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Retroviral therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931371/vismapper-ultra-fast-exhaustive-cartography-of-viral-insertion-sites-for-gene-therapy
#1
José M Juanes, Asunción Gallego, Joaquín Tárraga, Felipe J Chaves, Pablo Marín-Garcia, Ignacio Medina, Vicente Arnau, Joaquín Dopazo
BACKGROUND: The possibility of integrating viral vectors to become a persistent part of the host genome makes them a crucial element of clinical gene therapy. However, viral integration has associated risks, such as the unintentional activation of oncogenes that can result in cancer. Therefore, the analysis of integration sites of retroviral vectors is a crucial step in developing safer vectors for therapeutic use. RESULTS: Here we present VISMapper, a vector integration site analysis web server, to analyze next-generation sequencing data for retroviral vector integration sites...
September 20, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923105/genetic-engineering-of-human-nk-cells-to-express-cxcr2-improves-migration-to-renal-cell-carcinoma
#2
Veronika Kremer, Maarten Ligtenberg, Rosa Zendehdel, Christina Seitz, Annet Duivenvoorden, Erik Wennerberg, Eugenia Colón, Ann-Helén Scherman-Plogell, Andreas Lundqvist
BACKGROUND: Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell transfer is being increasingly used as cancer treatment. However, clinical responses have so far been limited to patients with hematological malignancies. A potential limiting factor in patients with solid tumors is defective homing of the infused NK cells to the tumor site. Chemokines regulate the migration of leukocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Various solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), readily secrete ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR2...
September 19, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904191/the-dose-of-retroviral-infection-determines-the-induction-of-anti-viral-nk-cell-responses
#3
Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer
Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune system and recognize virus-infected cells as well as tumor cells. Conflicting data about the beneficial or even detrimental role of NK cells in different infectious diseases were described. While the type of pathogen strongly influences NK cell functionality, less is known about how the infection dose influences the quality of a NK cell response against retroviruses. Here we used the well-established Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model to investigate the impact of virus dose on the induction of anti-viral NK cell functions...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903359/expression-of-sialyl-tn-sugar-antigen-in-bladder-cancer-cells-affects-response-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-and-to-oxidative-damage
#4
Paulo F Severino, Mariana Silva, Mylene Carrascal, Nadia Malagolini, Mariella Chiricolo, Giulia Venturi, Annalisa Astolfi, Mariangela Catera, Paula A Videira, Fabio Dall'Olio
The sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is an O-linked carbohydrate chain aberrantly expressed in bladder cancer (BC), whose biosynthesis is mainly controlled by the sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC1. Treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective adjuvant immunotherapy for superficial BC but one third of the patients fail to respond. A poorly understood correlation between the expression of sTn and BC patient's response to BCG was previously observed. By analyzing tumor tissues, we showed that patients with high ST6GALNAC1 and IL-6 mRNA expression were BCG responders...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902919/factors-associated-with-pulmonary-impairment-in-hiv-infected-south-african-adults
#5
Akshay N Gupte, Michelle L Wong, Reginah Msandiwa, Grace L Barnes, Jonathan Golub, Richard E Chaisson, Christopher J Hoffmann, Neil A Martinson
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease (OLD). Studies from developed countries report high viral load, low CD4 counts, and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to be associated with OLD; but these findings may not be generalizable to populations in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of lung function in 730 HIV-infected black South African adults. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry was performed at enrollment and repeated annually for three years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902848/the-effect-of-hiv-infection-and-hcv-viremia-on-inflammatory-mediators-and-hepatic-injury-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#6
Sheila M Keating, Jennifer L Dodge, Philip J Norris, John Heitman, Stephen J Gange, Audrey L French, Marshall J Glesby, Brian R Edlin, Patricia S Latham, Maria C Villacres, Ruth M Greenblatt, Marion G Peters
Hepatitis C virus infection induces inflammation and while it is believed that HIV co-infection enhances this response, HIV control may reduce inflammation and liver fibrosis in resolved or viremic HCV infection. Measurement of systemic biomarkers in co-infection could help define the mechanism of inflammation on fibrosis and determine if HIV control reduces liver pathology. A nested case-control study was performed to explore the relationship of systemic biomarkers of inflammation with liver fibrosis in HCV viremic and/or seropositive women with and without HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901908/performance-of-point-of-care-xpert-hiv-1-plasma-viral-load-assay-at-a-tertiary-hiv-care-centre-in-southern-india
#7
Chinnambedu Ravichandran Swathirajan, Ramachandran Vignesh, Jayaseelan Boobalan, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Shanmugam Saravanan, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Sustainable suppression of HIV replication forms the basis of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medication. Thus, reliable quantification of HIV viral load has become an essential factor to monitor the effectiveness of the ART. Longer turnaround-time (TAT), batch testing and technical skills are major drawbacks of standard real-time PCR assays. METHODS: The performance of the point-of-care Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay was evaluated against the Abbott RealTime PCR m2000rt system...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895850/gene-therapy-approaches-to-immunodeficiency
#8
REVIEW
Sujal Ghosh, H Bobby Gaspar
Transfer of gene-corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells in patients with primary immunodeficiencies has emerged as a new therapeutic approach. Patients with various conditions lacking a suitable donor have been treated with retroviral vectors and a gene-addition strategy. Initial promising results were shadowed by the occurrence of malignancies in some of these patients. Current trials, developed in the last decade, use safer viral vectors to overcome the risk of genotoxicity and have led to improved clinical outcomes...
