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Reactive Attachment Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715704/oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-attachment-and-ptsd-results-from-the-national-health-and-resilience-in-veterans-study
#1
Lauren M Sippel, Shizhong Han, Laura E Watkins, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Miranda Olff, Richard Sherva, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter, Robert H Pietrzak
The human oxytocin system is implicated in social behavior and stress recovery. Polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) may interact with attachment style to predict stress-related psychopathology like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The objective of this study was to examine independent and interactive effects of the OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576, which has been associated with stress reactivity, support-seeking, and PTSD in prior studies, and attachment style on risk for PTSD in a nationally representative sample of 2163 European-American (EA) U...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691843/associations-of-borderline-personality-disorder-traits-with-stressful-events-and-emotional-reactivity-in-women-with-bulimia-nervosa
#2
Carolyn M Pearson, Jason M Lavender, Li Cao, Stephen A Wonderlich, Ross D Crosby, Scott G Engel, James E Mitchell, Carol B Peterson, Scott J Crow
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits are common among those with bulimia nervosa (BN). However, how these traits impact the state experience of precipitants of BN behavior, such as stressful events and emotional reactivity, has not been determined. Thus, the purpose of this naturalistic study was to examine this trait-state association in BN. Women with DSM-IV BN (N = 133) completed a baseline measure of personality pathology traits, and subsequently recorded their affective state and the frequency and perception of 3 types of stressful events (interpersonal, work/environment, and daily hassles) several times per day for 2 weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA)...
July 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577603/beyond-reactive-attachment-disorder-how-might-attachment-research-inform-child-psychiatry-practice
#3
REVIEW
Neil W Boris, Kimberly Renk
This article provides an updated review of attachment research with a focus on how comprehensive clinical assessment and intervention informs the care of young children. Child psychiatrists can serve as an important part of care coordination teams working with young children who have histories of early maltreatment and/or disruption in caregiving whether or not the children they are seeing meet criteria for an attachment disorder. Child psychiatrists should be familiar with both comprehensive assessment and the recent attachment-based interventions and appreciate how pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunctive intervention when intensive therapy alone is ineffective...
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537091/convergence-between-observations-and-interviews-in-clinical-diagnosis-of-reactive-attachment-disorder-and-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorder
#4
Hans Peter Giltaij, Paula Sophia Sterkenburg, Carlo Schuengel
OBJECTIVE: A comprehensive approach is needed for diagnosing disordered attachment behavior due to the multifaceted nature of attachment. Differences between various indicators can pose a challenge for deciding on the proper diagnosis. This study assessed the convergence between clinical interview assessment and observation-based clinical diagnosis, and their linkages with inadequate care. METHOD: Participating children ( N = 55) had intelligence quotients (IQs) between 50 and 85 and were referred for psychiatric consultation...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401844/signs-of-reactive-attachment-disorder-and-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorder-at-age-12-years-effects-of-institutional-care-history-and-high-quality-foster-care
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kathryn L Humphreys, Charles A Nelson, Nathan A Fox, Charles H Zeanah
Two disorders of attachment have been consistently identified in some young children following severe deprivation in early life: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder. However, less is known about whether signs of these disorders persist into adolescence. We examined signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years in 111 children who were abandoned at or shortly after birth and subsequently randomized to care as usual or to high-quality foster care, as well as in 50 comparison children who were never institutionalized...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254669/reactive-attachment-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorders-callous-unemotional-traits-and-comorbid-disorders
#6
Susan Dickerson Mayes, Susan L Calhoun, Daniel A Waschbusch, Rosanna P Breaux, Raman Baweja
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) are rare, understudied, and controversial disorders. METHODS: Comorbidity in children diagnosed with RAD or DSED was compared with comorbidity in ADHD and autism to determine if RAD/DSED comorbidity differed from that for the two most common disorders in child psychiatric clinics. Samples included 4-17-year-olds, 20 with RAD and/or DSED, 933 with autism, and 895 with ADHD...
