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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438027/attitudes-towards-homosexuals-in-seven-caribbean-countries-implications-for-an-effective-hiv-response
#1
Eduard J Beck, Kenika Espinosa, Tanisha Ash, Peter Wickham, Christine Barrow, Ernest Massiah, Ben Alli, Cesar Nunez
Between 2000 and 2015, the number of people newly infected with HIV in the Caribbean decreased by 76% and HIV-related deaths by 42%. The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) increased from near zero to 50% (44% to 57%) in 2015. In many Caribbean countries communities of men-who-have-sex-with-other-men (MSM) have higher incidence and prevalence of HIV. They are often stigmatized and subjected to both social and institutional discrimination. This study compared attitudes of the general public obtained through public opinion polls 2013-2014 towards homosexuals and willingness to socialize with them in seven Caribbean countries...
April 24, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419653/hcv-viremia-associates-with-nk-cell-activation-and-dysfunction-in-anti-retroviral-hiv-hcv-co-infected-subjects
#2
E Papasavvas, L Azzoni, X Yin, Q Liu, J Joseph, A Mackiewicz, B Ross, K M Lynn, J M Jacobson, K Mounzer, J R Kostman, L J Montaner
The impact of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels on immune status in chronically HCV mono-infected when compared to HIV/HCV co-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. A total of 78 African American subjects HCV viremic/naïve to HCV treatment (33 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected, 45 HCV genotype 1/HIV co-infected on ART) were studied. Clinical and liver enzymes measurements were performed. Whole blood was analyzed for immune subset changes by flow-cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used for same-day constitutive and in vitro Interferon (IFN)-α-induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) phosphorylation, K562 target cell lysis and K562 target cell recognition-mediated IFN-γ production...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#3
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407737/pain-in-amaxhosa-women-living-with-hiv-aids-a-cross-sectional-study-of-ambulant-outpatients
#4
Romy Parker, Jennifer Jelsma, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most commonly reported symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS, whether or not they are receiving anti-retroviral therapy. A recent systematic review identified a paucity of studies exploring pain in women in low and middle income countries. The prevalence and characteristics of pain in women living with HIV/AIDS may differ from that of men as many chronic pain conditions are more prevalent in women. The aims of this study were to establish pain prevalence, characteristics and management in amaXhosa women living with HIV/AIDS...
April 13, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396665/negative-checkpoint-regulatory-molecule-2b4-cd244-upregulation-is-associated-with-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-alterations-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-disease-progression
#5
Fareed Ahmad, Esaki M Shankar, Yean K Yong, Hong Y Tan, Gerrit Ahrenstorf, Roland Jacobs, Marie Larsson, Reinhold E Schmidt, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Abdul W Ansari
The CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are implicated in innate immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the determinants of cellular dysfunction across the iNKT cells subsets are seldom defined in HIV disease. Herein, we provide evidence for the involvement of the negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) 2B4 in iNKT cell alteration in a well-defined cohort of HIV-seropositive anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naïve, ART-treated, and elite controllers (ECs). We report on exaggerated 2B4 expression on iNKT cells of HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395565/regression-of-methotrexate-resistant-aids-related-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-with-lenalidomide-plus-combination-anti-retroviral-therapy
#6
Neel K Gupta, Chia-Ching Wang, Gabriel N Mannis, John-Paul J Yu, James L Rubenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393343/-stress-needs-and-quality-of-life-of-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-aids-in-north-east-china
#7
Meng-Chu Tsai, Po-Liang Lu, Shiau-Jiun Wu, Ming-Chu Feng
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS has become a chronic disease since anti-retroviral therapy has reduced the related rates of morbidity and mortality and maintained the immunity of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus / AIDS (PLWHA). PLWHA have psychological needs and many hope to improve their quality of life (QoL) over the long course of their treatment. Despite the large number of AIDS cases, there are limited reports addressing the issue of QoL among PLWHA in China. PURPOSE: The present study aims to explore the stress, needs, QoL, and related factors among PLWHA in China...
April 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387831/retroviral-replicating-vector-mediated-gene-therapy-achieves-long-term-control-of-tumor-recurrence-and-leads-to-durable-anticancer-immunity
#8
Kei Hiraoka, Akihito Inagaki, Yuki Kato, Tiffany T Huang, Leah A Mitchell, Shuichi Kamijima, Masamichi Takahashi, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Katrin Hacke, Carol A Kruse, Derek Ostertag, Joan M Robbins, Harry E Gruber, Douglas J Jolly, Noriyuki Kasahara
Background.: Prodrug-activator gene therapy with Toca 511, a tumor-selective retroviral replicating vector (RRV) encoding yeast cytosine deaminase, is being evaluated in recurrent high-grade glioma patients. Nonlytic retroviral infection leads to permanent integration of RRV into the cancer cell genome, converting infected cancer cell and progeny into stable vector producer cells, enabling ongoing transduction and viral persistence within tumors. Cytosine deaminase in infected tumor cells converts the antifungal prodrug 5-fluorocytosine into the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil, mediating local tumor destruction without significant systemic adverse effects...
