedopas, Pinit Kullavanijaya, Rungsun Rerknimitr
Background: Selecting the cut-off point for the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs is of prime importance. The balance between the test performance for detecting advanced neoplasia and the available colonoscopy resources should be considered. We aimed to identify the optimal cut-off of FIT for advanced neoplasia in order to minimize colonoscopy burden. Methods: We conducted a multi-center study in 6 hospitals from diverse regions of Thailand. Asymptomatic participants, aged 50-75 years, were tested with one-time quantitative FIT (OC-SENSOR, Eiken Chemical Co...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345757/parasites-of-orangutans-primates-ponginae-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
Wisnu Nurcahyo, Veronika Konstanzová, Ivona Foitová
Wild orangutan populations exist in an increasingly fragile state. As numbers continue to decline and populations became fragmented, the overall health of remaining individuals becomes increasingly at risk. Parasitic infections can have a serious impact on the health of wild orangutans, and can be fatal. It has been reported that rehabilitated individuals demonstrate a higher prevalence of parasitic diseases, and it is possible that they may spread these infections to wild orangutans upon reintroduction. In order to ensure the success of reintroduction and conservation efforts, it is crucial to understand the potential risks by fully understanding what parasites they have been reported to be infected with...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345530/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-methods-of-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-other-diseases
#18
Klaudia Juszczuk, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek
Clostridium difficile is a serious epidemiological problem and particularly dangerous microorganism causing hospital infections. Currently, the treatment of C. difficile infections is the use of metronidazole or vancomycin. However, in some patients, recurrent infection difficult to treat occurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new method used to treat the recurrent CDI. FMT consists in the infusion of the fecal suspension from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient with CDI to restore the natural intestinal microflora...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345274/global-model-fitting-to-compare-survival-curves-for-fecal-indicator-bacteria-and-ruminant-associated-genetic-markers
#19
Lauren E Brooks, Katharine G Field
AIMS: To compare decay profiles of ruminant and cattle associated molecular markers for fecal contamination and Escherichia coli, facilitating their correct application in water quality studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated decay profiles for cultivable E. coli, a general Bacteroidales genetic marker (GenBac3), ruminant markers (CF128, Rum2Bac), and cattle markers (CowM2, CowM3) using feces-seeded mesocosms, and selected best fitting models for each decay profile...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345184/spatial-molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-and-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-blandm-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-from-farmed-piglets-of-india
#20
B S Pruthvishree, O R Vinodh Kumar, D K Sinha, Y P S Malik, Z Dubal, P A Desingu, M Shivakumar, Narayanan Krishnaswamy, B R Singh
AIM: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten government organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 673 fecal samples both from non- diarhhoeic (n=501) and diarrhoeic (n=172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Wherein, 112 confirmed E. coli isolates were further subjected for genotypic confirmation of carbapenem resistance and virulence factors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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