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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545213/safe-utilization-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-farmland-by-mulberry-tree-cultivation-and-silk-production
#1
Xiaoming Wan, Mei Lei, Tongbin Chen, Yongbi Tan, Junxing Yang
Heavy-metal-contaminated soil threatens human health and environmental safety. Complete remediation of contaminated soil is expensive; therefore, phytomanagement has emerged as a cost-effective alternative. The current study investigated mulberry tree (Morus alba) plantation, silkworm cultivation, and silk production as phytomanagement options. Results defined the safety of planting mulberry trees in soils with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) concentrations lower than 369 and 180mgkg(-1), respectively. Silkworms fed with mulberry leaves collected from slightly contaminated soil exhibited productive growth and normal silk production...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545095/feeding-on-dispersed-vs-aggregated-particles-the-effect-of-zooplankton-feeding-behavior-on-vertical-flux
#2
Marja Koski, Julia Boutorh, Christina de la Rocha
Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of metabolic rates. We fed 5 copepod species-three calanoid, one harpacticoid and one poecilamastoid-microplankton food, in either dispersed or aggregated form and measured rates of respiration, fecal pellet production and egg production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544222/usefulness-of-detection-of-clarithromycin-resistant-helicobacter-pylori-from-fecal-specimens-for-young-adults-treated-with-eradication-therapy
#3
Takako Osaki, Katsuhiro Mabe, Cynthia Zaman, Hideo Yonezawa, Masumi Okuda, Kenji Amagai, Shinji Fujieda, Mitsuhide Goto, Wataru Shibata, Mototsugu Kato, Shigeru Kamiya
BACKGROUND: To prevent Helicobacter pylori infection in the younger generation, it is necessary to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the method of PCR-based sequencing to detect clarithromycin (CAM) resistance-associated mutations using fecal samples as a noninvasive method. METHODS: DNA extracted from fecal specimens and isolates from gastric biopsy specimens were collected from patients with H...
May 22, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543188/cd44-deletion-leading-to-attenuation-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-results-from-alterations-in-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#4
Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Hongbing Guan, Narendra P Singh, Brandon Busbee, Alexa Gandy, Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, Saurabh Chatterjee, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
Dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been shown to be associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated the pivotal role played by CD44 in the regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. In the current study, we determined whether these effects resulted from an alteration in gut microbiota and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in CD44KO mice. Fecal transfer from naïve CD44KO but not CD44WT mice, into EAE-induced CD44WT mice, led to significant amelioration of EAE...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542523/impact-of-maintenance-immunosuppressive-therapy-on-the-fecal-microbiome-of-renal-transplant-recipients-comparison-between-an-everolimus-and-a-standard-tacrolimus-based-regimen
#5
Gianluigi Zaza, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Giovanna Felis, Simona Granata, Sandra Torriani, Antonio Lupo
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is the full set of microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract and is emerging as an important dynamic/fluid system that, if altered by environmental, dietetic or pharmacological factors, could considerably influence drug response. However, the immunosuppressive drug-induced modifications of this system are still poorly defined. METHODS: We employed an innovative bioinformatics approach to assess differences in the whole-gut microbial metagenomic profile of 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with two different immunosuppressive protocols...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542507/establishment-a-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-based-on-host-biomarkers-for-the-detection-of-the-subclinical-cases-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis
#6
Hyun-Eui Park, Hong-Tae Park, Young Hoon Jung, Han Sang Yoo
Bovine paratuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic enteric inflammatory disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that causes large economic losses in the dairy industry. Spread of PTB is mainly provoked by a long subclinical stage during which MAP is shed into the environment with feces; accordingly, detection of subclinical animals is very important to its control. However, current diagnostic methods are not suitable for detection of subclinical animals. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop a diagnostic method for analysis of the expression of genes of prognostic potential biomarker candidates in the whole blood of cattle naturally infected with MAP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542376/the-cryptic-plasmid-is-more-important-for-chlamydia-muridarum-to-colonize-the-mouse-gastrointestinal-tract-than-to-infect-the-genital-tract
#7
Lili Shao, Jose Melero, Nu Zhang, Bernard Arulanandam, Joel Baseman, Quanzhong Liu, Guangming Zhong
Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, the mechanism by which Chlamydia colonizes the gut remains unclear. Chlamydia muridarum is known to spread from the genital to the gastrointestinal tracts hematogenously. The C. muridarum plasmid is a key pathogenic determinant in the mouse upper genital tract although plasmid-deficient C. muridarum is still able to colonize the upper genital tract. We now report that plasmid-deficient C. muridarum exhibits significantly delayed/reduced spreading from the mouse genital to the gastrointestinal tracts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542310/geographic-distribution-of-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-in-wild-rats-rattus-rattus-and-terrestrial-snails-in-florida-usa