April 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387759/characterization-of-retroviral-infectivity-and-superinfection-resistance-during-retrovirus-mediated-transduction-of-mammalian-cells
#9
J Liao, Q Wei, J Fan, Y Zou, D Song, J Liu, F Liu, C Ma, X Hu, L Li, Y Yu, X Qu, L Chen, X Yu, Z Zhang, C Zhao, Z Zeng, R Zhang, S Yan, T Wu, X Wu, Y Shu, J Lei, Y Li, W Zhang, J Wang, R R Reid, M J Lee, W Huang, J M Wolf, T-C He, J Wang
Retroviral vectors including lentiviral vectors are commonly-used tools to stably express transgenes or RNA molecules in mammalian cells. Their utilities are roughly divided into two categories, stable overexpression of transgenes and RNA molecules, which requires maximal transduction efficiency, or functional selection with retrovirus-based libraries, which takes advantage of retroviral superinfection resistance. However, the dynamic features of retrovirus-mediated transduction are not well-characterized. Here, we engineered two MSCV-based retroviral vectors expressing dual fluorescence proteins and antibiotic markers and analyzed virion production efficiency and virion stability, dynamic infectivity and superinfection resistance in different cell types, and strategies to improve transduction efficiency...
April 7, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377526/the-r263k-dolutegravir-resistance-associated-substitution-progressively-decreases-hiv-1-integration
#10
Thibault Mesplède, Jing Leng, Hanh Thi Pham, Jiaming Liang, Yudong Quan, Yingshan Han, Mark A Wainberg
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection persists despite decades of active antiretroviral therapy (ART), effectively preventing viral eradication. Treatment decreases plasma viral RNA, but viral DNA persists, mostly integrated within the genome of nucleated blood cells. Viral DNA blood levels correlate with comorbidities and the rapidity of viral rebound following treatment interruption. To date, no intervention aiming at decreasing HIV DNA levels below those attained through ART has been successful. This includes use of some integrase inhibitors either as part of ART or in treatment intensification studies...
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373864/chelation-motifs-affecting-metal-dependent-viral-enzymes-n-acylhydrazone-ligands-as-dual-target-inhibitors-of-hiv-1-integrase-and-reverse-transcriptase-ribonuclease-h-domain
#11
Mauro Carcelli, Dominga Rogolino, Anna Gatti, Nicolino Pala, Angela Corona, Alessia Caredda, Enzo Tramontano, Christophe Pannecouque, Lieve Naesens, Francesca Esposito
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, still represent a serious global health emergency. The chronic toxicity derived from the current anti-retroviral therapy limits the prolonged use of several antiretroviral agents, continuously requiring the discovery of new antiviral agents with innovative strategies of action. In particular, the development of single molecules targeting two proteins (dual inhibitors) is one of the current main goals in drug discovery. In this contest, metal-chelating molecules have been extensively explored as potential inhibitors of viral metal-dependent enzymes, resulting in some important classes of antiviral agents...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361501/fertility-care-interventions-should-be-provided-as-the-first-line-options-for-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-who-desire-children-in-settings-with-affordable-access-to-care-regardless-of-their-fertility-status
#12
Lauren Zakarin Safier, Mark V Sauer
INTRODUCTION: With increasing life expectancy, couples with at least one partner afflicted with HIV are more commonly pursuing the opportunity to have biologic offspring. Currently, there are no universally accepted recommendations regarding first line reproductive treatments for HIV serodiscordant couples lacking a history of infertility. We strongly believe that fertility care intervention should be the first line treatment, when affordably accessible, over natural conception for HIV serodiscordant couples to achieve pregnancy in a safe and efficacious manner...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360890/driving-hiv-1-into-a-vulnerable-corner-by-taking-advantage-of-viral-adaptation-and-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Shigeyoshi Harada, Kazuhisa Yoshimura
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for controlling human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, progress in identifying and characterizing highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies has provided valuable templates for HIV-1 therapy and vaccine design. Nevertheless, HIV-1, like many RNA viruses, exhibits genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Evolution of quasispecies can occur rapidly in response to selective pressures, such as that exerted by ART and the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359286/the-double-edged-sword-of-re-expression-of-genes-by-hypomethylating-agents-from-viral-mimicry-to-exploitation-as-priming-agents-for-targeted-immune-checkpoint-modulation
#14
REVIEW
Florian Wolff, Michael Leisch, Richard Greil, Angela Risch, Lisa Pleyer
Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) have been widely used over the last decade, approved for use in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The proposed central mechanism of action of HMAs, is the reversal of aberrant methylation in tumor cells, thus reactivating CpG-island promoters and leading to (re)expression of tumor suppressor genes. Recent investigations into the mode of action of azacitidine (AZA) and decitabine (DAC) have revealed new molecular mechanisms that impinge on tumor immunity via induction of an interferon response, through activation of endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) that are normally epigenetically silenced...
