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system modelling

Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Wyatt E Lanik, Lily Xu, Cliff J Luke, Elise Z Hu, Pranjal Agrawal, Victoria S Liu, Rajesh Kumar, Alexa M Bolock, Congrong Ma, Misty Good
Human small intestinal enteroids are derived from the crypts and when grown in a stem cell niche contain all of the epithelial cell types. The ability to establish human enteroid ex vivo culture systems are important to model intestinal pathophysiology and to study the particular cellular responses involved. In recent years, enteroids from mice and humans are being cultured, passaged, and banked away for future use in several laboratories across the world. This enteroid platform can be used to test the effects of various treatments and drugs and what effects are exerted on different cell types in the intestine...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Miki Dalmau-Pastor, Jordi Vega, Francesc Malagelada, Fernando Peña, Maria Cristina Manzanares-Céspedes
The growing popularity of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedures makes it necessary that new anatomical references arise, to aid in tridimensional orientation and localization of structures that are not directly visible to the surgeon. This is especially critical for structures at risk like nerves or blood vessels. Optimization of the handling of cadaveric material and the combination of multiple techniques compensate for the limited availability of adequate specimens. The described protocol combines anatomical plane-by-plane dissection and sectional anatomy of fresh-frozen specimens to help localize relevant structures, such as nerves, arteries, veins and to correctly position the portals during MIS procedures...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hao-Hsiang Hsu, John-Kevin Kracht, Laura Elisabeth Harder, Kerstin Rudnik, Gerd Lindner, Katharina Schimek, Uwe Marx, Ralf Pörtner
In vitro cultivated skin models have become increasingly relevant for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications, and are also used in drug development as well as substance testing. These models are mostly cultivated in membrane-insert systems, their permeability toward different substances being an essential factor. Typically, applied methods for determination of these parameters usually require large sample sizes (e.g., Franz diffusion cell) or laborious equipment (e.g., fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP))...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andrew K Fuller, Benjamin D Bice, Ashlee R Venancio, Olivia M Crowley, Ambur M Staab, Stephanie J Georges, Julio R Hidalgo, Annika V Warncke, Melinda L Angus-Hill
Several recent studies have illustrated the beneficial effects of living in an enriched environment on improving human disease. In mice, environmental enrichment (EE) reduces tumorigenesis by activating the mouse immune system, or affects tumor bearing animal survival by stimulating the wound repair response, including improved microbiome diversity, in the tumor microenvironment. Provided here is a detailed procedure to assess the effects of environmental enrichment on the biodiversity of the microbiome in a mouse colon tumor model...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ji-Eun Kim, Kyung-Ok Cho
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disorder in adulthood. For translational studies of chronic epilepsy, pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is frequently selected to recapitulate spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Here we present a protocol of SE induction by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine and monitoring of chronic recurring seizures in live animals using a wireless telemetry video and electroencephalogram (EEG) system. We demonstrated notable behavioral changes that need attention after pilocarpine injection and their correlation with hippocampal neuronal loss at 7 days and 6 weeks post-pilocarpine...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Joseph Ochaba, Eva L Morozko, Jacqueline G O'Rourke, Leslie M Thompson
The accumulation of misfolded proteins is central to pathology in Huntington's disease (HD) and many other neurodegenerative disorders. Specifically, a key pathological feature of HD is the aberrant accumulation of mutant HTT (mHTT) protein into high molecular weight complexes and intracellular inclusion bodies composed of fragments and other proteins. Conventional methods to measure and understand the contributions of various forms of mHTT-containing aggregates include fluorescence microscopy, western blot analysis, and filter trap assays...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chao Xiong, Zhiquan Zhang, Gurpreet S Baht, Niccolo Terrando
Surgery is commonly used to improve and maintain quality of life. Unfortunately, in vulnerable patients such as the elderly, complications may occur and significantly diminish the outcome. Indeed, after routine orthopedic surgery to repair a fracture, as many as 50% of elderly patients suffer from neurologic complications like delirium. Also, the capacity to heal and regenerate tissue after surgery decreases with age, and can impact the quality of fracture repair and even osseous integration of implants. Thus, a better understanding of mechanisms that drive these age-dependent changes could provide strategic targets to minimize risk for such complications and optimize outcomes...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kensuke Ihara, Koji Sugiyama, Kentaro Takahashi, Masahiro Yamazoe, Tetsuo Sasano, Tetsushi Furukawa
Recent genome-wide association studies targeting atrial fibrillation (AF) have indicated a strong association between the genotype and electrophysiological phenotype in the atria. That encourages us to utilize a genetically-engineered mouse model to elucidate the mechanism of AF. However, it is difficult to evaluate the electrophysiological properties in murine atria due to their small size. This protocol describes the electrophysiological evaluation of atria using an optical mapping system with a high temporal and spatial resolution in Langendorff perfused murine hearts...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Wei-Wei Yang, Lei Li, Jing-Sheng Zhao, Xiao-Xiong Liu, Jian-Bo Deng, Xianru Hu
By doing calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we predict that the two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) NiOsCl$_6$ as a Chern insulator can realize the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. We investigate the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MAC) energies in different magnetic configurations and the N\'{e}el AFM configuration is proved to be ground state. When considering spin-orbit coupling (SOC), this layered material with spins perpendicular to the plane shows properties as a Chern insulator characterized by an inversion band structure and a nonzero Chern number...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Mohammed B Sarhan, Rula Ghandour, Niveen M E Abu Rmeileh