#8
Heather D Stockdale Walden, John D Slapcinsky, Shannon Roff, Jorge Mendieta Calle, Zakia Diaz Goodwin, Jere Stern, Rachel Corlett, Julia Conway, Antoinette McIntosh
The parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans, and has been documented in other incidental hosts such as birds, horses, dogs and non-human primates. It is endemic in Hawaii, and there have been sporadic reports in the southern continental United States. This parasite uses rats as definitive hosts and snails as intermediate hosts. In this study, we collected potential definitive and intermediate hosts throughout Florida to ascertain the geographic distribution in the state: Rats, environmental rat fecal samples, and snails were collected from 18 counties throughout the state...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542111/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#9
Deepa Nanayakkara, Neha Nanda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541934/evaluation-of-ageratum-conyzoides-in-field-scale-constructed-wetlands-cws-for-domestic-wastewater-treatment
#10
A S Tilak, Suhas P Wani, A Datta, M D Patil, M Kaushal, K R Reddy
Ageratum conyzoides were evaluated in field scale subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) to quantify its nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake and compare with wetland plants (Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia and Canna indica). The two-field scale subsurface flow CWs, located in the International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, received wastewater from an urban colony. The CW1 and CW2 had the same dimensions (length:10 m, width:3 m, total depth:1.5 m and sand and gravel:1 m), similar flow rates (3 m(3)/d), hydraulic loading rates (HLRs-10 cm/d) and hydraulic retention time (HRT-5 days) from July 2014-August 2015...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#11
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. METHODS: An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
May 25, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541661/a-complementary-isothermal-amplification-method-to-the-us-epa-qpcr-approach-for-the-detection-of-enterococci-in-environmental-waters
#12
Claudia Kolm, Roland Martzy, Kurt Brunner, Robert L Mach, Rudolf Krska, Georg Heinze, Regina Sommer, Georg H Reischer, Andreas H Farnleitner
We report a novel molecular assay, based on helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), for the detection of enterococci as markers for fecal pollution in water. This isothermal assay targets the same Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene region as the existing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the US Environmental Protection Agency Methods 1611 and 1609 but can be entirely performed on a simple heating block. The developed Enterococcus HDA assay successfully discriminated 15 enterococcal from 15 non-enterococcal reference strains and reliably detected 48 environmental isolates of enterococci...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541004/the-effect-of-peripheral-crf-peptide-and-water-avoidance-stress-on-colonic-and-gastric-transit-in-guinea-pigs
#13
Zahid Hussain, Hae Won Kim, Cheal Wung Huh, Young Ju Lee, Hyojin Park
Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) diseases; however, there is frequent overlap between FD and IBS patients. Emerging evidence links the activation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors with stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral CRF peptide and water avoidance stress (WAS) on upper and lower GI transit in guinea pigs. Dosages 1, 3, and 10 μg/kg of CRF were injected intraperitoneally (IP) in fasted guinea pigs 30 minutes prior to the intragastric administration of charcoal mix to measure upper GI transit...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540705/crename-a-molecular-microbiology-method-enabling-multiparametric-assessment-of-potable-drinking-water
#14
Luc Bissonnette, Andrée F Maheux, Michel G Bergeron
The microbial assessment of potable/drinking water is done to ensure that the resource is free of fecal contamination indicators or waterborne pathogens. Culture-based methods for verifying the microbial safety are limited in the sense that a standard volume of water is generally tested for only one indicator (family) or pathogen.In this work, we describe a membrane filtration-based molecular microbiology method, CRENAME (Concentration Recovery Extraction of Nucleic Acids and Molecular Enrichment), exploiting molecular enrichment by whole genome amplification (WGA) to yield, in less than 4 h, a nucleic acid preparation which can be repetitively tested by real-time PCR for example, to provide multiparametric presence/absence tests (1 colony forming unit or microbial particle per standard volume of 100-1000 mL) for bacterial or protozoan parasite cells or particles susceptible to contaminate potable/drinking water...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540508/molecular-characterization-of-blastocystis-sp-in-captive-wild-animals-in-qinling-mountains
#15
G H Zhao, X F Hu, T L Liu, R S Hu, Z Q Yu, W B Yang, Y L Wu, S K Yu, J K Song
Blastocystis is one common protist inhabiting in gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Examining the subtypes has important implications for assessing the zoonotic potential of Blastocystis and intestinal health of hosts. In the present study, a total of 497 fecal samples collected from 37 wild animal species in Qinling Mountains were investigated for the presence and subtypes of Blastocystis. Of them, 200 (40.2%) were positive for Blastocystis and 13 subtypes were found, including eight known subtypes (STs1-3, 5, 10, 12-14) and five possible novel subtypes (temporarily named as STs18-22), with ST10 as the predominate subtype and the subtype ST5 was detected in an ostrich for the first time...