February 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141706/attached-to-a-diagnosis-the-quandary-of-social-deficits-and-reactive-attachment-disorder
#7
Randall Phelps, Debra Eisert, Susan Schulz, Marilyn Augustyn
Alex is a 9-year-old boy brought to you, his primary care provider, for a "fifth opinion." You have cared for Alex since he was adopted from a Romanian orphanage at 3 years of age. He has been physically healthy with normal growth parameters and no evidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alex has long-standing history of social difficulties, impulsivity, lying, controlling, manipulative behaviors, violent outbursts at home with subsequent lack of remorse, and excessive chatter. You referred Alex to an interdisciplinary child development clinic 2 years ago, where he was diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126657/a-study-of-attachment-disorders-in-young-offenders-attending-specialist-services
#8
Kate Moran, Jennifer McDonald, Alison Jackson, Sue Turnbull, Helen Minnis
Attachment disorders, specifically Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) are disorders associated with neglect and abuse in which people have significant difficulties relating to others. This study aims to explore Attachment Disorder symptoms and diagnoses in young offenders and factors that may be associated with them such as mental health problems. A cross-sectional design was used with 29 young people who were known to Intensive Services, aged 12-17 (M=16.2, SD=1...
March 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895198/autism-and-reactive-attachment-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorders-co-occurrence-and-differentiation
#9
Susan Dickerson Mayes, Susan L Calhoun, Daniel A Waschbusch, Raman Baweja
DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition) Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) are rare disorders sharing social difficulties with autism. The DSM-5 and ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revsion) state that RAD/DSED should not be diagnosed in children with autism. The purpose of our study is to determine whether children can meet criteria for both autism and RAD/DSED and to identify specific symptoms discriminating the disorders...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806867/practice-parameter-for-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-reactive-attachment-disorder-and-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorder
#10
Charles H Zeanah, Tessa Chesher, Neil W Boris
This Practice Parameter is a revision of a previous Parameter addressing reactive attachment disorder that was published in 2005. It reviews the current status of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and disinhibited social engagement disorder (DESD) with regard to assessment and treatment. Attachment is a central component of social and emotional development in early childhood, and disordered attachment is defined by specific patterns of abnormal social behavior in the context of "insufficient care" or social neglect...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775024/neurobiochemical-changes-in-the-vicinity-of-a-nanostructured-neural-implant
#11
Zsófia Bérces, Kinga Tóth, Gergely Márton, Ildikó Pál, Bálint Kováts-Megyesi, Zoltán Fekete, István Ulbert, Anita Pongrácz
Neural interface technologies including recording and stimulation electrodes are currently in the early phase of clinical trials aiming to help patients with spinal cord injuries, degenerative disorders, strokes interrupting descending motor pathways, or limb amputations. Their lifetime is of key importance; however, it is limited by the foreign body response of the tissue causing the loss of neurons and a reactive astrogliosis around the implant surface. Improving the biocompatibility of implant surfaces, especially promoting neuronal attachment and regeneration is therefore essential...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735969/mental-health-issues-in-foster-care
#12
W David Lohr, V Faye Jones
Children in foster care have exceptional needs due to their histories of abuse, neglect, and increased exposure to violence. The rates of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder, are much higher in children in foster care; furthermore, the rate of these children receiving psychotropic medications is 3 times that of children who are not in foster care. Pediatricians, in their role of providing a medical home, play a central role in safeguarding the physical and mental health of these children...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548462/mentalization-mediates-the-relationship-between-early-maltreatment-and-potential-for-violence-in-adolescence
#13
Svenja Taubner, Laura Zimmermann, Axel Ramberg, Paul Schröder
AIM: The present study investigates the role of attachment representation and mentalization as possibly protective factors in the relationship between early maltreatment and potential for violence in adolescence. METHODS: For the current study, 161 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, were recruited from high schools and youth psychiatry. Early maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, attachment was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, and mentalization was coded with the Reflective Functioning Scale from Adult Attachment Interviews...
