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Rosemary Gutierrez-Coarite, Nicole M Yoneishi, Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi, Javier Mollinedo, Bernarda Calla, Mark G Wright, Scott M Geib
Macadamia felted coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei (Williams) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) was first found infesting macadamia trees in the island of Hawaii in 2005. Macadamia felted coccid infests all above-ground parts of trees to feed and reproduce. Their feeding activity distorts and stunts new growth which causes yellow spotting on older leaves, and when population densities become high, branch dieback occurs. Different predatory beetles have been observed in macadamia nut trees infested by E. ironsidei, the most abundant were Halmus chalybeus, Curinus coeruleus, Scymnodes lividigaster, Rhyzobius forestieri, and Sticholotis ruficeps...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Thomas Saunders, Jian Wu, Robert C Williams, Haibo Huang, Monica A Ponder
Propylene oxide (PPO), a chemical fumigant, has been validated to reduce Salmonella on bulk almonds but has not been evaluated for other tree nuts. There is a need to identify nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms whose inactivation is comparable to that of Salmonella to assure effective PPO processing parameters in different packaging configurations without introducing Salmonella into the pasteurization facility. The objective of this research was to compare the reduction of Salmonella and three potential surrogate bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459, Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042, or Staphylococcus carnosus ATCC 51365, on cashews and macadamia nuts processed by using PPO...
March 2018: Journal of Food Protection
J Engelbrecht, T A Duong, N V D Berg
Phytophthora cinnamomi is the causal agent of root rot, canker and dieback of thousands of plant species around the globe. This oomycete not only causes severe economic losses but also threatens natural ecosystems. In South Africa, P. cinnamomi affects eucalyptus, avocado, macadamia and indigenous fynbos. Despite being one of the most important plant pathogens with a global distribution, little information is available regarding origin, invasion history and population biology. This is partly due to the limited number of molecular markers available for studying P...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Liezhou Zhong, Janet F Bornman, Gangcheng Wu, Aline Hornoff, Koya Ange Pamela Dovi, Hayder Al-Ali, Naveed Aslam, Stuart K Johnson
Nutritional composition of the kernels of two types of Pindan walnut (Terminalia cunninghamii), a native nut consumed traditionally by Australian Indigenous peoples, is reported for the first time. Results showed that Pindan walnut kernels contained high levels of fat, protein and ash, approximately 50, 30 and 5% fresh basis, respectively. The levels of minerals in the kernels were much higher than common walnuts and macadamia nuts, especially those of phosphorus, magnesium and zinc. The high amounts of polyphenols in the kernels provided strong hydrophilic antioxidant capacities, of up to 2004 mg Trolox equivalents/100 g fresh basis using the hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay...
December 12, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Amy L Longmuir, Peter L Beech, Mark F Richardson
Background: The oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora cinnamomi , is responsible for the destruction of thousands of species of native Australian plants, as well as several crops, such as avocado and macadamia, and has one of the widest host-plant ranges of the Phytophthora genus. The currently available genome of P. cinnamomi is based on an atypical strain and has large gaps in its assembly. To further studies of the pathogenicity of this species, especially in Australia, more robust assemblies of the genomes of more typical strains are required...
2017: F1000Research
Yilu Xu, Balaji Seshadri, Binoy Sarkar, Hailong Wang, Cornelia Rumpel, Donald Sparks, Mark Farrell, Tony Hall, Xiaodong Yang, Nanthi Bolan
Soil organic carbon is essential to improve soil fertility and ecosystem functioning. Soil microorganisms contribute significantly to the carbon transformation and immobilisation processes. However, microorganisms are sensitive to environmental stresses such as heavy metals. Applying amendments, such as biochar, to contaminated soils can alleviate the metal toxicity and add carbon inputs. In this study, Cd and Pb spiked soils treated with macadamia nutshell biochar (5% w/w) were monitored during a 49days incubation period...
April 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tadayoshi Miyashita, Ryosuke Koizumi, Yoshimasa Sagane, Kazuhiro Minami, Minoru Ito, Toshihiro Watanabe, Koichi Niwa
This data article provides the results of skin sensitization testing for emu and macadamia nut oil on 20 participants (ages 22-59 years old), including 3 men and 17 women. The test was carried out by performing a standard patch test using a Finn Chamber on Scanpor tape. The oils were applied to the participant's back using the tape and left in place for 24 h. After 1- and 24-h from removal of the tape, the reaction of the participant's skin was judged based on a scoring method recommended by Japanese Patch Test Research Group...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Myoung Jin Oh, Young Hoon Cho, So Yoon Cha, Eun Ok Lee, Jin Wook Kim, Sun Ki Kim, Chang Seo Park
Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC) are a mixture of diverse N-acylated fatty acids (FAs) with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N-acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP) in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Catherine J Nock, Martin S Elphinstone, Gary Ablett, Asuka Kawamata, Wayne Hancock, Craig M Hardner, Graham J King
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3732/apps.1300089.].
August 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Md Mofijur Rahman, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Nur Md Sayeed Hassan, Abul Kalam Azad, Md Nasir Uddin
This paper aims to investigate the effect of the addition of 5% alcohol (butanol) with biodiesel-diesel blends on the performance, emissions, and combustion of a naturally aspirated four stroke multi-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds (1200 to 2400 rpm) under full load conditions. Three types of local Australian biodiesel, namely macadamia biodiesel (MB), rice bran biodiesel (RB), and waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCB), were used for this study, and the data was compared with results for conventional diesel fuel (B0)...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chatchaporn Uraipong, Robin D Allan, Chunhua Li, Ivan R Kennedy, Victor Wong, Nanju Alice Lee
This study reports on the potential status of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and mestranol (MeEE2) residues in aquatic environments in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, based on the analysis by a specific ELISA we developed. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the EE2 hapten with a linker attached at the C3-position to direct the antibody binding towards the ring D of EE2/MeEE2. Using this approach, an ELISA highly specific to EE2 and MeEE2 was successfully developed, showing less than 3.1% cross-reactivity (% CR) with other major steroidal sex hormones and their derivatives...