May 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540475/-intestinal-microbiota-in-individualized-therapies
#16
REVIEW
T Witte, D H Pieper, B Heidrich
During recent years, the analysis of the human microbiota has been receiving more and more scientific focus. Deep sequencing analysis enables characterization of microbial communities in different environments without the need of culture-based methods. Hereby, information about microbial communities is increasing enormously. Numerous studies in humans and animal models revealed the important role of the microbiome in emergence and natural course of diseases such as autoimmune diseases and metabolic disorders, e...
May 24, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539700/hydrothermal-oxidation-of-fecal-sludge-experimental-investigations-and-kinetic-modeling
#17
Tobias Hübner, Markus Roth, Frédéric Vogel
Hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) provides an efficient technique to completely destroy wet organic wastes. In this study, HTO was applied to treat fecal sludge at well-defined experimental conditions. Four different kinetic models were adjusted to the obtained data. Among others, a distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was applied. A total of 33 experiments were carried out in an unstirred batch reactor with pressurized air as the oxidant at temperatures of <470 °C, oxygen-to-fuel equivalence ratios between 0 and 1...
November 23, 2016: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539683/stubborn-rectal-prolapse-in-systemic-sclerosis
#18
Sven Petersen, Alexander Tobisch, Gero Puhl, Ina Kötter, Uwe Wollina
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder. Anorectal involvement might typically cause fecal incontinence and rarely rectal prolapse. Here we report three female patients, who were admitted with a mean history of 10 years suffering from SSc. All patients presented with the initial symptom of anal incontinence, in all cases this was associated with rectal intussusception or rectal prolapse. The three women faced prolapse recurrence, independent of the initial procedure. After surgical removal of the prolapse, the incontinence remained...
2017: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539453/epigenetic-metabolite-acetate-inhibits-class-i-ii-histone-deacetylases-promotes-histone-acetylation-and-increases-hiv-1-integration-in-cd4-t-cells
#19
Jean-François Bolduc, Laurent Hany, Corinne Barat, Michel Ouellet, Michel J Tremblay
In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4(+) T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4(+) T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with an increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration in the genome of CD4(+) T cells...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539226/fecal-calprotectin-as-an-alternative-to-ulcerative-colitis-endoscopic-index-of-severity-to-predict-the-response-to-corticosteroids-of-acute-severe-ulcerative-colitis-a-prospective-observational-study
#20
Tingbin Xie, Chenyan Zhao, Chao Ding, Tenghui Zhang, Xujie Dai, Tengfei Lv, Yi Li, Zhen Guo, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu
BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin (FC) might be an alternative to ulcerative colitis endoscopic index of severity (UCEIS) to predict the response to corticosteroids (CS) in acute severe colitis (ASC). METHODS: One hundred and seventeen ASC patients were prospectively enrolled. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and sigmoidoscopic data were documented. Multivariate and ROC analyses were performed to identify risk factors for non-response to CS, and the predictive accuracy of possible predictors was assessed...
May 3, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
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