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Neonatal behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145913/goal-setting-deficits-at-13-years-in-very-preterm-born-children
#1
Kristina M Haebich, Catherine Willmott, Rachel Ellis, Alice C Burnett, Shannon E Scratch, Leona Pascoe, Megan M Spencer-Smith, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Terrie E Inder, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson, Peter J Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Preterm children demonstrate deficits in executive functions including inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility; however, their goal setting abilities (planning, organization, strategic reasoning) remain unclear. This study compared goal setting abilities between very preterm (VP: <30 weeks/<1250 grams) and term born controls during late childhood. Additionally, early risk factors (neonatal brain abnormalities, medical complications, and sex) were examined in relationship to goal setting outcomes within the VP group...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142564/clinical-effects-of-ganglioside-and-fructose-1-6-diphosphate-on-neonatal-heart-and-brain-injuries-after-asphyxia
#2
Xiaojing Zhu, Hongya Li, Congmin Zhang
Objective: To study the clinical effect of ganglioside (GM) and fructose-1, 6-diphosphate (FDP) on neonatal heart and brain injuries after asphyxia. Methods: Ninety-one neonates with asphyxia neonatal heart and brain injuries were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group. Both groups were given symptomatic treatment as soon as possible. On this basis, the observation group was given 200 mL of 5% glucose injection and 20 mg of GM and 250 mg/kg·d FDP by intravenous infusion...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140927/clinical-trial-designs-and-models-for-analgesic-medications-for-acute-pain-in-neonates-infants-toddlers-children-and-adolescents-acttion-recommendations
#3
Gary A Walco, Ernest A Kopecky, Steven J Weisman, Jennifer Stinson, Bonnie Stevens, Paul J Desjardins, Charles B Berde, Elliot J Krane, Kanwaljeet Js Anand, Myron Yaster, Carlton D Dampier, Robert H Dworkin, Ian Gilron, Anne M Lynn, Lynne G Maxwell, Srinivasa Raja, Bernard Schachtel, Dennis C Turk
Clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of analgesics across all pediatric age cohorts are needed to avoid inappropriate extrapolation of adult data to children. However, the selection of acute pain models and trial design attributes to maximize assay sensitivity, by pediatric age cohort, remains problematic. Acute pain models used for drug treatment trials in adults are not directly applicable to the pediatric age cohorts - neonates, infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents. Developmental maturation of metabolic enzymes in infants and children must be taken into consideration when designing trials to test analgesic treatments for acute pain...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137683/tanshinone-i-alleviates-motor-and-cognitive-impairments-via-suppressing-oxidative-stress-in-the-neonatal-rats-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#4
Chunfang Dai, Yannan Liu, Zhifang Dong
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is one of the main reasons that cause neuronal damage and neonatal death. Several studies have shown that tanshinone I (TsI), one of the major ingredients of Danshen, exerts potential neuroprotective effect in adult mice exposed to permanent left cerebral ischemia. However, it is unclear whether administration of TsI has neuroprotective effect on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and if so, the potential mechanisms also remain unclear. Here, we reported that treatment with TsI (5 mg/kg, i...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135695/short-term-impact-of-assisted-deliveries-evaluation-based-on-behavioral-pain-scoring-and-heart-rate-variability
#5
Thameur Rakza, Laura Butruille, Ms Lucille Thirel, Veronique Houfflin-Debarge, Régis Logier, Laurent Storme, Julien DE Jonckheere
OBJECTIVES: Assisted deliveries are used in current practice by obstetrical teams during labor when the fetus is likely to face difficulties. In this study, we hypothesized that pain related to instrumental delivery could impair autonomic nervous system activity. METHODS: We investigated infants born by spontaneous delivery (SD group, n=35) and those whose deliveries were assisted by vacuum, forceps or both (AD group, n=35) between the 2 and 4 hours of life. Pain was evaluated using the EDIN behavioral pain scale (Neonatal Pain and Discomfort Scale)...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131740/the-impact-of-prenatal-yoga-on-exercise-attitudes-and-behavior-teachable-moments-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Shilpa Babbar, Blake W Porter, Karen B Williams
OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy serves as an opportune time for "teachable moments" to elicit positive behavior change. We evaluated change in exercise perception, behavior and gestational weight gain in participants engaged in a one-hour educational experience. METHODS: Women between 28 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks with no prior yoga experience carrying a non-anomalous singleton fetus participated in a randomized controlled trial on prenatal yoga. The yoga group engaged in a one-hour yoga class; the attention control educational group, in a one-hour presentation on exercise, nutrition and obesity in pregnancy...
