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Reactive Attachment Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895198/autism-and-reactive-attachment-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorders-co-occurrence-and-differentiation
#1
Susan Dickerson Mayes, Susan L Calhoun, Daniel A Waschbusch, Raman Baweja
DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition) Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) are rare disorders sharing social difficulties with autism. The DSM-5 and ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revsion) state that RAD/DSED should not be diagnosed in children with autism. The purpose of our study is to determine whether children can meet criteria for both autism and RAD/DSED and to identify specific symptoms discriminating the disorders...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806867/practice-parameter-for-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-reactive-attachment-disorder-and-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorder
#2
Charles H Zeanah, Tessa Chesher, Neil W Boris
This Practice Parameter is a revision of a previous Parameter addressing reactive attachment disorder that was published in 2005. It reviews the current status of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and disinhibited social engagement disorder (DESD) with regard to assessment and treatment. Attachment is a central component of social and emotional development in early childhood, and disordered attachment is defined by specific patterns of abnormal social behavior in the context of "insufficient care" or social neglect...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775024/neurobiochemical-changes-in-the-vicinity-of-a-nanostructured-neural-implant
#3
Zsófia Bérces, Kinga Tóth, Gergely Márton, Ildikó Pál, Bálint Kováts-Megyesi, Zoltán Fekete, István Ulbert, Anita Pongrácz
Neural interface technologies including recording and stimulation electrodes are currently in the early phase of clinical trials aiming to help patients with spinal cord injuries, degenerative disorders, strokes interrupting descending motor pathways, or limb amputations. Their lifetime is of key importance; however, it is limited by the foreign body response of the tissue causing the loss of neurons and a reactive astrogliosis around the implant surface. Improving the biocompatibility of implant surfaces, especially promoting neuronal attachment and regeneration is therefore essential...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735969/mental-health-issues-in-foster-care
#4
W David Lohr, V Faye Jones
Children in foster care have exceptional needs due to their histories of abuse, neglect, and increased exposure to violence. The rates of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder, are much higher in children in foster care; furthermore, the rate of these children receiving psychotropic medications is 3 times that of children who are not in foster care. Pediatricians, in their role of providing a medical home, play a central role in safeguarding the physical and mental health of these children...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548462/mentalization-mediates-the-relationship-between-early-maltreatment-and-potential-for-violence-in-adolescence
#5
Svenja Taubner, Laura Zimmermann, Axel Ramberg, Paul Schröder
AIM: The present study investigates the role of attachment representation and mentalization as possibly protective factors in the relationship between early maltreatment and potential for violence in adolescence. METHODS: For the current study, 161 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, were recruited from high schools and youth psychiatry. Early maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, attachment was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, and mentalization was coded with the Reflective Functioning Scale from Adult Attachment Interviews...
2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366788/association-between-reactive-attachment-disorder-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorder-and-emerging-personality-disorder-a-feasibility-study
#6
Khadija Mirza, Gracia Mwimba, Rachel Pritchett, Claire Davidson
A systematic review of reactive attachment disorder (RAD)/disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) in adolescence highlighted that young people with the disorder had indiscriminate friendliness with difficulties in establishing and maintaining stable relationships. Most reported experiences of rejection. We were struck by similarities between the above and features of emergence of personality disorders (EPD). This feasibility study aimed to determine best ways of recruiting and retaining vulnerable young people and the proportion of participants with RAD/DSED who might have emerging borderline personality disorder (EBPD)...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278250/mentalization-based-treatment-for-psychotic-disorder-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Jonas Weijers, Coriene Ten Kate, Elisabeth Eurelings-Bontekoe, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Rutger Rampaart, Anthony Bateman, Jean-Paul Selten
BACKGROUND: Many patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder suffer from impairments in social functioning and social cognition. To target these impairments, mentalization-based treatment for psychotic disorder, a psychodynamic treatment rooted in attachment theory, has been developed. It is expected to improve social cognition, and thereby to improve social functioning. The treatment is further expected to increase quality of life and the awareness of having a mental disorder, and to reduce substance abuse, social stress reactivity, positive symptoms, negative, anxious and depressive symptoms...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262444/the-socio-behavioral-development-of-children-with-symptoms-of-attachment-disorder-an-observational-study-of-teacher-sensitivity-in-special-education
#8
Jantine L Spilt, Eleonora Vervoort, Anne-Katrien Koenen, Guy Bosmans, Karine Verschueren
BACKGROUND: Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) have serious socio-behavioral problems and often rely on socially abnormal, aggressive, and manipulative forms of communication. Little is known, however, about the influence of teachers on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD. AIMS: This longitudinal study examined the influence of teacher sensitivity on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD across one school year...
