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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331332/hiv-infection-and-its-effects-on-the-development-of-autoimmune-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Luis E Vega, Luis R Espinoza
More than 35 years have elapsed since the initial outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the status of a considerable number of patients has changed from a fatal disorder to a chronic one where comorbidities including sarcoidosis and autoimmune diseases have become relevant and dominant. HIV targets the immune system leading to a state of immunodeficiency in a setting of immune activation in which CD4+ T cell depletion plays a critical role. The onset, natural history and course of HIV-associated autoimmune disease has dramatically changed according to the stage of HIV infection and since the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy...
January 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327520/risk-factors-of-clinical-and-immunological-failure-in-south-indian-cohort-on-generic-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Mucheli Shravan Sadashiv, Priscilla Rupali, Abi Manesh, Rajesh Kannangai, Ooriapadickal Cherian Abraham, Susanne A Pulimood, Rajiv Karthik, S Rajkumar, Kurien Thomas
Background: Since the time of NACO Antiretroviral (ART) roll-out, generic ART has been the mainstay of therapy. There are many studies documenting the efficacy of generic ART but with the passage of time, failure of therapy is on the rise. As institution of second line ART has significant financial implications both for a program and for an individual it is imperative that we determine factors which contribute towards treatment failure in a cohort of patients on generic antiretroviral therapy...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320842/carpal-tunnel-syndrome-in-hiv-positive-patients-coinfected-with-hcv
#3
A Mastroianni, F Allegrini, S Nardi, D Donatucci, F Girelli, C Guidi
A wide range of rheumatic and peripheral nervous system disorders may develop in patients with HIV infection, leading to pain, sensory symptoms, and muscle weakness. Over the past three decades, the progress in management of HIV disease with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in increased life expectancy for people living with HIV disease. With this new chronicity of the disease has a constellation of chronic musculoskeletal, orthopaedic and rheumatic manifestations has emerged, as potential complications of the disease itself and/or the results of ART treatment regimen and/or because of expected age-related symptoms/manifestations...
December 21, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320531/integrating-community-pharmacy-into-community-based-anti-retroviral-therapy-program-a-pilot-implementation-in-abuja-nigeria
#4
Yohanna Kambai Avong, Gambo Gumel Aliyu, Bolajoko Jatau, Ritmwa Gurumnaan, Nanfwang Danat, Gbenga Ayodele Kayode, Victor Adekanmbi, Patrick Dakum
BACKGROUND: The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic control is shifting with the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 benchmarks for epidemic control. Community-based Antiretroviral Therapy (CART) models have improved treatment uptake and demonstrated good clinical outcomes. We assessed the feasibility of integrating community pharmacy as a task shift structure for differentiated community ART in Abuja-Nigeria. METHODS: Stable patients on first line ART regimens from public health facilities were referred to community pharmacies in different locations within the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja for prescription refills and treatment maintenance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304082/striated-muscle-gene-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-lipoprotein-lipase-deficiency
#5
Katherine E Gadek, Hong Wang, Monica N Hall, Mitchell Sungello, Andrew Libby, Drew MacLaskey, Robert H Eckel, Bradley B Olwin
Excessive circulating triglycerides due to reduction or loss of lipoprotein lipase activity contribute to hypertriglyceridemia and increased risk for pancreatitis. The only gene therapy treatment for lipoprotein lipase deficiency decreases pancreatitis but minimally reduces hypertriglyceridemia. Synthesized in multiple tissues including striated muscle and adipose tissue, lipoprotein lipase is trafficked to blood vessel endothelial cells where it is anchored at the plasma membrane and hydrolyzes triglycerides into free fatty acids...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275833/efficacy-against-human-prostate-cancer-by-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-specific-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-insensitive-genetically-targeted-cd8-t-cells-derived-from-patients-with-metastatic-castrate-resistant-disease
#6
Qiang Zhang, Brian T Helfand, Benedito A Carneiro, Weijun Qin, Ximing J Yang, Chung Lee, Weipeng Zhang, Francis J Giles, Massimo Cristofanilli, Timothy M Kuzel
Current immunotherapy has limited efficacy on metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We therefore sought to improve the antitumor ability of mCRPC patient-derived CD8+ T-cells by the endowment of specificity to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and insensitivity to immunosuppressant molecule transforming growth factor-β (TGF-ß) under the control of herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase. CD8+ T-cells were collected by leukapheresis and cultured in a Food and Drug Administration-approved Cell Processing Work Station...
