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Neonatal behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433802/role-of-environmental-stressors-in-determining-the-developmental-outcome-of-neonatal-anesthesia
#1
Ling-Sha Ju, Jiao-Jiao Yang, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Christoph N Seubert, Timothy E Morey, Colin Sumners, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Jian-Jun Yang, Anatoly E Martynyuk
BACKGROUND: The majority of studies evaluating neurocognition in humans who had procedures under anesthesia early in life found long-term deficits even though the typical anesthesia duration normalized to the human life span is much shorter than that shown to induce developmental abnormalities in rodents. Therefore, we studied whether subsequent environmental stressors contribute to deficiencies programmed by a brief neonatal etomidate exposure. METHODS: Postnatal days (P) 4, 5, or 6, Sprague-Dawley rats, pretreated with vehicle or the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC1) inhibitor, bumetanide, received two injections of etomidate resulting in anesthesia for 2h...
April 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433652/ketamine-potentiates-oxidative-stress-and-influences-behaviour-and-inflammation-in-response-to-lipolysaccharide-lps-exposure-in-early-life
#2
Gislaine Z Réus, Lutiana R Simões, Gabriela D Colpo, Giselli Scaini, Jean P Oses, Jaqueline S Generoso, Alan R Prossin, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello
Immune activation (IA) during the early neonatal period is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected in neonates lead to behavioral and brain changes that persist to adult life. We investigated oxidative stress, levels of cytokines, and the locomotor activity of IA in a schizophrenia animal model in which neonatal male Wistar rats were administered with an injection of LPS (50 μg/kg) on postnatal day 3 and different doses of ketamine (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg) for 7 days during adulthood...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430755/differentiating-delirium-from-sedative-hypnotic-related-iatrogenic-withdrawal-syndrome-lack-of-specificity-in-pediatric-critical-care-assessment-tools
#3
Kate Madden, Michele M Burns, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To identify available assessment tools for sedative/hypnotic iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in PICU patients, the evidence supporting their use, and describe areas of overlap between the components of these tools and the symptoms of anticholinergic burden in children. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE from the earliest available date until July 3, 2016, using a combination of MeSH terms "delirium," "substance withdrawal syndrome," and key words "opioids," "benzodiazepines," "critical illness," "ICU," and "intensive care...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422948/beyond-the-uterine-environment-nonhuman-primate-model-to-investigate-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-chronic-intrauterine-infection
#4
Meredith A Kelleher, Zheng Liu, Xiaojie Wang, Christopher D Kroenke, Lisa A Houser, Brandy L Dozier, Lauren D Martin, Ken B Waites, Cindy McEvoy, Robert L Schelonka, Peta L Grigsby
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection is a significant cause of early preterm birth. We have developed a fetal-neonatal model in the rhesus macaque to determine the impact of chronic intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum on early neonatal reflexes and brain development. METHODS: Time-mated, pregnant rhesus macaques were randomized to be inoculated with U. parvum (serovar 1; 10(5)cfu) or control media at ~120 dGA. Neonates were delivered by elective hysterotomy at 135-147 dGA (term=167d) stabilized and cared for in our nonhuman primate neonatal intensive care unit...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413599/rare-features-associated-with-mobius-syndrome-report-of-two-cases
#5
Rumela Ghosh, Vikram Shetty, Shruthi Hegde, G Subhas Babu, Vidya Ajila, Nanda Kishore P, Mithula Nair
Mobius syndrome is a rare congenital disorder with the preliminary diagnostic criteria of congenital facial and abducent nerve palsy. Involvement of other cranial nerves, too, is common. Prevalence rate of this syndrome is approximately 1 in 100,000 neonates. It is of unknown etiology with sporadic occurrence. However, data regarding the occurrence rate in India is limited. Features such as orofacial malformations, limb defects, and musculoskeletal, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities might be associated...