September 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242601/intense-passionate-romantic-love-a-natural-addiction-how-the-fields-that-investigate-romance-and-substance-abuse-can-inform-each-other
#9
REVIEW
Helen E Fisher, Xiaomeng Xu, Arthur Aron, Lucy L Brown
Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain's "reward system," specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150924/preliminary-evidence-for-impaired-brain-activity-of-neural-reward-processing-in-children-and-adolescents-with-reactive-attachment-disorder
#10
Akemi Tomoda
Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases risks for psychopathology, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Especially, exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) or interparental violence during childhood is associated with negative outcomes such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and reduced cognitive abilities. Other forms of childhood maltreatment have been associated with brain structure or developmental alteration. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects of PVA and witnessing domestic violence during childhood on brain morphology, including gray matter volume or cortical thickness...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100510/chondroitin-sulfate-and-neuronal-disorders
#11
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in several aspects of neuronal development, plasticity, and pathophysiology. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), consisting of core proteins with covalently attached chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, are essential components of the brain ECM. During late postnatal development, CSPGs condense around parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV-cells) and form lattice-like ECM structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Enzymatic or genetic manipulation of PNNs reactivates neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, probably by resetting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neural networks...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911277/the-role-of-sex-and-autonomy-connectedness-in-internalizing-and-externalizing-personality-pathology-coping-and-axis-i-pathology-among-psychiatric-and-healthy-elderly
#12
Nathan Bachrach, Marcel Croon, Marrie Bekker
OBJECTIVES: In the current study we investigated the relationship of sex and autonomy-connectedness with internalizing and externalizing personality disorder symptoms (PDS), coping and axis-I pathology in older age. METHOD: A path model was tested which was based on neo-analytical object relation, attachment- and primary-personality theory, among 100 clinical and 106 non-clinical elderly. RESULTS: In line with our model, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness and capacity of managing new situations) was strongly associated to internalizing PDS in both groups...
February 25, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872125/studies-of-the-structure-and-phase-transitions-of-nano-confined-pentanedithiol-and-its-application-in-directing-hierarchical-molecular-assemblies-on-au-1%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-1
#13
Alison Pawlicki, Erin Avery, Matthew Jurow, Bradley Ewers, Ayelet Vilan, Charles Michael Drain, James Batteas
Directing molecular devices into pre-designed integrated electronic circuits while enforcing selectivity and hierarchy is an inherent challenge for molecular electronics. Here we explore ways to direct the assembly of electrically-active molecular monolayers into specific locations as well as controlling their internal organization. We have accomplished this by two consecutive surface reactions: (1) forming pentanedithiol (C5DT) domains within an inert alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Au; and (2) selectively binding porphyrin derivatives to the C5DT domains...
March 9, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559687/neuroprotective-effects-of-etidronate-and-2-3-3-trisphosphonate-against-glutamate-induced-toxicity-in-pc12-cells
#14
Wen Li, Yuen-Ki Cheong, Hui Wang, Guogang Ren, Zhuo Yang
Etidronate is one of the best known bisphosphonates (BP) derivatives. It is often used as a reference drug in research related to hypercalcaemia and other common bone diseases. 2,3,3-trisphosphonate (TrisPP) is brand new analogue of BP, that also contains a 'germinal bisphosphonate' unit with an additional phosphoryl group attached in proximity to the BP unit. It is known that BPs bind to calcium by chemisorptions to form Ca-BP complexes through (O)P-C-P(O) moiety and hydrogen coordinations, and so they suppress calcium flow by interfering with Ca(2+) channel operations...
