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Inflammasome microglia

Francis J Herman, Giulio Maria Pasinetti
The production of inflammatory proteins by the innate immune system is a tightly orchestrated procedure that allows the body to efficiently respond to exogenous and endogenous threats. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that disturbances in the inflammatory response system not only provoke autoimmune disorders, but also can have deleterious effects on neuronal function and mental health. As inflammation in the brain is primarily mediated by microglia, there has been an expanding focus on the mechanisms through which these cells initiate and propagate neuroinflammation...
June 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yali Chen, Mengmei Yin, Xuejin Cao, Gang Hu, Ming Xiao
Both hypercholesterolemia and aging are related to cognitive decline or Alzheimer's disease. However, their interactive influence on the neurodegenerative progress remains unclear. To address this issue, 6-month-old and 16-month-old female mice were fed a 3% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks, followed by hippocampus-related functional, pathological, biochemical and molecular analyses. The high cholesterol diet did not exacerbate age-dependent cognitive decline and hippocampal neuronal death, and even greatly mitigated decreases of synaptophysin and growth associated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus of aged mice...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Brienne A McKenzie, Manmeet K Mamik, Leina B Saito, Roobina Boghozian, Maria Chiara Monaco, Eugene O Major, Jian-Qiang Lu, William G Branton, Christopher Power
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS of unknown cause that remains incurable. Inflammasome-associated caspases mediate the maturation and release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and activate the pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD). Inflammatory programmed cell death, pyroptosis, was recently shown to be mediated by GSDMD. Here, we report molecular evidence for GSDMD-mediated inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in both myeloid cells (macrophages/microglia) and, unexpectedly, in myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (ODCs) in the CNS of patients with MS and in the MS animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
June 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shalini Swaroop, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Yogita K Adlakha, Anirban Basu
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is one of the most important cytokine secreted by activated microglia as it orchestrates the vicious cycle of inflammation by inducing the expression of various other pro-inflammatory cytokines along with its own production. Microglia-mediated IL-1β production is a tightly regulated mechanism which involves the activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway. Our previous study suggests the critical role of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) in IL-1β-induced inflammation in microglia through TLR4-p38 MAPK axis...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Maria Burkovetskaya, Megan E Bosch, Nikolay Karpuk, Rachel Fallet, Tammy Kielian
Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLN3. Symptoms appear between 5-10 years of age, beginning with blindness and seizures, followed by progressive cognitive and motor decline, and premature death. Glial activation and impaired neuronal activity are early signs of pathology in the Cln3Δex7/8 mouse model of JNCL, whereas neuron death occurs much later in the disease process. We previously reported that Cln3Δex7/8 microglia are primed towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype typified by exaggerated caspase-1 inflammasome activation and here we extend those findings to demonstrate heightened caspase activity in the Cln3Δex7/8 mouse brain...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Jie Feng, Jingxue Wang, Yehong Du, Ying Liu, Wei Zhang, Jingfei Chen, Yuanjie Liu, Min Zheng, Kejian Wang, Guiqiong He
BACKGROUND: Activated microglia-mediated inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, chronic activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes triggered by amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in microglia contributes to persistent neuroinflammation. Here, the primary goal was to assess whether Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a plant flavonoid compound, is effective therapies for AD; it is crucial to know whether DHM will affect microglial activation and neuroinflammation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice...
June 4, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Xin Xu, Dongpei Yin, Honglei Ren, Weiwei Gao, Fei Li, Dongdong Sun, Yingang Wu, Shuai Zhou, Li Lyu, Mengchen Yang, Jianhua Xiong, Lulu Han, Rongcai Jiang, Jianning Zhang
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated inflammatory response has emerged as a prominent contributor to the pathophysiological processes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, a potent, selective, small-molecule NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, MCC950, was described. Here, we investigated the effect of MCC950 on inflammatory brain injury and long-term neurological outcomes in a mouse model of TBI. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to TBI using the controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) system...