2017: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409149/collaborative-implementation-strategy-for-newborn-resuscitation-and-essential-care-training-in-the-dominican-republic
#6
REVIEW
Alexandra Leader, Claudia Cadet, Davina Lazala, Wanny Roa, Olga Arroyo, Lloyd Jensen
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality accounts for 45% of under-5 mortality worldwide, with 98% of newborn deaths occurring in developing countries. The Dominican Republic (DR) demonstrates one of the highest neonatal mortality rates in Latin America despite broad access to care. Strategies to support professional capacity building and strengthen the local health care system are needed to improve neonatal outcomes in the DR. RATIONALE: Helping babies breathe (HBB) and essential care for every baby (ECEB) are evidence-based newborn resuscitation and essential care training programs that have been shown to improve providers' confidence, knowledge, and clinical skills...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402755/distribution-of-fcrn-across-species-and-tissues
#7
Sari Latvala, Bjoern Jacobsen, Michael B Otteneder, Annika Herrmann, Sven Kronenberg
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a major histocompatibility complex class I type molecule that binds to, transports, and recycles immunoglobulin G (IgG) and albumin, thereby protecting them from lysosomal degradation. Therefore, besides the knowledge of FcRn affinity, FcRn protein expression is critical in understanding the pharmacokinetic behavior of Fc-containing biotherapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies. The goal of this investigation was to achieve for the first time a comparative assessment of FcRn distribution across a variety of tissues and species...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396628/moxd1-is-a-marker-for-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-medial-amygdala
#8
Yousuke Tsuneoka, Shinji Tsukahara, Sachine Yoshida, Kenkichi Takase, Satoko Oda, Masaru Kuroda, Hiromasa Funato
The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393063/neuropsychological-and-psychiatric-outcomes-in-dextro-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-across-the-lifespan-a-state-of-the-art-review
#9
REVIEW
Leila Kasmi, Damien Bonnet, Michèle Montreuil, David Kalfa, Nikoletta Geronikola, David C Bellinger, Johanna Calderon
Advances in prenatal diagnosis, perioperative management, and postoperative care have dramatically increased the population of survivors of neonatal and infant heart surgery. The high survival rate of these patients into adulthood has exposed the alarming prevalence of long-term neuropsychological and psychiatric morbidities. Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is one of the most extensively studied cyanotic congenital heart defect (CHD) with regard to neurodevelopmental outcomes. Landmark studies have described a common neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotype associated with d-TGA...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392374/evaluation-of-the-toxic-effect-of-endocrine-disruptor-bisphenol-a-bpa-in-the-acute-and-chronic-toxicity-tests-with-pomacea-lineata-gastropod
#10
André Lucas Correa de Andrade, Priscila Rafaela Leão Soares, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão da Silva, Thamiris Pinheiro Santos, Marilia Ribeiro Sales Cadena, Pierre Castro Soares, Pabyton Gonçalves Cadena
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391612/distress-vocalization-delay-in-the-neonate-lamb-as-a-neurobehavioral-assessment-tool
#11
Christine L Morton, Geoffrey Hinch, Alison Small
Acoustic features of infant distress vocalizations including latency and rate of emission are used as indices of neurological deficit and integrity in human and rodent neonates. This paper investigates the relationship between temporal characteristics of distress calls, elicited by an isolation stimulus, and indicators of neurobehavioral development over 12 hr postpartum in the neonate lamb. Delayed vocalization initiation was found to be associated with poor locomotor and orientation behavior reflecting the capacity of the lamb to reunite with and follow its dam, and a lowered rate of signal emission following commencement of vocalization...
April 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391017/pretreatment-with-minocycline-restores-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-and-subgranular-zone-of-the-hippocampus-after-ketamine-exposure-in-neonatal-rats
#12
Yang Lu, P K Giri, Shan Lei, Juan Zheng, Weisong Li, Ning Wang, Xinlin Chen, Haixia Lu, Zhiyi Zuo, Yong Liu, Pengbo Zhang
Ketamine is commonly used for anesthesia in pediatric patients. Recent studies indicated that ketamine exposure in the developing brain can induce neuroapoptosis and disturb normal neurogenesis, which will result in long-lasting cognitive impairment. Minocycline exerts neuroprotection against a wide range of toxic insults in neurodegenerative disease models. In the present study, we investigated whether the disturbed neurogenesis and behavioral deficits after ketamine neonatal exposure could be alleviated by minocycline...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391014/neonatal-alcohol-exposure-reduces-number-of-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-impairs-passive-avoidance-acquisition-in-mice-deficits-not-rescued-from-exercise
#13
G F Hamilton, I J Hernandez, C P Krebs, P J Bucko, J S Rhodes
Developmental alcohol exposure causes a host of cognitive and neuroanatomical abnormalities, one of which is impaired executive functioning resulting from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) damage. This study determined whether third-trimester equivalent alcohol exposure reduced the number of mPFC GABAergic parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, hypothesized to play an important role in local inhibition of the mPFC. The impact on passive avoidance learning and the therapeutic role of aerobic exercise in adulthood was also explored...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389369/prenatal-stress-and-depression-associated-neuronal-development-in-neonates