April 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26443309/biopathology-of-astrocytes-in-human-traumatic-and-complicated-brain-injuries-review-and-hypothesis
#15
Orlando José Castejón
The biopathology of astrocyte cells in severe human brain traumatic injuries complicated with subdural and epidural haematoma and hygroma is reviewed. Clear and dense oedematous and hypertrophic reactive astrocytes are distinguished in severe primary traumatic vasogenic and secondary cytotoxic brain oedema. Swollen perineuronal astrocytes appear compressing and indenting clear and dark degenerated pyramidal and non-pyramidal nerve cells, degenerated myelinated axons and synaptic contacts. Hypertrophic astrocytes display dense cytoplasm and contain numerous rosettes of alpha, beta- and gamma-type glycogen granules, swollen mitochondria, dilated smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, oedematous Golgi apparatus, microtubules, gliofilaments, intermediate filaments, lysosomes and liposomes...
2015: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26357917/psychiatric-services-for-preschoolers-an-emerging-need
#16
Lavinia Lumu, Lynda Albertyn, Christopher Paul Szabo
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical presentation and service requirements for those under six years of age referred to a specialised child and adolescent psychiatry unit. METHOD: This study used a retrospective review of preschoolers, six years and younger, assessed at a child, family and adolescent psychiatric unit (January 2006 to 31 December 2010). Data analysis established predominant diagnoses (prevalence percentages) and correlations and associations (diagnoses and a range of clinical variables - Fischer's exact test and chi-square test)...
2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26310381/impaired-neural-reward-processing-in-children-and-adolescents-with-reactive-attachment-disorder-a-pilot-study
#17
Kei Mizuno, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Mika Yamazaki, Mizuki Asano, Shiho Kato, Kikuko Kuriyama, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Norihiro Sadato, Akemi Tomoda
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is characterized by markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness due to parental maltreatment. RAD patients often display a high number of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and certain RAD symptoms are difficult to discriminate from ADHD. One of the core characteristics of ADHD is a decrease in neural reward processing due to dopamine dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the brain activity involved in reward processing in RAD patients is impaired in comparison with ADHD patients and typically developed controls...
October 2015: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26288752/reduced-visual-cortex-grey-matter-volume-in-children-and-adolescents-with-reactive-attachment-disorder
#18
Koji Shimada, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Sakae Mizushima, Takashi X Fujisawa, Daisuke N Saito, Hirotaka Kosaka, Hidehiko Okazawa, Akemi Tomoda
Child maltreatment increases the risk for psychiatric disorders throughout childhood and into adulthood. One negative outcome of child maltreatment can be a disorder of emotional functioning, reactive attachment disorder (RAD), where the child displays wary, watchful, and emotionally withdrawn behaviours. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of RAD. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether RAD was associated with alterations in grey matter volume (GMV)...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26177494/clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-parenting-interventions-for-children-with-severe-attachment-problems-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Barry Wright, Melissa Barry, Ellen Hughes, Dominic Trépel, Shehzad Ali, Victoria Allgar, Lucy Cottrill, Steven Duffy, Jenny Fell, Julie Glanville, Danya Glaser, Lisa Hackney, Laura Manea, Dean McMillan, Stephen Palmer, Vivien Prior, Clare Whitton, Amanda Perry, Simon Gilbody
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for 'severe attachment problems' (disorganised attachment patterns and attachment disorders). Several government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at-risk groups. This report was commissioned to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parenting interventions for children with severe attachment problems (the main review). One supplementary review explored the evaluation of assessment tools and a second reviewed 10-year outcome data to better inform health economic aspects of the main review...
July 2015: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26158509/biotin-starvation-causes-mitochondrial-protein-hyperacetylation-and-partial-rescue-by-the-sirt3-like-deacetylase-hst4p
#20
Christian T Madsen, Kathrine B Sylvestersen, Clifford Young, Sara C Larsen, Jon W Poulsen, Marianne A Andersen, Eva A Palmqvist, Martin Hey-Mogensen, Per B Jensen, Jonas T Treebak, Michael Lisby, Michael L Nielsen
The essential vitamin biotin is a covalent and tenaciously attached prosthetic group in several carboxylases that play important roles in the regulation of energy metabolism. Here we describe increased acetyl-CoA levels and mitochondrial hyperacetylation as downstream metabolic effects of biotin deficiency. Upregulated mitochondrial acetylation sites correlate with the cellular deficiency of the Hst4p deacetylase, and a biotin-starvation-induced accumulation of Hst4p in mitochondria supports a role for Hst4p in lowering mitochondrial acetylation...
2015: Nature Communications
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