2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366788/association-between-reactive-attachment-disorder-disinhibited-social-engagement-disorder-and-emerging-personality-disorder-a-feasibility-study
#14
Khadija Mirza, Gracia Mwimba, Rachel Pritchett, Claire Davidson
A systematic review of reactive attachment disorder (RAD)/disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) in adolescence highlighted that young people with the disorder had indiscriminate friendliness with difficulties in establishing and maintaining stable relationships. Most reported experiences of rejection. We were struck by similarities between the above and features of emergence of personality disorders (EPD). This feasibility study aimed to determine best ways of recruiting and retaining vulnerable young people and the proportion of participants with RAD/DSED who might have emerging borderline personality disorder (EBPD)...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278250/mentalization-based-treatment-for-psychotic-disorder-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Jonas Weijers, Coriene Ten Kate, Elisabeth Eurelings-Bontekoe, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Rutger Rampaart, Anthony Bateman, Jean-Paul Selten
BACKGROUND: Many patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder suffer from impairments in social functioning and social cognition. To target these impairments, mentalization-based treatment for psychotic disorder, a psychodynamic treatment rooted in attachment theory, has been developed. It is expected to improve social cognition, and thereby to improve social functioning. The treatment is further expected to increase quality of life and the awareness of having a mental disorder, and to reduce substance abuse, social stress reactivity, positive symptoms, negative, anxious and depressive symptoms...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262444/the-socio-behavioral-development-of-children-with-symptoms-of-attachment-disorder-an-observational-study-of-teacher-sensitivity-in-special-education
#16
Jantine L Spilt, Eleonora Vervoort, Anne-Katrien Koenen, Guy Bosmans, Karine Verschueren
BACKGROUND: Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) have serious socio-behavioral problems and often rely on socially abnormal, aggressive, and manipulative forms of communication. Little is known, however, about the influence of teachers on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD. AIMS: This longitudinal study examined the influence of teacher sensitivity on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD across one school year...
September 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242601/intense-passionate-romantic-love-a-natural-addiction-how-the-fields-that-investigate-romance-and-substance-abuse-can-inform-each-other
#17
REVIEW
Helen E Fisher, Xiaomeng Xu, Arthur Aron, Lucy L Brown
Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain's "reward system," specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150924/preliminary-evidence-for-impaired-brain-activity-of-neural-reward-processing-in-children-and-adolescents-with-reactive-attachment-disorder
#18
Akemi Tomoda
Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases risks for psychopathology, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Especially, exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) or interparental violence during childhood is associated with negative outcomes such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and reduced cognitive abilities. Other forms of childhood maltreatment have been associated with brain structure or developmental alteration. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects of PVA and witnessing domestic violence during childhood on brain morphology, including gray matter volume or cortical thickness...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100510/chondroitin-sulfate-and-neuronal-disorders
#19
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in several aspects of neuronal development, plasticity, and pathophysiology. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), consisting of core proteins with covalently attached chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, are essential components of the brain ECM. During late postnatal development, CSPGs condense around parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV-cells) and form lattice-like ECM structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Enzymatic or genetic manipulation of PNNs reactivates neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, probably by resetting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neural networks...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911277/the-role-of-sex-and-autonomy-connectedness-in-internalizing-and-externalizing-personality-pathology-coping-and-axis-i-pathology-among-psychiatric-and-healthy-elderly
#20
Nathan Bachrach, Marcel Croon, Marrie Bekker
OBJECTIVES: In the current study we investigated the relationship of sex and autonomy-connectedness with internalizing and externalizing personality disorder symptoms (PDS), coping and axis-I pathology in older age. METHOD: A path model was tested which was based on neo-analytical object relation, attachment- and primary-personality theory, among 100 clinical and 106 non-clinical elderly. RESULTS: In line with our model, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness and capacity of managing new situations) was strongly associated to internalizing PDS in both groups...
June 2017: Aging & Mental Health
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