May 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Tianshu Wu, Xue Liang, Keyu He, Tingting Wei, Yan Wang, Jie Lu, Ying Yao, Ting Zhang, Yuying Xue, Meng Tang
The excellent optical properties of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) make researchers realize their value on the application of biomedicine, especially neuroscience, as an advanced fluorescent probe. Thus, it is important to evaluate the biosafety of CdTe QDs on the central nervous system (CNS). Our previous studies have conducted a systematic biosafety evaluation of CdTe QDs on the CNS and found several toxic endpoints, one of which is the inflammation on the rat hippocampus, but their underlying mechanism remains unclear...
May 28, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Roshni Thakkar, Ruimin Wang, Jing Wang, Ratna K Vadlamudi, Darrell W Brann
17 β -Estradiol (E2) is a well-known neuroprotective hormone, but its role in regulation of neuroinflammation is less understood. Recently, our lab demonstrated that E2 could regulate the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor protein 3) inflammasome pathway in the hippocampus following global cerebral ischemia (GCI). Here, we examined the ability of E2 to regulate activation and polarization of microglia phenotype in the hippocampus after global cerebral ischemia (GCI). Our in vivo study in young adult ovariectomized rats showed that exogenous low-dose E2 profoundly suppressed microglia activation and quantitatively shifted microglia from their "activated," amoeboid morphology to a "resting," ramified morphology after GCI...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Jinxian Xu, Juan Mo, Xinglou Liu, Brendan Marshall, Sally S Atherton, Zheng Dong, Sylvia Smith, Ming Zhang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if the receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) plays a significant role in innate immune responses and death of bystander retinal neurons during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) retinal infection, by comparing the innate immune response and cell death in RIP3-depleted mice (Rip3-/-) and Rip3+/+ control mice. Methods: Rip3-/- and Rip3+/+ mice were immunosuppressed (IS) and inoculated with MCMV via the supraciliary route...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Laura Facci, Massimo Barbierato, Morena Zusso, Stephen D Skaper, Pietro Giusti
BACKGROUND: Acute-phase response is a systemic reaction to environmental/inflammatory insults and involves production of acute-phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a master regulator of neuroinflammation produced by activated inflammatory cells of the myeloid lineage, in particular microglia, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic diseases of the peripheral nervous system and CNS. IL-1β release is promoted by ATP acting at the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7 R) in cells primed with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Xue Teng, Weiwei Chen, Zhihan Liu, Tao Feng, Hui Li, Sheng Ding, Yonggang Chen, Ying Zhang, Xianping Tang, Deqin Geng
Necroptosis is a manner of caspase-independent cell death,which accounts for delayed ischemic cerebral injury, and can be used as a novel tool to expand the treatment time window in ischemic cerebral injury. Q-VD-OPH, a novel pan caspase inhibitor, has been identified as an inducer of necroptosis. In this study, we determined the optimal dose of Q-VD-OPH, which induces necroptosis in rats by the middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion. Furthermore, we report that the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in necroptosis, with levels of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins as well as inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, being elevated...
May 25, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Sofie Voet, Conor Mc Guire, Nora Hagemeyer, Arne Martens, Anna Schroeder, Peter Wieghofer, Carmen Daems, Ori Staszewski, Lieselotte Vande Walle, Marta Joana Costa Jordao, Mozes Sze, Hanna-Kaisa Vikkula, Delphine Demeestere, Griet Van Imschoot, Charlotte L Scott, Esther Hoste, Amanda Gonçalves, Martin Guilliams, Saskia Lippens, Claude Libert, Roos E Vandenbroucke, Ki-Wook Kim, Steffen Jung, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Patrick Callaerts, Joris de Wit, Mohamed Lamkanfi, Marco Prinz, Geert van Loo
Microglia, the mononuclear phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), are important for the maintenance of CNS homeostasis, but also critically contribute to CNS pathology. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulatory protein A20 is crucial in regulating microglia activation during CNS homeostasis and pathology. In mice, deletion of A20 in microglia increases microglial cell number and affects microglial regulation of neuronal synaptic function. Administration of a sublethal dose of lipopolysaccharide induces massive microglia activation, neuroinflammation, and lethality in mice with microglia-confined A20 deficiency...
