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Neonatal behavior

Katherine M Satrom, Kathleen Ennis, Brian M Sweis, Tatyana M Matveeva, Jun Chen, Leif Hanson, Akhil Maheshwari, Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including abnormal neurodevelopment. Hippocampus-mediated cognitive deficits are common in this population, but the specific effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus are not known. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the acute and long-term effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus in neonatal rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of hyperglycemia...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Susan Woskie, Pornpimol Kongtip, Wiroj Thanasanpaiboon, Napaporn Kiatdamrong, Nantha Charoonrungsirikul, Noppanun Nankongnab, Anu Surach, Akkarat Phamonphon
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether prenatal exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides from maternal agricultural use are associated with neonatal neurobehavioral effects. A pilot study conducted in three provinces in Thailand measured maternal urinary metabolites of OP pesticides in pregnant women at 7 months gestation and at birth. Within 3 days of birth, 82 newborns underwent neurobehavioral testing using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Comparison of the NBAS test results with maternal OP metabolite levels found the neonates NBAS Habituation cluster score increased with maternal dimethylphosphate (DMP) levels (p = 0...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Dongfen Yuan, Frederik Rode, Yanguang Cao
We proposed here a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) model for a group of novel engineered antibodies in mice and humans. These antibodies are designed with altered binding properties of their Fc domain with neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) or the Fab domain with their cognate targets (recycling antibodies) in acidic endosomes. To enable simulations of such binding features in the change of antibody pharmacokinetics and its target suppression, we nested an endothelial endosome compartment in parallel with plasma compartment based on our previously established mPBPK model...
March 14, 2018: AAPS Journal
Tao Tan, Wei Wang, Haitao Xu, Zhilin Huang, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tiziana Alberio, Greta Forlani, Marta Lualdi, Giovanna Tosi, Roberto S Accolla, Mauro Fasano
BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is a central player in the blood coagulation cascade and one of the most abundant plasma proteins. This glycoprotein also triggers important events (e.g., cell spreading, the respiratory burst and degranulation) in neutrophil cells via a αM β2 integrin-mediated binding to the cell surface. Yet, little is known about the interaction of fibrinogen with leukocytes other than neutrophils or stimulated monocytes, although high amounts of fibrinogen protein can also be found in lymphocytes, particularly in T-cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jane Barlow, Nadeeja Ins Herath, Christine Bartram Torrance, Cathy Bennett, Yinghui Wei
BACKGROUND: The first three years of a child's life are a key period of physical, physiological, cognitive and social development, and the caregiver-infant relationship in early infancy plays an important role in influencing these aspects of development. Specifically, caregiver attunement facilitates the move from coregulation to self-regulation; a parent's ability to understand their infant's behaviour as communication is a key part of this process. Early, brief interventions such as the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) or Neonatal Behavioral Observation (NBO) system are potential methods of improving outcomes for both infant and caregiver...
March 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Livio Provenzi, Sara Broso, Rosario Montirosso
Preterm infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and are precociously separated from their mothers. Although developmental care interventions are meant to facilitate mother-infant bonding, physical contact is not always possible. Maternal voice exposure has been proposed as a way to foster maternal closeness and support postnatal bonding. Here we present a systematic review on maternal voice effects on preterm infants' development. Literature search occurred on 4 databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Julia M Stephen, Lucinda Flynn, Danielle Kabella, Megan Schendel, Sandra Cano, Daniel D Savage, William Rayburn, Lawrence M Leeman, Jean Lowe, Ludmila N Bakhireva
Early identification of children who experience developmental delays due to prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge for individuals who do not exhibit facial dysmorphia. It is well-established that children with PAE may still exhibit the cognitive and behavioral difficulties, and individuals without facial dysmorphia make up the majority of individuals affected by PAE. This study employed a prospective cohort design to capture alcohol consumption patterns during pregnancy and then followed the infants to 6 months of age...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Shailesh Gurung, Dima White, Gregory Archer, Dan Zhao, Yuhua Farnell, J Allen Byrd, E David Peebles, Morgan Farnell
Hatched male layer chicks are currently euthanized by maceration in the United States. Public concerns on the use of maceration have led to the search for alternative methods. We hypothesized that gas inhalation and low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS) are viable and humane alternatives to instantaneous mechanical destruction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of recently hatched male layer chicks when subjected to carbon dioxide, nitrogen inhalation, or LAPS...
March 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Stephen M Siviy
Play is an important part of normal childhood development and seen in many mammals, including rats. To better understand the interplay between genotype and postnatal experiences, the effects of neonatal handling on play were assessed in Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Handled litters experienced brief periods of separation during the first two postnatal weeks. F344 rats were less likely to direct nape contacts toward an untreated Sprague-Dawley (SD) partner and less likely to rotate to a supine position in response to a nape contact...
