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Aina García, Raquel Madrid, Teresa García, Rosario Martín, Isabel González
Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) has shown to be a very effective technology for the detection of food allergens. The protocol described herein consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the plant ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region, using species-specific primers and hydrolysis probes (Taqman) dual labeled with a reporter fluorophore at the 5' end (6-carboxyfluorescein, FAM) and a quencher fluorophore at the 3' end (Blackberry, BBQ). The species-specific real-time PCR systems (primers/probe) described in this work allowed the detection of different nuts (peanut, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, cashew, macadamia, walnut and pecan), common allergens present in commercial food products, with a detection limit of 0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ana María Carrasco-Del Amor, Encarna Aguayo, Jacinta Collado-González, Alexandre Guy, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Ángel Gil-Izquierdo
The goal of this work was the identification and quantification of phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) in three types of nuts: "Walnut", "Macadamia", and "Pecan". This study represents a first approach to the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative PhytoP profiles in the "Macadamia" and "Pecan" nuts subjected to fried salt or fried honey processing. The kernels were found to contain 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, 16-B1-PhytoP, ent-16-B1-PhytoP, 9-L1-PhytoP, and ent-9-L1-PhytoP. "Macadamia" fried salt nuts were the only ones that produced 9-epi-9-D1-PhytoP and 9-D1-PhytoP...
February 2017: Free Radical Research
K Kanakri, J Carragher, R Hughes, B Muhlhausler, R Gibson
1. This study aimed to determine the minimal duration required for feeding male broilers (Cobb 500) with a flaxseed oil diet while still retaining long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) accumulation in the meat at a desirable level. 2. Three groups of broilers (60 each) were fed on a 3% flaxseed oil (high α-linolenic acid (ALA)) diet for either 6, 4 or 2 weeks prior to slaughter. During the remaining time they were maintained on a 3% macadamia oil (low ALA) diet. A fourth group (Control, n=60) was fed on a commercial diet for 6 weeks...
February 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
Guodong Zhang, Lijun Hu, David Melka, Hua Wang, Anna Laasri, Eric W Brown, Errol Strain, Marc Allard, Vincent K Bunning, Steven M Musser, Rhoma Johnson, Sofia M Santillana Farakos, Virginia N Scott, Régis Pouillot, Jane M Van Doren, Thomas S Hammack
Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
V E Pakade, O B Nchoe, L Hlungwane, N T Tavengwa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of activated carbons prepared from Macadamia nutshells as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solutions. The activated carbon was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), CHNS analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). For effective removal of Cr(VI), the optimum parameters found were pH 2, 120 min of contact time and 0.2 g of sorbent. The adsorption data fitted well into the Freundlich model, suggesting a multilayer sorption process...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Utsav P Tiwari, Rajesh Jha
The highly variable cost and limited availability of conventional feedstuffs make it imperative to explore alternative feedstuffs to be used in swine. Macadamia nut cake (MNC), a coproduct of the macadamia nut oil industry, has not been well studied. MNC was analyzed for its nutrient profile, gross energy (GE), fibers, amino acids and fatty acids content. Dry matter (DM) and GE digestibility of MNC in swine was determined using an in vitro model. On a DM basis, ash, crude protein, ether extract, NDF, ADF, lignin and GE were found to be 3...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Catherine J Nock, Abdul Baten, Bronwyn J Barkla, Agnelo Furtado, Robert J Henry, Graham J King
BACKGROUND: The large Gondwanan plant family Proteaceae is an early-diverging eudicot lineage renowned for its morphological, taxonomic and ecological diversity. Macadamia is the most economically important Proteaceae crop and represents an ancient rainforest-restricted lineage. The family is a focus for studies of adaptive radiation due to remarkable species diversification in Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots, and numerous evolutionary transitions between biomes. Despite a long history of research, comparative analyses in the Proteaceae and macadamia breeding programs are restricted by a paucity of genetic information...
November 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Marianne Horak, Furumi Komai
The Australian species of the grapholitine genera Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900, Thaumatotibia Zacher, 1915 and Archiphlebia Komai & Horak, 2006, are revised, described and illustrated. A key to species is provided. Five named species of Cryptophlebia, C. ombrodelta (Lower), C. iridosoma (Meyrick), C. rhynchias (Meyrick) and C. pallifimbriana Bradley, are redescribed and three new species, C. wraggae, sp. nov., C. stigmata, sp. nov., and C. caulicola, sp. nov., are described. Cryptophlebia amblyopa Clarke, described from Micronesia, is synonymised with C...
