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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919700/exposure-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-during-development-does-not-impair-aspects-of-attention-during-adulthood-in-rats
#1
Kathy L Murphy, Jill McGaughy, Paula L Croxson, Mark G Baxter
Exposure to general anesthetic agents during development has been associated with neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral impairments in rodents and non-human primates. The phenotype of anesthetic-induced cognitive impairment has a robust learning and memory component, however less is known about other psychological domains. Data from retrospective human patient studies suggest that children undergoing multiple procedures requiring general anesthesia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898492/growth-hormone-regulates-the-sensitization-of-developing-peripheral-nociceptors-during-cutaneous-inflammation
#2
Xiaohua Liu, Kathryn J Green, Zachary K Ford, Luis F Queme, Peilin Lu, Jessica L Ross, Frank B Lee, Aaron T Shank, Renita C Hudgins, Michael P Jankowski
Cutaneous inflammation alters the function of primary afferents and gene expression in the affected dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). However specific mechanisms of injury-induced peripheral afferent sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity during development are not fully understood. Recent studies in children suggest a potential role for growth hormone (GH) in pain modulation. GH modulates homeostasis and tissue repair after injury, but how GH effects nociception in neonates is not known. To determine if GH played a role in modulating sensory neuron function and hyper-responsiveness during skin inflammation in young mice, we examined behavioral hypersensitivity and the response properties of cutaneous afferents using an ex vivo hairy skin-saphenous nerve-dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-spinal cord preparation...
November 18, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893223/intervention-with-the-mother-infant-relationship-reduces-cell-proliferation-in-the-locus-coeruleus-of-female-rat-pups
#3
Elisa Cristiana Winkelmann Duarte, Márcia Scherem de Azevedo, Gabriela Augusta Mateus Pereira, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Aldo Bolten Lucion
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a noradrenergic nucleus involved in several neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. During the neonatal period, the LC is critical for olfactory learning. Full development occurs during the early postnatal period. Environmental interventions after birth may affect neurogenesis. In rats, the neonatal handling procedure has been used as a model to analyze the effects of environmental intervention early in life. It has been related to several long-lasting behavioral and neuroendocrine changes...
November 28, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889067/an-atypical-withdrawal-syndrome-in-neonates-prenatally-exposed-to-gabapentin-and-opioids
#4
Sean Loudin, Sara Murray, Leesa Prunty, Todd Davies, Joseph Evans, Joseph Werthammer
We report a retrospective case series of 19 infants exposed to both opioids and gabapentin prenatally. We describe a unique behavioral phenotype in 15 of these infants and report a treatment strategy.
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888771/increased-anxiety-like-behaviors-but-blunted-cortisol-stress-response-after-neonatal-hippocampal-lesions-in-monkeys
#5
Jessica Raper, Mark Wilson, Mar Sanchez, Christa Payne, Jocelyne Bachevalier
The hippocampus is most notably known for its role in cognition and spatial memory; however it also plays an essential role in emotional behaviors and neuroendocrine responses. The current study investigated the long-term effects of neonatal hippocampal lesions (Neo-Hibo) on emotional and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. During infancy, unlike controls, Neo-Hibo monkeys exhibited enhanced expression of emotional behaviors (e.g. freezing, anxiety-like, and self-directed behaviors) when exposed to a human intruder (HI task)...
November 18, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887996/effects-of-erythropoietin-on-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-injury-in-rat-model
#6
Qing Ren, Zhong-Hui Jiang, Xing-Fang Zhang, Qiao-Zhi Yang
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the developing brain remains a major cause of morbidity. To date, few therapeutic strategies could provide complete neuroprotection. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be beneficial in several models of neonatal HI. This study examines the effect of treatment with erythropoietin on postnatal day 2 (P2) rats introduced with HI injury. METHOD: Rats at P2 were randomized into four groups: sham, bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO), BCAO + early EPO, and BCAO + late EPO groups...