December 21, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260441/effects-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-locomotor-activity-in-ethanol-treated-hiv-1-transgenic-rats
#7
Jianlin He, Wenfei Huang, Shizhong Zheng, Michael Vigorito, Sulie L Chang
Binge drinking affects the onset and progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurological disorders. The HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat was created with a gag- and pol-deleted HIV-1 viral genome to mimic HIV-infected patients receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a marine compound that modulates inflammatory responses. Using HIV-1Tg rats subjected to binge exposure to ethanol (EtOH), this study examined whether DHA could reduce the detrimental neurological effects of EtOH and HIV proteins...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239897/ex-vivo-expression-of-chemokine-receptors-on-cells-surrounding-cutaneous-nerves-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-sensory-neuropathy
#8
Jenjira Mountford, Fitri Octaviana, Riwanti Estiasari, Denise Dewanto Setiawan, Ibnu Ariyanto, Silvia Lee, Jessica Gaff, Constance Chew, Connie Jackaman, Peter Kamerman, Catherine Cherry, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains common in HIV+ individuals receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART), even though neurotoxic anti-retroviral drugs (e.g. stavudine) have been phased out of use. Accumulating evidence indicates that the neuropathy is immune-mediated. We hypothesise that chemokines produced locally in the skin promote migration of macrophages and T-cells into the tissue, damaging cutaneous nerves causing HIV-SN. DESIGN: We assessed chemokine receptor expression on infiltrating CD14 and CD3 cells around cutaneous nerves in standardised skin biopsies from HIV-SN+ patients (n = 5), HIV-SN- patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 4)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236624/a-socio-ecological-examination-of-treatment-access-uptake-and-adherence-issues-encountered-by-hiv-positive-women-in-rural-north-central-nigeria
#9
Llewellyn J Cornelius, Salome C Erekaha, Joshua N Okundaye, Nadia A Sam-Agudu
BACKGROUND: In spite of the global decline in HIV infections, sub-Saharan Africa still accounts for a non-proportional majority of global new infections. While many studies have documented the importance of facilitating access to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) as a means of reducing infections, the relationship between interpersonal, community, healthcare facility, and policy-level factors and treatment adherence in Africa have not been well-described. The authors examined these factors in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in rural north-central Nigeria, where HIV burden is high and service coverage is low...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228918/nevirapine-versus-efavirenz-based-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-in-antiretroviral-naive-patients-with-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infections-in-india-a-multi-centre-study
#10
Sanjeev Sinha, Kartik Gupta, Srikanth Tripathy, Sahajal Dhooria, Sanjay Ranjan, R M Pandey
BACKGROUND: According to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, which have also been adopted by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India, Efavirenz-based Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) is better in Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus (HIV)-infected patients who are also being treated with Rifampicin-based Anti-Tuberculous Therapy (ATT). However, Efavirenz is much more expensive. We hypothesize that Nevirapine is a cheaper alternative that possesses equal efficacy as Efavirenz in HIV-Tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients...