#14
REVIEW
Mahino Fatima, Saurabh Srivastav, Amal Chandra Mondal
Prenatal maternal depression has its direct effects on early brain development deficits with permanent changes in neuroendocrine functions and impaired behavior in offsprings. Prenatal stress (PS) transmits its affect on developing fetus and on pregnancy outcomes in adult offsprings. This results in impaired neurodevelopment, delayed cognitive and motor development with impaired behavior towards stressful conditions. There are sufficient evidences in animal models suggesting depression responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its hormonal response via cortisol, responsible for its critical effects in both the mother and offspring...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388927/exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-induces-neuroinflammation-derangement-of-hippocampal-neurons-and-cognitive-changes-in-rat-offspring
#15
Billy Vuong, Gary Odero, Stephanie Rozbacher, Mackenzie Stevenson, Stephanie M Kereliuk, Troy J Pereira, Vernon W Dolinsky, Tiina M Kauppinen
BACKGROUND: Birth cohort studies link gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with impaired cognitive performance in the offspring. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated GDM induces chronic neuroinflammation and disturbs the development of neuronal circuitry resulting in impaired cognitive abilities in the offspring. METHODS: In rats, GDM was induced by feeding dams a diet high in sucrose and fatty acids. Brains of neonatal (E20) and young adult (15-week-old) offspring of GDM and lean dams were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, cytokine assay, and western blotting...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383374/using-a-patient-navigator-to-improve-postpartum-care-in-an-urban-women-s-health-clinic
#16
Lynn M Yee, Noelle G Martinez, Antoinette T Nguyen, Nadia Hajjar, Melissa J Chen, Melissa A Simon
OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether postpartum visit attendance was improved in women exposed to a postpartum patient navigation program compared with those who received care immediately before the program's initiation and to assess whether other postpartum health behaviors improved during the intervention period. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of women enrolled in a patient navigation program compared with women receiving care before the program...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379558/orientation-of-navel-orangeworm-lepidoptera-pyralidae-larvae-and-adults-toward-volatiles-associated-with-almond-hull-split-and-aspergillus-flavus
#17
Daniel S Bush, Allen Lawrance, Joel P Siegel, May R Berenbaum
The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker, 1863, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California tree nuts, is associated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and previous research suggests these species are facultative mutualists. Because navel orangeworm larvae exhibit improved performance on diets containing this fungus, orientation toward hostplants infected with A. flavus may be adaptive. We conducted behavioral assays to determine if larvae respond to chemical cues produced by almond hull split and fungal infection...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377702/brain-acetaldehyde-exposure-impacts-upon-neonatal-respiratory-plasticity-and-ethanol-related-learning-in-rodents
#18
María B Acevedo, Génesis D'Aloisio, Olga B Haymal, Juan C Molina
Prior studies indicate that neonates are very sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects and to its depressant effects upon breathing. Acetaldehyde (ACD) appears to play a major role in terms of modulating early reinforcing effects of the drug. Yet, there is no pre-existing literature relative to the incidence of this metabolite upon respiratory plasticity. The present study analyzed physiological and behavioral effects of early central administrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde or vehicle. Respiration rates (breaths/min) were registered at post-natal days (PDs) 2 and 4 (post-administration time: 5, 60, or 120 min)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371620/the-effect-of-sexual-abuse-and-prenatal-substance-use-on-successful-breastfeeding
#19
Lauren M Jansson, Martha L Velez, Arlene M Butz
Barriers to breastfeeding in women with substance use disorders (SUDs) often exist. Neonatal abstinence syndrome-related feeding difficulties, maternal SUD-related maladaptive behaviors, and psychological comorbidities can adversely affect breastfeeding. A neglected barrier that frequently occurs in women with SUDs is a history of sexual abuse. It is important that nurses and providers understand each maternal and/or infant factor that can affect the breastfeeding course to assist effectively with lactation support for these frequently misunderstood dyads...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369689/cortisol-in-neonatal-mother-s-milk-predicts-later-infant-social-and-cognitive-functioning-in-rhesus-monkeys
#20
Amanda M Dettmer, Ashley M Murphy, Denisse Guitarra, Emily Slonecker, Stephen J Suomi, Kendra L Rosenberg, Melinda A Novak, Jerrold S Meyer, Katie Hinde
Milk provides not only the building blocks for somatic development but also the hormonal signals that contribute to the biopsychological organization of the infant. Among mammals, glucocorticoids (GCs) in mother's milk have been associated with infant temperament. This study extended prior work to investigate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) mother-infant dyads (N = 34) from birth through 8 months postpartum. Regression analysis revealed that cortisol concentrations in milk during the neonatal period predicted impulsivity on a cognitive task, but not global social behaviors, months later...
March 29, 2017: Child Development
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