October 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Aina García, Raquel Madrid, Teresa García, Rosario Martín, Isabel González
Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) has shown to be a very effective technology for the detection of food allergens. The protocol described herein consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the plant ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region, using species-specific primers and hydrolysis probes (Taqman) dual labeled with a reporter fluorophore at the 5' end (6-carboxyfluorescein, FAM) and a quencher fluorophore at the 3' end (Blackberry, BBQ). The species-specific real-time PCR systems (primers/probe) described in this work allowed the detection of different nuts (peanut, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, cashew, macadamia, walnut and pecan), common allergens present in commercial food products, with a detection limit of 0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ana María Carrasco-Del Amor, Encarna Aguayo, Jacinta Collado-González, Alexandre Guy, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Ángel Gil-Izquierdo
The goal of this work was the identification and quantification of phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) in three types of nuts: "Walnut", "Macadamia", and "Pecan". This study represents a first approach to the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative PhytoP profiles in the "Macadamia" and "Pecan" nuts subjected to fried salt or fried honey processing. The kernels were found to contain 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, 16-B1-PhytoP, ent-16-B1-PhytoP, 9-L1-PhytoP, and ent-9-L1-PhytoP. "Macadamia" fried salt nuts were the only ones that produced 9-epi-9-D1-PhytoP and 9-D1-PhytoP...
February 2017: Free Radical Research
K Kanakri, J Carragher, R Hughes, B Muhlhausler, R Gibson
1. This study aimed to determine the minimal duration required for feeding male broilers (Cobb 500) with a flaxseed oil diet while still retaining long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) accumulation in the meat at a desirable level. 2. Three groups of broilers (60 each) were fed on a 3% flaxseed oil (high α-linolenic acid (ALA)) diet for either 6, 4 or 2 weeks prior to slaughter. During the remaining time they were maintained on a 3% macadamia oil (low ALA) diet. A fourth group (control, n = 60) was fed on a commercial diet for 6 weeks...
June 2017: British Poultry Science
Guodong Zhang, Lijun Hu, David Melka, Hua Wang, Anna Laasri, Eric W Brown, Errol Strain, Marc Allard, Vincent K Bunning, Steven M Musser, Rhoma Johnson, Sofia Santillana Farakos, Virginia N Scott, Régis Pouillot, Jane M Van Doren, Thomas S Hammack
Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U...
March 2017: Journal of Food Protection
V E Pakade, O B Nchoe, L Hlungwane, N T Tavengwa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of activated carbons prepared from Macadamia nutshells as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solutions. The activated carbon was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), CHNS analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). For effective removal of Cr(VI), the optimum parameters found were pH 2, 120 min of contact time and 0.2 g of sorbent. The adsorption data fitted well into the Freundlich model, suggesting a multilayer sorption process...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Utsav P Tiwari, Rajesh Jha
The highly variable cost and limited availability of conventional feedstuffs make it imperative to explore alternative feedstuffs to be used in swine. Macadamia nut cake (MNC), a coproduct of the macadamia nut oil industry, has not been well studied. MNC was analyzed for its nutrient profile, gross energy (GE), fibers, amino acids and fatty acids content. Dry matter (DM) and GE digestibility of MNC in swine was determined using an in vitro model. On a DM basis, ash, crude protein, ether extract, NDF, ADF, lignin and GE were found to be 3...
August 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Catherine J Nock, Abdul Baten, Bronwyn J Barkla, Agnelo Furtado, Robert J Henry, Graham J King
BACKGROUND: The large Gondwanan plant family Proteaceae is an early-diverging eudicot lineage renowned for its morphological, taxonomic and ecological diversity. Macadamia is the most economically important Proteaceae crop and represents an ancient rainforest-restricted lineage. The family is a focus for studies of adaptive radiation due to remarkable species diversification in Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots, and numerous evolutionary transitions between biomes. Despite a long history of research, comparative analyses in the Proteaceae and macadamia breeding programs are restricted by a paucity of genetic information...
November 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Marianne Horak, Furumi Komai
The Australian species of the grapholitine genera Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900, Thaumatotibia Zacher, 1915 and Archiphlebia Komai & Horak, 2006, are revised, described and illustrated. A key to species is provided. Five named species of Cryptophlebia, C. ombrodelta (Lower), C. iridosoma (Meyrick), C. rhynchias (Meyrick) and C. pallifimbriana Bradley, are redescribed and three new species, C. wraggae, sp. nov., C. stigmata, sp. nov., and C. caulicola, sp. nov., are described. Cryptophlebia amblyopa Clarke, described from Micronesia, is synonymised with C...
October 31, 2016: Zootaxa
Santanu Bakshi, Deborah M Aller, David A Laird, Rajesh Chintala
The long-term impact of biochar on soil properties and agronomic outcomes is influenced by changes in the physical and chemical properties of biochars that occur with time (aging) in soil environments. Fresh biochars, however, are often used in studies because aged biochars are generally unavailable. Therefore, a need exists to develop a method for rapid aging of biochars in the laboratory. The objectives of this study were to compare the physicochemical properties of fresh, laboratory-aged (LA), and field-aged (FA) (≥3 yr) biochars and to assess the appropriateness of a laboratory aging procedure that combines acidification, oxidation, and incubations as a mimic to field aging in neutral or acidic soil environments...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
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