March 9, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Stephanie A Pasquesi, Susan S Margulies
Computational models are valuable tools for studying tissue-level mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, but to produce more accurate estimates of tissue deformation, these models must be validated against experimental data. In this study, we present in situ measurements of brain-skull displacement in the neonatal piglet head ( n  = 3) at the sagittal midline during six rapid non-impact rotations (two rotations per specimen) with peak angular velocities averaging 51.7 ± 1.4 rad/s. Marks on the sagittally cut brain and skull/rigid potting surfaces were tracked, and peak values of relative brain-skull displacement were extracted and found to be significantly less than values extracted from a previous axial plane model...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Shivakumar Subbanna, Nagaraja N Nagre, Madhu Shivakumar, Vikram Joshi, Delphine Psychoyos, Abdullah Kutlar, Nagavedi S Umapathy, Balapal S Basavarajappa
Alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to long-lasting behavioral problems, including cognitive impairment, which together is defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the fundamental mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, we report that the exposure of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice to ethanol activates caspase-3 via cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) in neonatal mice and causes a reduction in methylated DNA binding protein (MeCP2) levels. The developmental expression of MeCP2 in mice is closely correlated with synaptogenesis and neuronal maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Ivan Nyklíček, Sophie E M Truijens, Viola Spek, Victor J M Pop
OBJECTIVES: Mindfulness skills have been associated with better mood and several health related outcomes. Because depressed mood during pregnancy has been related to worse child outcomes, the aim was to examine the association of mindfulness skills during pregnancy with the mother's depressive symptoms, gestational age, and neonatal birth weight. METHODS: A subsample of 905 pregnant women who participated in the longitudinal cohort HAPPY study (Holistic Approach to Pregnancy and the first Postpartum Year) completed the 12-item Three Facet Mindfulness-Questionnaire-Short Form at 22weeks of gestation...
April 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Amal A Halawa, Joanne C Damborsky, G Simona Slaton, Ursula H Winzer-Serhan
Maternal smoking has negative long-term consequences on affective behaviors, and in rodents, chronic neonatal nicotine exposure (CNN) results in increased anxiety. In rat pups, acute nicotine stimulation activates brain regions associated with stress and anxiety, but chronic nicotine exposure could desensitize of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the molecular target of nicotine. Here, we determined whether CNN affected neuronal activation by an acute nicotine challenge. Using in situ hybridization, we analyzed mRNA expression of the immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos, Arc, Egr-1 and Npas4, which are markers for neuronal activation and implicated in synaptic plasticity...
February 26, 2018: Brain Research
Sarah A Keim, Barbara Gracious, Kelly M Boone, Mark A Klebanoff, Lynette K Rogers, Joseph Rausch, Daniel L Coury, Kelly W Sheppard, Jesse Husk, Dale A Rhoda
Background: Children born preterm are at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). n-3 (ω-3) Combined with n-6 (ω-6) fatty acids including γ-linolenic acid (GLA) may benefit children born preterm showing early signs of ASD. Previous trials have reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promotes cognitive development in preterm neonates and n-3 fatty acids combined with GLA improve attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Objectives: The objectives of the pilot Preemie Tots Trial were 1) to confirm the feasibility of a full-scale trial in toddlers born very preterm and exhibiting ASD symptoms and 2) to explore the effects of supplementation on parent-reported ASD symptoms and related behaviors...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Erica R Glasper, Molly M Hyer, Terrence J Hunter
Early-life experiences with caregivers can significantly affect offspring development in human and non-human animals. While much of our knowledge of parent-offspring relationships stem from mother-offspring interactions, increasing evidence suggests interactions with the father are equally as important and can prevent social, behavioral, and neurological impairments that may appear early in life and have enduring consequences in adulthood. In the present study, we utilized the monogamous and biparental California mouse ( Peromyscus californicus )...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Marisa N Spann, Catherine Monk, Dustin Scheinost, Bradley S Peterson
Prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA) is associated with altered brain development and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring. Translational human studies of MIA are few in number. Alterations of the salience network has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the same psychiatric disorders associated with MIA. If MIA is pathogenic, then associated abnormalities in the salience network should be detectable in neonates immediately after birth. We tested the hypothesis that 3rd trimester MIA of adolescent women who are at risk for high stress and inflammation, is associated with the strength of functional connectivity in the salience network of their neonate...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mardee Greenham, Anne L Gordon, Anna Cooper, Michael Ditchfield, Lee Coleman, Rod W Hunt, Mark T Mackay, Paul Monagle, Vicki Anderson
Pediatric stroke can result in long-term neurobehavioral impairments including cognitive, language, and motor deficits, all of which may disrupt the normal development of social skills. This study aimed to examine specific components of social function at 5-year poststroke at a group and individual level and explore the contribution of neurobehavioral impairment. Thirty-one children with arterial ischemic stroke participated in the study. Assessment included parent-rated questionnaires measuring social adjustment and social participation as well as behavior and fatigue...
February 26, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Zahra Namvarpour, Mohammad Nasehi, Abdollah Amini, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Aim Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative has been widely used in a number of biological and drug products, including many vaccines, and has been studied as a possible etiological factor for some neurodevelopmental disabilities. Here, the protective effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA), an organosulfur compound derived from Octanoic Acid, on Thimerosal-induced behavioral abnormalities in rat were examined. METHODS: 108 male Wistar rats were divided into three cohorts and treated as follows: 1) Thimerosal at different doses (30, 300, or 3000 μg Hg/kg) in four i...
February 23, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
G Gümüş, A A Agyemang, O Romantsik, R Sandgren, H Karlsson, M Gram, S Vallius, D Ley, D L A van den Hove, M Bruschettini
BACKGROUND: Behavioral testing provides an essential approach in further developing our understanding of brain structure and function. The aim of our study was to outline a more expanded approach to cognition- and anxiety-related behavior in the rabbit. METHODS: Twenty-one 70-day old rabbits (13 female, 8 male) were exposed to open field test, dark-light box test and object recognition testing with variations in inter-trial-interval, olfactory recognition and object location testing...
February 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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