December 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228130/acute-retroviral-syndrome-is-associated-with-high-viral-burden-cd4-depletion-and-immune-activation-in-systemic-and-tissue-compartments
#11
Trevor A Crowell, Donn J Colby, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, James L K Fletcher, Eugène Kroon, Alexandra Schuetz, Shelly J Krebs, Bonnie M Slike, Louise Leyre, Nicolas Chomont, Linda L Jagodzinski, Irini Sereti, Netanya S Utay, Robin Dewar, Rungsun Rerknimitr, Nitiya Chomchey, Rapee Trichavaroj, Victor G Valcour, Serena Spudich, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich
Background: Many individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) experience acute retroviral syndrome (ARS), which is associated with adverse long-term clinical outcomes. We characterized clinical, virologic, and immunologic features of ARS and described the impact of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Methods: Participants presenting for voluntary HIV testing were enrolled during AHI in Bangkok, Thailand. ARS was defined by ≥3 qualifying signs/symptoms...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224754/prevalence-of-chronic-ear-disease-among-hiv-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
David C Ianacone, Alden F Smith, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Robbert J H Ensink, Farrel Buchinsky, Abebe Melaku, Glenn Isaacson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV+, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-treated children and compare this to the prevalence in healthy children of similar age living in a similar setting. INTRODUCTION: From previous clinical work in Ethiopia, we suspected that chronic middle ear disease was common both in the general pediatric population and especially among children with HIV/AIDS. Few studies have examined the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV + children, particularly in those treated with HAART...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221178/cytotoxic-stress-induces-transfer-of-mitochondria-associated-human-endogenous-retroviral-rna-and-proteins-between-cancer-cells
#13
David Díaz-Carballo, Jacqueline Klein, Ali H Acikelli, Camilla Wilk, Sahitya Saka, Holger Jastrow, Gunther Wennemuth, Phillip Dammann, Urs Giger-Pabst, Veria Khosrawipour, Joachim Rassow, Mikalai Nienen, Dirk Strumberg
About 8 % of the human genome consists of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are relicts of ancient exogenous retroviral infections incurred during evolution. Although the majority of HERVs have functional gene defects or epigenetic modifications, many of them are still able to produce retroviral proteins that have been proposed to be involved in cellular transformation and cancer development. We found that, in chemo-resistant U87RETO glioblastoma cells, cytotoxic stress induced by etoposide promotes accumulation and large-scale fission of mitochondria, associated with the detection of HERV-WE1 (syncytin-1) and HERV-FRD1 (syncytin-2) in these organelles...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220392/safety-and-efficacy-of-the-prepex-device-in-hiv-positive-men-a-single-arm-study-in-zimbabwe
#14
Mufuta Tshimanga, Batsirai Makunike-Chikwinya, Tonderayi Mangwiro, Patricia Tapiwa Gundidza, Pesanai Chatikobo, Vernon Murenje, Amy Herman-Roloff, Peter H Kilmarx, Marrianne Holec, Gerald Gwinji, Owen Mugurungi, Munyaradzi Murwira, Sinokuthemba Xaba, Scott Barnhart, Caryl Feldacker
METHODS: We aimed to determine if the adverse event (AE) rate was non-inferior to an AE rate of 2%, a rate considered the global standard of MC safety. Study procedures, AE definitions, and study staff were unchanged from previous PrePex Zimbabwe trials. After PrePex placement and removal, weekly visits assessed wound healing. Men returned on Day 90. Safety was defined as occurrence of moderate and serious clinical AEs. Efficacy was defined as ability to reach the endpoint of complete circumcision...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214096/childbearing-intentions-among-sexually-active-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-female-adolescents-in-south-africa
#15
David H Adler, Beau Abar, Thola Bennie, Rokhsanna Sadeghi, Linda-Gail Bekker
Women of reproductive age account for nearly half of all HIV-infected people worldwide. Childbearing intention among HIV-infected women is complicated by social and reproductive concerns related to their HIV status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected sexually active South African women aged 17 to 21 in order to compare their childbearing intentions and to identify predictors of the desire to have children among women with HIV. We found the rate of childbearing intention to be similarly high among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants (80 and 79% respectively, p=0...
