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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441748/convergent-validity-of-a-wearable-sensor-system-for-measuring-sub-task-performance-during-the-timed-up-and-go-test
#1
James Beyea, Chris A McGibbon, Andrew Sexton, Jeremy Noble, Colleen O'Connell
BACKGROUND: The timed-up-and-go test (TUG) is one of the most commonly used tests of physical function in clinical practice and for research outcomes. Inertial sensors have been used to parse the TUG test into its composite phases (rising, walking, turning, etc.), but have not validated this approach against an optoelectronic gold-standard, and to our knowledge no studies have published the minimal detectable change of these measurements. METHODS: Eleven adults performed the TUG three times each under normal and slow walking conditions, and 3 m and 5 m walking distances, in a 12-camera motion analysis laboratory...
April 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441746/high-performance-prediction-of-human-estrogen-receptor-agonists-based-on-chemical-structures
#2
Yuki Asako, Yoshihiro Uesawa
Many agonists for the estrogen receptor are known to disrupt endocrine functioning. We have developed a computational model that predicts agonists for the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain in an assay system. Our model was entered into the Tox21 Data Challenge 2014, a computational toxicology competition organized by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. This competition aims to find high-performance predictive models for various adverse-outcome pathways, including the estrogen receptor...
April 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441739/the-use-of-immus-in-a-water-environment-instrument-validation-and-application-of-3d-multi-body-kinematic-analysis-in-medicine-and-sport
#3
Anna Lisa Mangia, Matteo Cortesi, Silvia Fantozzi, Andrea Giovanardi, Davide Borra, Giorgio Gatta
The aims of the present study were the instrumental validation of inertial-magnetic measurements units (IMMUs) in water, and the description of their use in clinical and sports aquatic applications applying customized 3D multi-body models. Firstly, several tests were performed to map the magnetic field in the swimming pool and to identify the best volume for experimental test acquisition with a mean dynamic orientation error lower than 5°. Successively, the gait and the swimming analyses were explored in terms of spatiotemporal and joint kinematics variables...
April 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441697/hypertension-management-in-a-population-of-older-adults-in-rural-south-africa
#4
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Sheridan Reiger, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Ryan G Wagner, Alisha Wade, Till W Bärnighausen, Joshua Salomon, Stephen Tollman, Thomas A Gaziano
OBJECTIVE: Assess awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, as an indication of its management, in rural South Africa, especially regarding modifiers of these variables. METHODS: A population-representative sample of adults aged at least 40 years residing in the rural Agincourt subdistrict (Mpumalanga Province) covered by a long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance system was recruited. In-person interviews, physical exams, and dried blood spots were collected...
June 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441676/transitioning-from-volume-to-value-one-academic-medical-center-s-approach-to-improving-population-health
#5
Stephanie A C Halvorson, Mary E Tanski, Thomas R Yackel
PROBLEM: The U.S. health care system is undergoing a major transformation. Clinical delivery systems are now being paid according to the value of the care they provide, in accordance with the Triple Aim, which incorporates improving the quality and cost of care and the patient experience. Increasingly, financial risk is being transferred from insurers to clinical delivery systems that become responsible for both episode-based clinical care and the longitudinal care of patients. Thus, these delivery systems need to develop strategies to manage the health of populations...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441671/swimming-upstream-creating-a-culture-of-high-value-care
#6
Reshma Gupta, Christopher Moriates
As health system leaders strategize the best ways to encourage the transition toward value-based health care, the underlying culture-defined as a system of shared assumptions, values, beliefs, and norms existing within an environment-continues to shape clinician practice patterns. The current prevailing medical culture contributes to overtesting, overtreatment, and health care waste. Choosing Wisely lists, appropriateness criteria, and guidelines codify best practices, but academic medicine as a whole must recognize that faculty and trainees are all largely still operating within the same cultural climate...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441631/up-regulated-baff-and-baff-receptor-expression-in-patients-with-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-a-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy-rat-model
#7
Limin Ma, Ruohan Li, Hao Huang, Jinxian Yuan, Shu Ou, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Xi Liu, Yangmei Chen
PURPOSE: Some studies have suggested that BAFF and BAFFR are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory and immune associated diseases. However, whether BAFF and BAFFR are involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression of BAFF and BAFFR proteins in the brains of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a pilocarpine-induced rat model of TLE to identify possible roles of the BAFF-BAFFR signaling pathway in epileptogenesis...