November 2017: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128214/application-of-whey-protein-isolate-in-bone-regeneration-effects-on-growth-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-forming-cells
#7
Timothy E L Douglas, Marta Vandrovcová, Nikola Kročilová, Julia K Keppler, Jana Zárubová, Andre G Skirtach, Lucie Bačáková
Recently, milk-derived proteins have attracted attention for applications in the biomedical field such as tissue regeneration. Whey protein isolate (WPI), especially its main component β-lactoglobulin, can modulate immunity and acts as an antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, and antibacterial agent. There are very few reports of the application of WPI in tissue engineering, especially in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we tested the influence of different concentrations of WPI on behavior of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), and human neonatal dermal fibroblasts (FIB)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127071/sickness-induced-changes-in-physiology-do-not-affect-fecundity-or-same-sex-behavior
#8
Kristyn E Sylvia, Patricia Báez Ramos, Gregory E Demas
Previous work in our lab has shown that early-life infection affects female reproductive physiology and function (i.e., smaller ovaries, abnormal estrous cycles) and alters investigation and aggression towards male conspecifics in a reproductive context. Although many studies have investigated the effects of postnatal immune challenge on physiological and behavioral development, fewer studies have examined whether these changes have ultimate effects on reproduction. In the current study, we paired Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and simulated a bacterial infection in early life by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to male and female pups on pnd3 and pnd5...
November 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125799/body-growth-and-rapid-hematological-development-support-breath-hold-of-baby-belugas-delphinapterus-leucas-during-subice-transit
#9
Shawn R Noren, Caryn P Poll, Matthew S Edwards
Body size and oxygen stores in the blood and muscle set breath-hold limits in marine mammals, yet these characteristics are understudied in immature cetaceans. We examined body mass and hematology from birth through adulthood in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). At birth, body mass was 8% and 6% of the maximum mass recorded for adult females and males, respectively. Body mass then increased rapidly, approaching an asymptote around 12 yr for females and 18 yr for males. Interestingly, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin content, and hematocrit levels decreased after birth; this neonatal anemia was reversed as levels increased after 2 mo postpartum...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121345/early-postnatal-exposure-to-airborne-fine-particulate-matter-induces-autism-like-phenotypes-in-male-rats
#10
Kang Li, Li Li, Bo Cui, Zhihui Gai, Qiuyue Li, Shumei Wang, Jun Yan, Bencheng Lin, Lei Tian, Huanliang Liu, Xiaohua Liu, Zhuge Xi
Epidemiological studies have revealed that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is closely associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is a relative paucity of laboratory data to support this epidemic finding. In order to assess the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and ASD, neonatal male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chosen and exposed to PM2.5 (2 or 20 mg/kg body weight, once a day) by intranasal instillation from postnatal day (PND) 8 to 22. It was found that when exposed to PM2...
November 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111451/brain-immune-interactions-in-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Bo Li, Katherine Concepcion, Xianmei Meng, Lubo Zhang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia remains the primary cause of acute neonatal brain injury, leading to a high mortality rate and long-term neurological deficits, such as behavioral, social, attentional, cognitive and functional motor deficits. An ever-increasing body of evidence shows that the immune response to acute cerebral hypoxia-ischemia is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of neonatal brain injury. Hypoxia-ischemia provokes an intravascular inflammatory cascade that is further augmented by the activation of resident immune cells and the cerebral infiltration of peripheral immune cells response to cellular damages in the brain parenchyma...
October 27, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109696/low-dose-alkylphenol-exposure-promotes-mammary-epithelium-alterations-and-transgenerational-developmental-defects-but-does-not-enhance-tumorigenic-behavior-of-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Clémence Chamard-Jovenin, Charlène Thiebaut, Amand Chesnel, Emmanuel Bresso, Chloé Morel, Malika Smail-Tabbone, Marie-Dominique Devignes, Taha Boukhobza, Hélène Dumond
Fetal and neonatal exposure to long-chain alkylphenols has been suspected to promote breast developmental disorders and consequently to increase breast cancer risk. However, disease predisposition from developmental exposures remains unclear. In this work, human MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells were exposed in vitro to a low dose of a realistic (4-nonylphenol + 4-tert-octylphenol) mixture. Transcriptome and cell-phenotype analyses combined to functional and signaling network modeling indicated that long-chain alkylphenols triggered enhanced proliferation, migration ability, and apoptosis resistance and shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms which involved the human estrogen receptor alpha 36 (ERα36) variant...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106509/fmri-based-neuronal-response-to-new-odorants-in-the-newborn-brain
#13
Alexandra Adam-Darque, Frédéric Grouiller, Lana Vasung, Russia Ha-Vinh Leuchter, Philippe Pollien, François Lazeyras, Petra S Hüppi
The sense of smell is one of the oldest and the most primitive senses mammals possess, it helps to evaluate the surrounding environment. From birth, smell is an important sensory modality, highly relevant for neonatal behavioral adaptation. Even though human newborns seem to be able to perceive and react to olfactory stimuli, there is still a lack of knowledge about the ontogeny of smell and the underlying central processing involved in odor perception in newborns. Brain networks involved in chemosensory perception of odorants are well described in adults, however in newborns there is no evidence that central olfaction is functional given the largely unmyelinated neonatal central nervous system...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104007/perinatal-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-particulates-results-in-autism-like-behavioral-deficits-in-adult-mice
#14
Jamie S Church, Pamella B Tijerina, Felicity J Emerson, Morgan A Coburn, Jason L Blum, Judith T Zelikoff, Jared J Schwartzer
Exposure to fine ambient particulates (PM2.5) during gestation or neonatally has potent neurotoxic effects. While biological and behavioral data indicate a vulnerability to environmental pollutants across distinct neurodevelopmental windows, the behavioral consequences following exposure across the entire developmental period remain unknown. Moreover, several epidemiological studies support a link between developmental exposure to air pollution and an increased risk of later receiving a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that persists throughout life...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101776/the-effects-of-massage-by-mothers-on-mother-infant-attachment
#15
Mahnaz Shoghi, Soroor Sohrabi, Mahboobe Rasouli
Context • Transferring a newborn to the intensive care unit due to a premature birth is a major obstacle in the establishment of emotional attachment between a mother and her child. Researchers believe that the formation and continuation of such an attachment have a profound effect on the child's mental development and behavior in the coming years of life. Not all studies have agreed, however, that skin contact alone, such as massage provides, can improve attachment. Objective • The aim of this study was to determine the effects on maternal attachment behaviors of infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of massage provided by mothers for their premature neonates...