March 31, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357176/novel-and-emerging-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-recessive-dystrophic-epidermolysis-bullosa
#15
REVIEW
Ellie Rashidghamat, John A McGrath
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited blistering diseases that affects ∼ 500,000 people worldwide. Clinically, individuals with EB have fragile skin and are susceptible to blistering following minimal trauma, with mucous membrane and other organ involvement in some subtypes. Within the spectrum of EB, ∼ 5% of affected individuals have the clinically more severe recessive dystrophic (RDEB) variant with a prevalence of 8 per one million of the population...
February 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356514/cytokine-receptor-signaling-is-required-for-the-survival-of-alk-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-even-in-the-presence-of-jak1-stat3-mutations
#16
Jing Chen, Yong Zhang, Michael N Petrus, Wenming Xiao, Alina Nicolae, Mark Raffeld, Stefania Pittaluga, Richard N Bamford, Masao Nakagawa, Sunny Tianyi Ouyang, Alan L Epstein, Marshall E Kadin, Annarose Del Mistro, Richard Woessner, Elaine S Jaffe, Thomas A Waldmann
Activating Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) mutations have been discovered in many T-cell malignancies, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)(-) anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). However, such mutations occur in a minority of patients. To investigate the clinical application of targeting JAK for ALK- ALCL, we treated ALK- cell lines of various histological origins with JAK inhibitors. Interestingly, most exogenous cytokine-independent cell lines responded to JAK inhibition regardless of JAK mutation status...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356058/hiv-infected-persons-with-type-2-diabetes-show-evidence-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-increased-inflammation
#17
Malene Hove-Skovsgaard, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Lilian Kolte, Kamilla Winding, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Asbjørn Svardal, Rolf Kristian Berge, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Marius Trøseid, Susanne Dam Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may contribute to elevated risk of CVD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA <200 copies/mL (n = 25 with T2D (HIV + T2D+), n = 25 without T2D (HIV + T2D-)) and 50 uninfected persons (n = 22 with T2D (HIV-T2D+) and n = 28 without T2D (HIV-T2D-))...
March 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351939/cytoreductive-conditioning-intensity-predicts-clonal-diversity-in-ada-scid-retroviral-gene-therapy-patients
#18
Aaron R Cooper, Georgia R Lill, Kit Shaw, Denise Carbonaro, Alejandra Davila, Robert Sokolic, Fabio Candotti, Matteo Pellegrini, Donald B Kohn
Retroviral gene therapy has proven efficacious for multiple genetic diseases of the hematopoietic system, but roughly half of clinical gene therapy trial protocols using gammaretroviral vectors have reported leukemias in some of the patients treated. In dramatic contrast, 39 ADA-SCID patients have been treated with four distinct gammaretroviral vectors without oncogenic consequence. We investigated clonal dynamics and diversity in a cohort of 15 ADA-SCID children treated with gammaretroviral vectors and found clear evidence of genotoxicity, indicated by numerous common integration sites near proto-oncogenes and by increased abundance of clones with integrations near MECOM and LMO2 These clones showed stable behavior over multiple years and never expanded to the point of dominance or dysplasia...
March 28, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348464/liver-function-tests-abnormalities-and-hepatitis-b-virus-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infection-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-patients-in-india
#19
P Puri, P K Sharma, A Lolusare, V K Sashindran, S Shrivastava, A K Nagpal
BACKGROUND: While highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has improved survival of HIV-infected patients, there is increasing liver disease and progressive Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) related liver disease. AIMS: To study the liver function tests (LFT) and HBV and HCV co-infection in HIV-infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All HIV-positive patients presenting to a tertiary level hospital from April 2009 to April 2011 were evaluated...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346490/effect-of-hiv-and-malaria-parasites-co-infection-on-immune-hematological-profiles-among-patients-attending-anti-retroviral-treatment-art-clinic-in-infectious-disease-hospital-kano-nigeria
#20
Feyisayo Ebenezer Jegede, Tinuade Ibijoke Oyeyi, Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Henry Akwen Mbah, Titilope Badru, Chinedu Agbakwuru, Oluwasanmi Adedokun
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria co-infection may present worse health outcomes in the tropics. Information on HIV/malaria co-infection effect on immune-hematological profiles is critical for patient care and there is a paucity of such data in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano...
2017: PloS One
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