April 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441602/fluoride-and-iodine-enrichment-in-groundwater-of-north-china-plain-evidences-from-speciation-analysis-and-geochemical-modeling
#8
Junxia Li, Hailing Zhou, Kun Qian, Xianjun Xie, Xiaobin Xue, Yijun Yang, Yanxin Wang
To better understand the enrichment of fluoride and iodine in groundwater at North China Plain (NCP), speciation analysis and geochemical modeling were conducted to identify the key hydrochemical processes controlling their mobilization in groundwater system. Groundwater fluoride and iodine concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 5.59mg/L and from 1.51 to 1106μg/L, respectively, and approximately 63% and 32.3% of groundwater fluoride and iodine were higher than the guidelines for drinking water (1.5mg/L and 150μg/L)...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441439/hemodynamics-and-gas-exchange-during-chest-compressions-in-neonatal-resuscitation
#9
Payam Vali, Praveen Chandrasekharan, Munmun Rawat, Sylvia Gugino, Carmon Koenigsknecht, Justin Helman, Bobby Mathew, Sara Berkelhamer, Jayasree Nair, Myra Wyckoff, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
PURPOSE: Current knowledge about pulmonary/systemic hemodynamics and gas exchange during neonatal resuscitation in a model of transitioning fetal circulation with fetal shunts and fluid-filled alveoli is limited. Using a fetal lamb asphyxia model, we sought to determine whether hemodynamic or gas-exchange parameters predicted successful return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). METHODS: The umbilical cord was occluded in 22 lambs to induce asphyxial cardiac arrest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441420/mapping-of-the-brain-hemodynamic-responses-to-sensorimotor-stimulation-in-a-rodent-model-a-bold-fmri-study
#10
Salem Boussida, Amidou S Traoré, Franck Durif
Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI) during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441416/ethanol-itself-is-a-holoprosencephaly-inducing-teratogen
#11
Mingi Hong, Robert S Krauss
Ethanol is a teratogen, inducing a variety of structural defects in developing humans and animals that are exposed in utero. Mechanisms of ethanol teratogenicity in specific defects are not well understood. Oxidative metabolism of ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase or cytochrome P450 2E1 has been implicated in some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, either via production of acetaldehyde or competitive inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis. Generalized oxidative stress in response to ethanol may also play a role in its teratogenicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441410/creating-and-parameterizing-patient-specific-deep-brain-stimulation-pathway-activation-models-using-the-hyperdirect-pathway-as-an-example
#12
Kabilar Gunalan, Ashutosh Chaturvedi, Bryan Howell, Yuval Duchin, Scott F Lempka, Remi Patriat, Guillermo Sapiro, Noam Harel, Cameron C McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established clinical therapy and computational models have played an important role in advancing the technology. Patient-specific DBS models are now common tools in both academic and industrial research, as well as clinical software systems. However, the exact methodology for creating patient-specific DBS models can vary substantially and important technical details are often missing from published reports. OBJECTIVE: Provide a detailed description of the assembly workflow and parameterization of a patient-specific DBS pathway-activation model (PAM) and predict the response of the hyperdirect pathway to clinical stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441409/a-hypomorphic-piga-gene-mutation-causes-severe-defects-in-neuron-development-and-susceptibility-to-complement-mediated-toxicity-in-a-human-ipsc-model
#13
Xuan Yuan, Zhe Li, Andrea C Baines, Eleni Gavriilaki, Zhaohui Ye, Zhexing Wen, Evan M Braunstein, Leslie G Biesecker, Linzhao Cheng, Xinzhong Dong, Robert A Brodsky
Mutations in genes involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis underlie a group of congenital syndromes characterized by severe neurodevelopmental defects. GPI anchored proteins have diverse roles in cell adhesion, signaling, metabolism and complement regulation. Over 30 enzymes are required for GPI anchor biosynthesis and PIGA is involved in the first step of this process. A hypomorphic mutation in the X-linked PIGA gene (c.1234C>T) causes multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia seizure syndrome 2 (MCAHS2), indicating that even partial reduction of GPI anchored proteins dramatically impairs central nervous system development, but the mechanism is unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441401/ancient-genes-establish-stress-induced-mutation-as-a-hallmark-of-cancer
#14
Luis Cisneros, Kimberly J Bussey, Adam J Orr, Milica Miočević, Charles H Lineweaver, Paul Davies
Cancer is sometimes depicted as a reversion to single cell behavior in cells adapted to live in a multicellular assembly. If this is the case, one would expect that mutation in cancer disrupts functional mechanisms that suppress cell-level traits detrimental to multicellularity. Such mechanisms should have evolved with or after the emergence of multicellularity. This leads to two related, but distinct hypotheses: 1) Somatic mutations in cancer will occur in genes that are younger than the emergence of multicellularity (1000 million years [MY]); and 2) genes that are frequently mutated in cancer and whose mutations are functionally important for the emergence of the cancer phenotype evolved within the past 1000 million years, and thus would exhibit an age distribution that is skewed to younger genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441389/the-basis-of-sharp-spike-onset-in-standard-biophysical-models