November 23, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885575/administration-of-huperzia-quadrifariata-extract-a-cholinesterase-inhibitory-alkaloid-mixture-has-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia
#7
F K Odorcyk, E F Sanches, F C Nicola, J Moraes, L F Pettenuzzo, J Kolling, C Siebert, A Longoni, E L Konrath, A Wyse, C A Netto
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an etiologic component of several neurologic pathologies associated to cognitive impairment. The mechanisms involved in HI-induced tissue damage start immediately after HI and extend for days. Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and exerts a protector effect on tissue damage by modulating inflammation, and cholinesterase inhibitors have shown neuroprotective properties and their action are often attributed to inhibition of the immune response...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875719/evaluation-of-some-factors-influencing-on-variability-in-bioaccumulation-of-heavy-metals-in-rodents-species-rombomys-opimus-and-rattus-norvegicus-from-central-iran
#8
Mohammad Zarrintab, Rouhollah Mirzaei
In the present study, the effects of sex, age, nutritional status, and habitat use on hair and internal tissue concentrations of some trace metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd) in brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) from Aran-O-Bidgol City in Central Iran were investigated. Five sampling stations in different land-uses were selected for the study. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in liver and whole body concentration as well as concentration of Zn in hair of male rats were significantly higher than females...
November 19, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874237/tactile-stimulation-during-different-developmental-periods-modifies-hippocampal-bdnf-and-gr-affecting-memory-and-behavior-in-adult-rats
#9
Caren T D Antoniazzi, Vinícia G Metz, Karine Roversi, Daniele L Freitas, Luciana T Vey, Verônica T Dias, Hecson J Segat, Marta M M F Duarte, Marilise Escobar Bürger
Recent studies have shown that tactile stimulation (TS) in pups is able to prevent and/or minimize fear, anxiety behaviors, and addiction to psychostimulant drugs in adult rats. In these studies, animals have been exposed to handling from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 21. The present study was designed to precisely establish which period of preweaning development has a greater influence of TS on neuronal development. After birth, male pups were exposed to TS from PND1 to 7, PND8 to 14, and PND15 to 21. In adulthood, the different periods of postnatal TS were assessed through behavioral, biochemical and molecular assessments...
November 22, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873013/neonatal-l-glutamine-modulates-anxiety-like-behavior-cortical-spreading-depression-and-microglial-immunoreactivity-analysis-in-developing-rats-suckled-on-normal-size-and-large-size-litters
#10
Denise Sandrelly Cavalcanti de Lima, Elian da Silva Francisco, Cássia Borges Lima, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
In mammals, L-glutamine (Gln) can alter the glutamate-Gln cycle and consequently brain excitability. Here, we investigated in developing rats the effect of treatment with different doses of Gln on anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression (CSD), and microglial activation expressed as Iba1-immunoreactivity. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15; respectively, normal size- and large size litters). From postnatal days (P) 7-27, the animals received Gln per gavage (250, 500 or 750 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (water), or no treatment (naive)...
November 21, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871903/review-of-preclinical-studies-on-pediatric-general-anesthesia-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#11
Jennifer L Walters, Merle G Paule
Thousands of infants and children undergo complicated surgical procedures that require prolonged periods of anesthesia and/or sedation each year. A growing body of preclinical research suggests pediatric anesthetics are harmful to the developing brain; yet, the extent to which these effects generalize to the clinical setting remains unclear. As there will be a continuing need for surgical and other interventions requiring sedation and/or anesthesia during the neonatal period, it seems clear that research efforts should focus on determining the extent to which general anesthetics can affect the developing brain as well as determining strategies for preventing or ameliorating the adverse effects associated with exposure to such agents...
November 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870406/sex-dependent-consequences-of-neonatal-brain-hypoxia-ischemia-in-the-rat
#12
REVIEW
Carlos Alexandre Netto, Eduardo Sanches, Felipe Kawa Odorcyk, Luz Elena Duran-Carabali, Simone Nardin Weis
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an important cause of neurological deficits in humans, and the Levine-Rice model of experimental HI in the rat mimics the human brain lesion and the following sensory motor deficits and cognitive disabilities. With the growing evidence that sex influences all levels of brain functions, this Mini-Review highlights studies in which sex was a controlled variable and that provided evidence of sexual dimorphism in behavioral outcome, extension of brain damage, mechanisms of lesion, and treatment efficacy in the rat neonatal HI model...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865977/racial-ethnic-differences-in-preterm-perinatal-outcomes
#13
Maeve E Wallace, Pauline Mendola, Sung Soo Kim, Nikira Epps, Zhen Chen, Melissa Smarr, Stefanie N Hinkle, Yeyi Zhu, Katherine L Grantz
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in preterm birth and infant death have been well documented. Less is known about racial disparities in neonatal morbidities among infants who are born at <37 weeks of gestation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the risk for morbidity and death among infants who are born preterm differs by maternal race. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort design included medical records from preterm deliveries of 19,325 black, Hispanic, and white women in the Consortium on Safe Labor...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865437/early-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-preterm-infants
#14
REVIEW
Elizabeth E Rogers, Susan R Hintz
Infants born at extreme preterm gestation are at risk for both death and disability. Although rates of survival have improved for this population, and some evidence suggests a trend toward decreased neuromotor impairment over the past decades, a significant improvement in overall early neurodevelopmental outcome has not yet been realized. This review will examine the rates and types of neurodevelopmental impairment seen after extremely preterm birth, including neurosensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863079/prevalence-and-pattern-of-executive-dysfunction-in-school-age-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#15
Jacqueline H Sanz, Madison M Berl, Anna C Armour, Jichuan Wang, Yao I Cheng, Mary T Donofrio
OBJECTIVE: Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. DESIGN: Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire...