July 2017: Journal of AIDS and HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212954/inhibition-of-akt-signaling-uncouples-t-cell-differentiation-from-expansion-for-receptor-engineered-adoptive-immunotherapy
#16
Christopher A Klebanoff, Joseph G Crompton, Anthony J Leonardi, Tori N Yamamoto, Smita S Chandran, Robert L Eil, Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Suman K Vodnala, Jinhui Hu, Yun Ji, David Clever, Mary A Black, Devikala Gurusamy, Michael J Kruhlak, Ping Jin, David F Stroncek, Luca Gattinoni, Steven A Feldman, Nicholas P Restifo
Adoptive immunotherapies using T cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T cell receptor (TCR) are entering mainstream clinical practice. Despite encouraging results, some patients do not respond to current therapies. In part, this phenomenon has been associated with infusion of reduced numbers of early memory T cells. Herein, we report that AKT signaling inhibition is compatible with CAR and TCR retroviral transduction of human T cells while promoting a CD62L-expressing central memory phenotype...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212894/hiv-and-cardiovascular-disease-role-of-immunometabolic-perturbations
#17
REVIEW
Eman Teer, M Faadiel Essop
The successful rollout of anti-retroviral therapy ensured that HIV is increasingly managed as a chronic condition. HIV-positive persons are therefore exhibiting increased cardiovascular complications. This review focuses on the emerging role of "immunometabolism" within the context of HIV-related immune dysregulation and cardiovascular disease onset. Here, persistent immune activation contributes to pathophysiological perturbations during early infection, resulting in immune cell metabolic reprogramming and the activation of coagulation pathways in HIV-positive individuals...
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209326/retroviruses-as-myeloid-cell-riders-what-natural-human-siglec-1-knockouts-tell-us-about-pathogenesis
#18
Javier Martinez-Picado, Paul J McLaren, Amalio Telenti, Nuria Izquierdo-Useros
Myeloid cells initiate immune responses and are crucial to control infections. In the case of retroviruses, however, myeloid cells also promote pathogenesis by enabling viral dissemination; a process extensively studied in vitro using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This viral hijacking mechanism does not rely on productive myeloid cell infection but requires HIV-1 capture via Siglec-1/CD169, a receptor expressed on myeloid cells that facilitates the infection of bystander target cells. Murine retroviruses are also recognized by Siglec-1, and this interaction is required for robust retroviral infection in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203539/novel-and-shared-neoantigen-derived-from-histone-3-variant-h3-3k27m-mutation-for-glioma-t-cell-therapy
#19
Zinal S Chheda, Gary Kohanbash, Kaori Okada, Naznin Jahan, John Sidney, Matteo Pecoraro, Xinbo Yang, Diego A Carrera, Kira M Downey, Shruti Shrivastav, Shuming Liu, Yi Lin, Chetana Lagisetti, Pavlina Chuntova, Payal B Watchmaker, Sabine Mueller, Ian F Pollack, Raja Rajalingam, Angel M Carcaboso, Matthias Mann, Alessandro Sette, K Christopher Garcia, Yafei Hou, Hideho Okada
The median overall survival for children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is less than one year. The majority of diffuse midline gliomas, including more than 70% of DIPGs, harbor an amino acid substitution from lysine (K) to methionine (M) at position 27 of histone 3 variant 3 (H3.3). From a CD8+ T cell clone established by stimulation of HLA-A2+ CD8+ T cells with synthetic peptide encompassing the H3.3K27M mutation, complementary DNA for T cell receptor (TCR) α- and β-chains were cloned into a retroviral vector...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203150/retroviral-and-lentiviral-safety-analysis-of-gene-modified-t-cell-products-and-infused-hiv-and-oncology-patients
#20
Katherine T Marcucci, Julie K Jadlowsky, Wei-Ting Hwang, Megan Suhoski-Davis, Vanessa E Gonzalez, Irina Kulikovskaya, Minnal Gupta, Simon F Lacey, Gabriela Plesa, Anne Chew, J Joseph Melenhorst, Bruce L Levine, Carl H June
Replication-competent retrovirus/lentivirus (RCR/L) and insertional oncogenesis are potential safety risks with integrating viruses in gene-modified cell therapies. As such, the Food and Drug Administration guidances outline RCR/L-monitoring methods throughout the entire gene therapy treatment cycle. We present data for 17 vector lots, 375 manufactured T cell products, and 308 patients post-infusion across both HIV and oncology indications, showing no evidence of RCR/L. Given our data, a Poisson probability model estimates that a single patient, or a group of patients, would need to be followed for at least 52...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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