October 31, 2016: Zootaxa
Santanu Bakshi, Deborah M Aller, David A Laird, Rajesh Chintala
The long-term impact of biochar on soil properties and agronomic outcomes is influenced by changes in the physical and chemical properties of biochars that occur with time (aging) in soil environments. Fresh biochars, however, are often used in studies because aged biochars are generally unavailable. Therefore, a need exists to develop a method for rapid aging of biochars in the laboratory. The objectives of this study were to compare the physicochemical properties of fresh, laboratory-aged (LA), and field-aged (FA) (≥3 yr) biochars and to assess the appropriateness of a laboratory aging procedure that combines acidification, oxidation, and incubations as a mimic to field aging in neutral or acidic soil environments...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Brooke I Polk, Deendayal Dinakarpandian, Maya Nanda, Charles Barnes, Chitra Dinakar
BACKGROUND: Coconut (Cocos nucifera), despite being a drupe, was added to the US Food and Drug Administration list of tree nuts in 2006, causing potential confusion regarding the prevalence of coconut allergy among tree nut allergic patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sensitization to tree nuts is associated with increased odds of coconut sensitization. METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis of serum specific IgE levels to coconut, tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pistachio, and walnut), and controls (milk and peanut) was performed using deidentified data from January 2000 to August 2012...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
A Bührig-Polaczek, C Fleck, T Speck, P Schüler, S F Fischer, M Caliaro, M Thielen
Fruit walls as well as nut and seed shells typically perform a multitude of functions. One of the biologically most important functions consists in the direct or indirect protection of the seeds from mechanical damage or other negative environmental influences. This qualifies such biological structures as role models for the development of new materials and components that protect commodities and/or persons from damage caused for example by impacts due to rough handling or crashes. We were able to show how the mechanical properties of metal foam based components can be improved by altering their structure on various hierarchical levels inspired by features and principles important for the impact and/or puncture resistance of the biological role models, rather than by tuning the properties of the bulk material...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Hui Zeng, Weihai Yang, Chaozhong Lu, Wenqiu Lin, Minghong Zou, Hanzhou Zhang, Jifeng Wan, Xuming Huang
N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU) is a highly active cytokinin-like plant growth regulator that promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell division, and cell expansion. It also increases fruit set and accelerates fruit enlargement. However, there has been no report about the effect of CPPU on fruit development and its physiological mechanism in macadamia. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPPU treatment at early fruit development via foliar spray or raceme soaking at 20 mg·L-1 on fruit set and related physiology in macadamia...
2016: PloS One
Giovanna Canneddu, Luis Carlos Cunha Júnior, Gustavo Henrique de Almeida Teixeira
The quality of shelled and unshelled macadamia nuts was assessed by means of Fourier transformed near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Shelled macadamia nuts were sorted as sound nuts; nuts infected by Ecdytolopha aurantiana and Leucopteara coffeella; and cracked nuts caused by germination. Unshelled nuts were sorted as intact nuts (<10% half nuts, 2014); half nuts (March, 2013; November, 2013); and crushed nuts (2014). Peroxide value (PV) and acidity index (AI) were determined according to AOAC. PCA-LDA shelled macadamia nuts classification resulted in 93...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science
Owoahene Acheampong-Boateng, Archibold G Bakare, Khanyisile R Mbatha
A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P < 0...
August 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Cristina Cortinovis, Francesca Caloni
Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jorge Moreda-Piñeiro, Paloma Herbello-Hermelo, Raquel Domínguez-González, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera, Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro
Bioavailability of essential and toxic metals in edible nuts and seeds has been assessed by using an in vitro dialyzability approach. The samples studied included walnuts, Brazil nuts, Macadamia nuts, pecans, hazelnuts, chestnuts, cashews, peanuts, pistachios and seeds (almond, pine, pumpkin and sunflower). Metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in dialyzates and also in samples after a microwave assisted acid digestion pre-treatment. Low dialyzability percentages were found for Al, Fe and Hg; moderate percentages were found for Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl and Zn; and high dialyzability ratios were found for As, Cr and Ni...
August 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Eduardo Crisol-Martínez, Laura T Moreno-Moyano, Kevin R Wormington, Philip H Brown, Dragana Stanley
Worldwide, avian communities inhabiting agro-ecosystems are threatened as a consequence of agricultural intensification. Unravelling their ecological role is essential to focus conservation efforts. Dietary analysis can elucidate bird-insect interactions and expose avian pest-reduction services, thus supporting avian conservation. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the dietary arthropod contents of 11 sympatric bird species foraging in macadamia orchards in eastern Australia. Across all species and based on arthropod DNA sequence similarities ≥98% with records in the Barcode of Life Database, 257 operational taxonomy units were assigned to 8 orders, 40 families, 90 genera and 89 species...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin F Kaluza, Helen Wallace, Tim A Heard, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Sara D Leonhardt
Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini)...
March 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Adriana Dailey, Quan V Vuong
The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Water was selected for optimizing the extraction conditions because it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent...
2015: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Yanxia Sun, Michael J Moore, Shoujun Zhang, Pamela S Soltis, Douglas E Soltis, Tingting Zhao, Aiping Meng, Xiaodong Li, Jianqiang Li, Hengchang Wang
The grade of early-diverging eudicots includes five major lineages: Ranunculales, Trochodendrales, Buxales, Proteales and Sabiaceae. To examine the evolution of plastome structure in early-diverging eudicots, we determined the complete plastome sequences of eight previously unsequenced early-diverging eudicot taxa, Pachysandra terminalis (Buxaceae), Meliosma aff. cuneifolia (Sabiaceae), Sabia yunnanensis (Sabiaceae), Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae), Euptelea pleiosperma (Eupteleaceae), Akebia trifoliata (Lardizabalaceae), Stephania japonica (Menispermaceae) and Papaver somniferum (Papaveraceae), and compared them to previously published plastomes of the early-diverging eudicots Buxus, Tetracentron, Trochodendron, Nelumbo, Platanus, Nandina, Megaleranthis, Ranunculus, Mahonia and Macadamia...
March 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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