November 11, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862605/neonatal-neural-networks-predict-children-behavioral-profiles-later-in-life
#16
Chong-Yaw Wee, Ta Anh Tuan, Birit F P Broekman, Min Yee Ong, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, L P Shek, Seang-Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney, Anqi Qiu
This study aimed to examine heterogeneity of neonatal brain network and its prediction to child behaviors at 24 and 48 months of age. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was employed to construct brain anatomical network for 120 neonates. Clustering coefficients of individual structures were computed and used to classify neonates with similar brain anatomical networks into one group. Internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were assessed using maternal reports of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at 24 and 48 months of age...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861465/universal-newborn-hearing-screening-methods-and-results-obstacles-and-benefits-newborn-hearing-screening
#17
Katarzyna E Wroblewska-Seniuk, Piotr Dabrowski, Witold Szyfter, Jan Mazela
The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss ranges from 1 to 3 per 1000 live births in term healthy neonates, and 2-4 per 100 in high-risk infants, a ten-fold increase. Early identification and intervention with hearing augmentation within 6 months yields optimal effect. If undetected and without treatment, significant hearing impairment may negatively impact speech development and lead to disorders in psychological and mental behaviors.Hearing screening programs in newborns enable detection of hearing impairment in the first days after birth...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849648/amygdala-mediated-mechanisms-regulate-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-adult-females-following-early-life-stress-importance-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor
#18
Dawn K Prusator, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
Alterations in amygdala activity are apparent in women who report a history of early life stress (ELS) as well as those diagnosed with chronic pain disorders. Chronic stress in adulthood induces visceral hypersensitivity via alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression within the central amygdala (CeA). Here we hypothesized that unpredictable ELS, previously shown to induce visceral hypersensitivity in adult female rats, alters GR and CRF expression in the CeA...
November 14, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849233/characterization-of-the-motor-performance-of-newborns-in-a-neonatal-unit-of-tertiary-level
#19
Luciana Giachetta, Carla Marques Nicolau, Regina Célia Turola Passos Juliani, Werther Brunow de Carvalho, Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs
Objective: To characterize the motor performance of newborns in a neonatal unit of tertiary level and compare the results to the values recommended by the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP). Method: Newborns between 34 and 416/7 weeks of corrected gestational age, breathing spontaneously and presenting state of consciousness 4 or 5, according to Brazelton, were included. TIMP was used to evaluate the motor performance. Results: The age groups of 34-35 and 36-37 weeks showed on average TIMP scores similar to the reference values (p>0...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847471/maternal-caloric-restriction-implemented-during-the-preconceptional-and-pregnancy-period-alters-hypothalamic-and-hippocampal-endocannabinoid-levels-at-birth-and-induces-overweight-and-increased-adiposity-at-adulthood-in-male-rat-offspring
#20
María Teresa Ramírez-López, Mariam Vázquez, Laura Bindila, Ermelinda Lomazzo, Clementine Hofmann, Rosarío Noemí Blanco, Francisco Alén, María Antón, Juan Decara, Rocío Arco, Daniel Ouro, Laura Orio, Juan Suárez, Beat Lutz, Raquel Gómez de Heras, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Exposure to inadequate nutritional conditions in critical windows of development has been associated to disturbances on metabolism and behavior in the offspring later in life. The role of the endocannabinoid system, a known regulator of energy expenditure and adaptive behaviors, in the modulation of these processes is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposing rat dams to diet restriction (20% less calories than standard diet) during pre-gestational and gestational periods on: (a) neonatal outcomes; (b) endocannabinoid content in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb at birth; (c) metabolism-related parameters; and (d) behavior in adult male offspring...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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