October 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893281/rna-flow-cytometric-fish-for-investigations-into-hiv-immunology-vaccination-and-cure-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Amy E Baxter, Julia Niessl, Antigoni Morou, Daniel E Kaufmann
Despite the tremendous success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) no current treatment can eradicate latent HIV reservoirs from HIV-infected individuals or generate, effective HIV-specific immunity. Technological limitations have hampered the identification and characterization of both HIV-infected cells and HIV-specific responses in clinical samples directly ex vivo. RNA-flow cytometric fluorescence in situ hybridisation (RNA Flow-FISH) is a powerful technique, which enables detection of mRNAs in conjunction with proteins at a single-cell level...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893280/eradication-of-hiv-1-latent-reservoirs-through-therapeutic-vaccination
#10
REVIEW
Joshua Pankrac, Katja Klein, Jamie F S Mann
Despite the significant success of combination anti-retroviral therapy to reduce HIV viremia and save lives, HIV-1 infection remains a lifelong infection that must be appropriately managed. Advances in the understanding of the HIV infection process and insights from vaccine development in other biomedical fields such as cancer, imaging, and genetic engineering have fueled rapid advancements in HIV cure research. In the last few years, several studies have focused on the development of "Kick and Kill" therapies to reverse HIV latency and kick start viral translational activity...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889214/serping1-mrna-overexpression-in-monocytes-from-hiv-patients
#11
C Sanfilippo, D Cambria, A Longo, M Palumbo, R Avola, M Pinzone, G Nunnari, F Condorelli, G Musumeci, R Imbesi, P Castogiovanni, L Malaguarnera, Michelino Di Rosa
OBJECTIVE: The HIV-1 virus activates the complement system, an essential element of the immune system. SERPING1 is a protease inhibitor that disables C1r/C1s in the C1 complex of the classical complement pathway. METHODS: In this paper, we performed an analysis of several microarrays deposited in GEO dataset to demonstrate that SERPING1 mRNA is modulated in CD14(+) monocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals. In addition, data were validated on monocytes isolated from seronegative healthy volunteers, treated with IFNs...
September 9, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886101/high-prevalence-of-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia-detected-by-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-zambian-adults
#12
Violet Kayamba, Aaron Shibemba, Kanekwa Zyambo, Douglas C Heimburger, Douglas R Morgan, Paul Kelly
BACKGROUND: Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) may increase the detection of gastric premalignant lesions, and facilitate targeted biopsies for histology. The study aim was to analyse premalignant lesions in Zambian adults using CLE. METHODS: Using CLE and histology we analysed the antral mucosa for gastric premalignant lesions in asymptomatic adults living with HIV and in HIV seronegative adults. Fasting gastric pH and the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were also evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882882/how-i-treat-patients-with-hiv-related-hematological-malignancies-using-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#13
Joseph C Alvarnas, John A Zaia, Stephen J Forman
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has now been shown to be safe and effective for selected HIV-infected patients with hematological malignancies. Autologous HCT is now standard of care for patients with HIV-related lymphomas who otherwise meet standard transplant criteria. Limited data also supports use of allogeneic HCT (alloHCT) in selected HIV-infected patients who meet standard transplant criteria. We recommend enrolling patients on clinical trials that offer access to CCR5Δ32 homozygous donors, if available...