May 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Eunju Lee, Inhwa Hwang, Sangjun Park, Sujeong Hong, Boreum Hwang, Yoeseph Cho, Junghyun Son, Je-Wook Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Although details of the molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuronal death in PD remain unclear, neuroinflammation is also considered a potent mediator in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. In the present study, we present evidences that microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is critical for dopaminergic neuronal loss and the subsequent motor deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Alexander Slowik, Leoni Lammerding, Adib Zendedel, Pardes Habib, Cordian Beyer
Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in different disease models of the central nervous system (CNS) including ischemic stroke. Inflammasomes are involved in the interleukin-1 beta (IL1beta) maturation, in particular, NLRP3, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and the active caspase-1 (Casp1) form. Recently, we showed that administration of E2 or P selectively regulated these components after experimental ischemic stroke in rats...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Hu Li, Xueping Zhang, Mingfu Chen, Jianyan Chen, Tao Gao, Shanglong Yao
NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) plays critical roles in the initiation of inflammasome-mediated inflammation in microglia, thus becomes an important therapeutic target of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dexmedetomidine (Dex), a new type of clinical anesthetic agent, shows anti-inflammatory properties and inhibits postoperative cognitive dysfunction in AD patients. The present study was aimed to investigate effect of Dex on NLRP3 activity in activated microglia and reveal the underlying mechanisms. The human microglia clone 3 (HMC3) cells were exposed to 100 ng/ml LPS and 5 mM ATP, in the presence and absence of doses of Dex...
2018: EXCLI Journal
Qiushi Li, Long Chen, Xuewen Liu, Xidong Li, Yue Cao, Yang Bai, Fengjiao Qi
Neuroinflammation has been known as an important pathogenetic contributor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pterostilbene is a natural compound which has neuroprotective activity. However, the effect of pterostilbene on amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation has not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pterostilbene on Aβ-induced neuroinflammation in microglia. The results indicated that pterostilbene attenuated Aβ1-42 -induced cytotoxicity of BV-2 cells. Aβ1-42 induced NO production and iNOS mRNA and protein expression, while pterostilbene inhibited the induction...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mengyu Lai, Hao Yao, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Wei Wu, Di Wang, Ying Zhao, Lu Wang, Xiangmei Zhou, Deming Zhao, Lifeng Yang
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein, spongiform changes in the brain, and brain inflammation as a result of the wide-spread activation of microglia. Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process for the clearance of cytoplasmic components, including protein aggregates and damaged organelles; this process also eliminates pathological PrPSc as it accumulates during prion infection. The NALP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that is a component of the innate immune system and is responsible for the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Bian-Rong Wang, Jian-Quan Shi, Nian-Nian Ge, Zhou Ou, You-Yong Tian, Teng Jiang, Jun-Shan Zhou, Jun Xu, Ying-Dong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggested that PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the precise mechanisms by which PM2.5 contributed to AD pathogenesis have not been clarified. METHODS: In the presence or absence of neurons, oligomeric amyloid beta (oAβ)-primed microglia were stimulated with PM2.5. Firstly, we determined the effects of PM2.5 exposure on neuronal injury and inflammation in neurons-microglia co-cultures...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Michael R Pranzatelli
The concept and recognized components of "neuroinflammation" are expanding at the intersection of neurobiology and immunobiology. Chemokines (CKs), no longer merely necessary for immune cell trafficking and positioning, have multiple physiologic, developmental, and modulatory functionalities in the central nervous system (CNS) through neuron-glia interactions and other mechanisms affecting neurotransmission. They issue the "help me" cry of neurons and astrocytes in response to CNS injury, engaging invading lymphoid cells (T cells and B cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils) (adaptive immunity), as well as microglia and macrophages (innate immunity), in a cascade of events, some beneficial (reparative), others destructive (excitotoxic)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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