#15
Maria Telenczuk, Bertrand Fontaine, Romain Brette
In most vertebrate neurons, spikes initiate in the axonal initial segment (AIS). When recorded in the soma, they have a surprisingly sharp onset, as if sodium (Na) channels opened abruptly. The main view stipulates that spikes initiate in a conventional manner at the distal end of the AIS, then progressively sharpen as they backpropagate to the soma. We examined the biophysical models used to substantiate this view, and we found that spikes do not initiate through a local axonal current loop that propagates along the axon, but through a global current loop encompassing the AIS and soma, which forms an electrical dipole...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441307/90-day-readmission-after-lumbar-spinal-fusion-surgery-in-new-york-state-between-2005-and-2014-a-10-year-analysis-of-a-statewide-cohort
#16
Ali A Baaj, Gernot Lang, Wei-Chun Hsu, Mauricio J Avila, Jialin Mao, Art Sedrakyan
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To assess 90-day readmission and evaluate risk factors associated with readmission after lumbar fusion in New York State. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Readmission is becoming an important metric for quality and efficiency of healthcare. Readmission and its predictors following spine surgery are overall poorly understood and limited evidence is available specifically in lumbar fusion. METHODS: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPACRS) was utilized to capture patients undergoing lumbar fusion from 2005-2014...
April 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441286/behavior-of-americium-in-simulated-wounds-in-nonhuman-primates
#17
Deepesh Poudel, Raymond A Guilmette, Luiz Bertelli, John A Klumpp, Richard R Brey
An americium solution injected intramuscularly into several nonhuman primates (NHPs) was found to behave differently than predicted by the wound models described in the NCRP Report 156. This was because the injection was made along with a citrate solution, which is known to be more soluble than chlorides, oxides, or nitrates on which the NCRP Report was based. A multi-exponential wound model specific to the injected americium solution was developed based on the retention in the intramuscular sites. The model was coupled with the americium systemic model to interpret the urinary excretion data and assess the intake, and it was determined that the models were adequate to predict early urinary excretion in most cases but unable to predict late urinary excretion...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441234/validation-of-an-administrative-definition-of-icu-admission-using-revenue-center-codes
#18
Gary E Weissman, Rebecca A Hubbard, Rachel Kohn, George L Anesi, Scott Manaker, Meeta Prasad Kerlin, Scott D Halpern
OBJECTIVES: Describe the operating characteristics of a proposed set of revenue center codes to correctly identify ICU stays among hospitalized patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. We report the operating characteristics of all ICU-related revenue center codes for intensive and coronary care, excluding nursery, intermediate, and incremental care, to identify ICU stays. We use a classification and regression tree model to further refine identification of ICU stays using administrative data...
April 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441181/inhaled-treprostinil-drug-delivery-during-mechanical-ventilation-and-spontaneous-breathing-using-two-different-nebulizers
#19
Donna K Parker, Shuijie Shen, Jiang Zheng, D Dunbar Ivy, Dave N Crotwell, Justin C Hotz, Robert M DiBlasi
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of delivering inhaled treprostinil during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous unassisted ventilation using the Tyvaso Inhalation System and the vibrating mesh nebulizer. We sought to compare differences in fine particle fraction, and absolute inhaled treprostinil mass delivered to neonatal, pediatric, and adult models affixed with a face mask, conventional, and high-frequency ventilation between Tyvaso Inhalation System and with different nebulizer locations between Tyvaso Inhalation System and vibrating mesh nebulizer...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441139/empirical-likelihood-in-nonignorable-covariate-missing-data-problems
#20
Yanmei Xie, Biao Zhang
Missing covariate data occurs often in regression analysis, which frequently arises in the health and social sciences as well as in survey sampling. We study methods for the analysis of a nonignorable covariate-missing data problem in an assumed conditional mean function when some covariates are completely observed but other covariates are missing for some subjects. We adopt the semiparametric perspective of Bartlett et al. (Improving upon the efficiency of complete case analysis when covariates are MNAR. Biostatistics 2014;15:719-30) on regression analyses with nonignorable missing covariates, in which they have introduced the use of two working models, the working probability model of missingness and the working conditional score model...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
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