BACKGROUND: The burden of type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly in the occupied Palestinian territory. Different counselling interventions have been applied worldwide to reduce HbA1c concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Achieving good glycaemic control is important for prevention of complications of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this modelling study was to assess the effectiveness of different counselling interventions in improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Marwan Diab, Yasser Abu Jamei, Ashraf Kagee, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: In the context of violations of human rights and insecurity, the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) provides mental health services and psychosocial interventions that match local cultural and social norms. The GCMHP uses a community mental health approach to promote the psychological wellbeing of the people living in the Gaza Strip and advocate on mental health issues. METHODS: The GCMHP provides preventive and therapeutic care to a broad public health spectrum of Gazan society...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Kevin A Hallgren, Adam D Wilson, Katie Witkiewitz
OBJECTIVE: Interest in studying mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) in substance use disorder (SUD) treatments has grown considerably in the past two decades. Much of this work has focused on identifying which variables statistically mediate the effect of SUD treatments on clinical outcomes. However, a fuller conceptualization of MOBCs will require greater understanding of questions that extend beyond traditional mediation analysis, including better understanding of when MOBCs change during treatment, when they are most critical to aiding the initiation or maintenance of change, and how MOBCs themselves arise as a function of treatment processes...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Yi-Feng Carol Lan, Diane C Zelman, Wen-Tao Chao
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Krishnendu Kundu, Akiva Feintuch, Shimon Vega
Recently it has been shown that experimental ELDOR spectra of amorphous glasses containing free radicals with inhomogeneously broadened EPR spectra can be analyzed using a set of coupled rate equations for the electron polarizations of frequency bins composing these spectra, named the eSD (electron spectral diffusion) model. The rate matrix defining these equations has elements depending on the microwave, the spin lattice relaxation rates and on eSD rate constants responsible for polarization exchange. In this study, we show that in addition to the static dipolar flip-flop terms in the Hamiltonian a zero-quantum electron cross-relaxation mechanism can be responsible for the polarization exchange process in our samples...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Fumika Ichino, Hidemasa Bono, Takeru Nakazato, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Kikuo Iwabuchi, Ryoichi Sato, Hiroko Tabunoki
Human intestinal absorption is estimated using a human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2) cells from human colorectal adenocarcinoma, intestinal perfusion, or a mammalian model. These current evaluation systems are limited in their ability to estimate human intestinal absorption. In addition, in vivo evaluation systems using laboratory animals such as mice and rats entail animal ethics problems, and it is difficult to screen compounds on a large scale at the drug discovery stage. Thus, we propose the use of Bombyx mori larvae for evaluation of intestinal absorption of compounds as an alternative system in this study...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Hiroshi Yatsuya, Yuanying Li, Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Atsuhiko Ota, Masaaki Matsunaga, Hilawe Esayas Haregot, Chifa Chiang, Yan Zhang, Koji Tamakoshi, Hideaki Toyoshima, Atsuko Aoyama
BACKGROUND: Relatively little evidence exists for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prediction models from long-term follow-up studies in East Asians. This study aims to develop a point-based prediction model for 10-year risk of developing T2DM in middle-aged Japanese men. METHODS: We followed 3,540 male participants of Aichi Workers' Cohort Study, who were aged 35-64 years and were free of diabetes in 2002, until March 31, 2015. Baseline age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, medication for dyslipidemia, diabetes family history, and blood levels of triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were examined using Cox proportional hazard model...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Mersedeh TariVerdi, Elise Miller-Hooks, Thomas Kirsch
Mass casualty incidents are a concern in many urban areas. A community's ability to cope with such events depends on the capacities and capabilities of its hospitals for handling a sudden surge in demand of patients with resource-intensive and specialized medical needs. This paper uses a whole-hospital simulation model to replicate medical staff, resources, and space for the purpose of investigating hospital responsiveness to mass casualty incidents. It provides details of probable demand patterns of different mass casualty incident types in terms of patient categories and arrival patterns, and accounts for related transient system behavior over the response period...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Nikhil Satchidanand, Timothy J Servoss, Ranjit Singh, Angela M Bosinski, Penny Tirpak, Linda L Horton, Bruce J Naughton
BACKGROUND: Early, data-driven discussion surrounding palliative care can improve care delivery and patient experience. OBJECTIVE: To develop a 30-day mortality prediction tool for older patients in intensive care unit (ICU) with pneumonia that will initiate palliative care earlier in hospital course. DESIGN: Retrospective Electronic Health Record (EHR) review. SETTING: Four urban and suburban hospitals in a Western New York hospital system...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
C Incorvaia, S Masieri, C Cavaliere, E Makri, B Sposato, F Frati
A large amount of data show that AR and asthma are associated both epidemiologically and clinically, introducing the definition of “united airway disease”. The mechanisms underlying such association were initially suggested to start from the nose, including the loss of the protective and homeostatic effects of nasal function, the activation of a naso-bronchial reflex and the spread of allergic inflammation from the nose to the lower airways. Later, other factors such as microbial stimuli and systemic inflammatory mechanisms, involving bloodstream and bone marrow, were advocated...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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