September 7, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878233/a-chalcone-derivative-reactivates-latent-hiv-1-transcription-through-activating-p-tefb-and-promoting-tat-sec-interaction-on-viral-promoter
#14
Jun Wu, Ming-Tao Ao, Rui Shao, Hui-Ru Wang, Diao Yu, Mei-Juan Fang, Xiang Gao, Zhen Wu, Qiang Zhou, Yu-Hua Xue
The principal barrier to the eradication of HIV/AIDS is the existence of latent viral reservoirs. One strategy to overcome this barrier is to use latency-reversing agents (LRAs) to reactivate the latent proviruses, which can then be eliminated by effective anti-retroviral therapy. Although a number of LRAs have been found to reactivate latent HIV, they have not been used clinically due to high toxicity and poor efficacy. In this study, we report the identification of a chalcone analogue called Amt-87 that can significantly reactivate the transcription of latent HIV provirses and act synergistically with known LRAs such as prostratin and JQ1 to reverse latency...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878074/cooperation-of-the-ebola-proteins-vp40-and-gp1-2-with-bst2-to-activate-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BA%C3%AE-independently-of-virus-like-particle-trapping
#15
Maryan G Rizk, Christopher F Basler, John Guatelli
BST2 is a host protein with dual functions in response to viral infections: it traps newly assembled enveloped virions at the plasma membrane of infected cells, and it induces NF-κβ activity, especially in the context of retroviral assembly. In this study, we examined whether Ebola virus proteins affect BST2-mediated induction of NF-κβ. We found that the Ebola matrix protein, VP40, and envelope glycoprotein, GP, each cooperate with BST2 to induce NF-κβ activity, with maximal activity when all three proteins are expressed...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877245/the-effect-of-engaging-unpaid-informal-providers-on-case-detection-and-treatment-initiation-rates-for-tb-and-hiv-in-rural-malawi-triage-plus-a-cluster-randomised-health-system-intervention-trial
#16
George Bello, Brian Faragher, Lifah Sanudi, Ireen Namakhoma, Hastings Banda, Rasmus Malmborg, Rachael Thomson, S Bertel Squire
BACKGROUND: The poor face barriers in accessing services for tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) disease. A cluster randomised trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of engaging unpaid informal providers (IPs) to promote access in a rural district. The intervention consisted of training unpaid IPs in TB and HIV disease recognition, sputum specimen collection, appropriate referrals, and raising community awareness. METHODS: In total, six clusters were defined in the study areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862830/plasma-levels-of-complement-factor-i-and-c4b-peptides-are-associated-with-hiv-suppression
#17
Boyue Wu, Zhengyu Ouyang, Christopher J Lyon, Wei Zhang, Tori Clift, Christopher R Bone, Boan Li, Zhen Zhao, Jason T Kimata, Xu G Yu, Ye Hu
Individuals who exhibit long-term HIV suppression and CD4 T-cell preservation without antiretroviral therapy are of great interest for HIV research. There is currently no robust method for rapid identification of these "HIV controller" subjects; however, HLA-B*57 (human leukocyte antigen (major histocompatibility complex), class I, B*57) genotype exhibits modest sensitivity for this phenotype. Complement C3b and C4b can influence HIV infection and replication, but studies have not examined their possible link to HIV controller status...
September 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858287/optimized-retroviral-transduction-of-mouse-t-cells-for-in-vivo-assessment-of-gene-function
#18
Makoto Kurachi, Junko Kurachi, Zeyu Chen, John Johnson, Omar Khan, Bertram Bengsch, Erietta Stelekati, John Attanasio, Laura M McLane, Michio Tomura, Satoshi Ueha, E John Wherry
Retroviral (RV) expression of genes of interest (GOIs) is an invaluable tool and has formed the foundation of cellular engineering for adoptive cell therapy in cancer and other diseases. However, monitoring of transduced T cells long term (weeks to months) in vivo remains challenging because of the low frequency and often poor durability of transduced T cells over time when transferred without enrichment. Traditional methods often require additional overnight in vitro culture after transduction. Moreover, in vitro-generated effector CD8(+) T cells enriched by sorting often have reduced viability, making it difficult to monitor the fate of transferred cells in vivo...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854905/traditional-healer-treatment-of-hiv-persists-in-the-era-of-art-a-mixed-methods-study-from-rural-south-africa
#19
Carolyn M Audet, Sizzy Ngobeni, Ryan G Wagner
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) substantially contributes to the burden of disease and health care provision in sub-Saharan Africa, where traditional healers play a major role in care, due to both their accessibility and acceptability. In rural, northeastern South Africa, people living with HIV often ping-pong between traditional healers and allopathic providers. METHODS: We conducted 27 in-depth interviews and 133 surveys with a random sample of traditional healers living in Bushbuckridge, South Africa, where anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is publicly available, to learn: (1) healer perspectives about which HIV patients they choose to treat; (2) the type of treatment offered; (3) outcomes expected, and; (4) the cost of delivering treatment...
August 30, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837563/demographic-clinical-and-behavioural-determinants-of-hiv-serostatus-non-disclosure-to-sex-partners-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-the-eastern-cape-south-africa
#20
Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Nonkosi Selanto-Chairman, Daniel Ter Goon, Gerry Boon, Yusimi Ordaz Fuentes, George Justus Hofmeyr, Gordana Avramovic, Craig Carty, John Lambert
OBJECTIVES: Drawing from a baseline sample of a cohort study, the study examines the extent and correlates of serostatus non-disclosure to sex partners and family members, and reasons for non-disclosure among HIV-infected pregnant women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study recruited 1709 pregnant women living with HIV who attended three of the largest maternity centres in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, for delivery between September 2015 and May 2016...
2017: PloS One
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