November 4, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097150/prenatal-bisphenol-a-bpa-exposure-alters-the-transcriptome-of-the-neonate-rat-amygdala-in-a-sex-specific-manner-a-clarity-bpa-consortium-study
#16
Sheryl E Arambula, Dereje Jima, Heather B Patisaul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely recognized endocrine disruptor prevalent in many household items. Because experimental and epidemiological data suggest links between prenatal BPA exposure and altered affective behaviors in children, even at levels below the current US FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, there is concern that early life exposure may alter neurodevelopment. The current study was conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and examined the full amygdalar transcriptome on postnatal day (PND) 1, with the hypothesis that prenatal BPA exposure would alter the expression of genes and pathways fundamental to sex-specific affective behaviors...
October 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091131/observation-of-neonatal-behavior-cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-newborn-behavioral-observations
#17
Marina Aguiar Pires Guimarães, Claudia Regina Lindgren Alves, Ana Amélia Cardoso, Lívia de Castro Magalhães
OBJECTIVE: To conduct the cross-cultural adaptation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO), a new resource for observing neonatal behavior and sharing information with parents. METHODS: Methodological study of translation and cultural adaptation of the NBO system, which includes the Recording Form, with 18 items, the Recording Guidelines, with instructions to score each item, the Summary Form, to record suggestions based on the observation, and the Parent Questionnaire, to record the parents' experiences...
October 30, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083138/an-early-customized-low-glycaemic-index-diet-prevents-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-overweight-obese-women
#18
Elisabetta Petrella, Valeria Tamborrino, Lidia DI Cerbo, Isabella Neri, Fabio Facchinetti
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the prescription and follow-up of a behavioral program (customized nutritional advices and a constant physical activity) influences the occurrence of unfavorable maternal/neonatal outcomes among overweight/obese women. METHODS: A case-control study (1:3) included single pregnant women with BMI≥25, enrolled at 1st trimester. Cases (95) were prescribed (by both the dietitian and gynecologist) a low-glycemic index diet with an average intake of 1700/1800 Kcal/day plus 30 minutes walking at least 3 times/week (with four follow-up visits until delivery)...
October 27, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080023/bidirectional-effects-of-mother-young-contact-on-the-maternal-and-neonatal-brains
#19
Gabriela González-Mariscal, Angel I Melo
Adaptive plasticity occurs intensely during the early postnatal period through processes like proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination and apoptosis. Exposure to particular stimuli during this critical period has long-lasting effects on cognition, stress reactivity and behavior. Maternal care is the main source of social, sensory and chemical stimulation to the young and is, therefore, critical to "fine-tune" the offspring's neural development. Mothers providing a low quantity or quality of stimulation produce offspring that will exhibit reduced cognitive performance, impaired social affiliation and increased agonistic behaviors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079121/alterations-in-inter-alpha-inhibitor-protein-expression-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#20
Clémence Disdier, Jiyong Zhang, Yuki Fukunaga, Yow-Pin Lim, Joseph Qiu, Andre Santoso, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is frequently associated with premature and/or full-term birth-related complications that reflect widespread damage to cerebral cortical structures. Inflammation has been implicated in the long-term evolution and severity of HI brain injury. Inter-Alpha Inhibitor Proteins (IAIPs) are immune modulator proteins that are reduced in systemic neonatal inflammatory states. We have shown that endogenous IAIPs are present in neurons, astrocytes and microglia and that exogenous treatment with human plasma purified IAIPs decreases neuronal injury and improves behavioral outcomes in neonatal rats with HI brain injury...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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