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Reactive Attachment Disorder

W David Lohr, V Faye Jones
Children in foster care have exceptional needs due to their histories of abuse, neglect, and increased exposure to violence. The rates of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder, are much higher in children in foster care; furthermore, the rate of these children receiving psychotropic medications is 3 times that of children who are not in foster care. Pediatricians, in their role of providing a medical home, play a central role in safeguarding the physical and mental health of these children...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Svenja Taubner, Laura Zimmermann, Axel Ramberg, Paul Schröder
AIM: The present study investigates the role of attachment representation and mentalization as possibly protective factors in the relationship between early maltreatment and potential for violence in adolescence. METHODS: For the current study, 161 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, were recruited from high schools and youth psychiatry. Early maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, attachment was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, and mentalization was coded with the Reflective Functioning Scale from Adult Attachment Interviews...
August 23, 2016: Psychopathology
Khadija Mirza, Gracia Mwimba, Rachel Pritchett, Claire Davidson
A systematic review of reactive attachment disorder (RAD)/disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) in adolescence highlighted that young people with the disorder had indiscriminate friendliness with difficulties in establishing and maintaining stable relationships. Most reported experiences of rejection. We were struck by similarities between the above and features of emergence of personality disorders (EPD). This feasibility study aimed to determine best ways of recruiting and retaining vulnerable young people and the proportion of participants with RAD/DSED who might have emerging borderline personality disorder (EBPD)...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Jonas Weijers, Coriene Ten Kate, Elisabeth Eurelings-Bontekoe, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Rutger Rampaart, Anthony Bateman, Jean-Paul Selten
BACKGROUND: Many patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder suffer from impairments in social functioning and social cognition. To target these impairments, mentalization-based treatment for psychotic disorder, a psychodynamic treatment rooted in attachment theory, has been developed. It is expected to improve social cognition, and thereby to improve social functioning. The treatment is further expected to increase quality of life and the awareness of having a mental disorder, and to reduce substance abuse, social stress reactivity, positive symptoms, negative, anxious and depressive symptoms...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Jantine L Spilt, Eleonora Vervoort, Anne-Katrien Koenen, Guy Bosmans, Karine Verschueren
BACKGROUND: Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) have serious socio-behavioral problems and often rely on socially abnormal, aggressive, and manipulative forms of communication. Little is known, however, about the influence of teachers on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD. AIMS: This longitudinal study examined the influence of teacher sensitivity on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD across one school year...
September 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Helen E Fisher, Xiaomeng Xu, Arthur Aron, Lucy L Brown
Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain's "reward system," specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Akemi Tomoda
Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases risks for psychopathology, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Especially, exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) or interparental violence during childhood is associated with negative outcomes such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and reduced cognitive abilities. Other forms of childhood maltreatment have been associated with brain structure or developmental alteration. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects of PVA and witnessing domestic violence during childhood on brain morphology, including gray matter volume or cortical thickness...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in several aspects of neuronal development, plasticity, and pathophysiology. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), consisting of core proteins with covalently attached chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, are essential components of the brain ECM. During late postnatal development, CSPGs condense around parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV-cells) and form lattice-like ECM structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Enzymatic or genetic manipulation of PNNs reactivates neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, probably by resetting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neural networks...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Nathan Bachrach, Marcel Croon, Marrie Bekker
OBJECTIVES: In the current study we investigated the relationship of sex and autonomy-connectedness with internalizing and externalizing personality disorder symptoms (PDS), coping and axis-I pathology in older age. METHOD: A path model was tested which was based on neo-analytical object relation, attachment- and primary-personality theory, among 100 clinical and 106 non-clinical elderly. RESULTS: In line with our model, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness and capacity of managing new situations) was strongly associated to internalizing PDS in both groups...
February 25, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
Alison Pawlicki, Erin Avery, Matthew Jurow, Bradley Ewers, Ayelet Vilan, Charles Michael Drain, James Batteas
Directing molecular devices into pre-designed integrated electronic circuits while enforcing selectivity and hierarchy is an inherent challenge for molecular electronics. Here we explore ways to direct the assembly of electrically-active molecular monolayers into specific locations as well as controlling their internal organization. We have accomplished this by two consecutive surface reactions: (1) forming pentanedithiol (C5DT) domains within an inert alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Au; and (2) selectively binding porphyrin derivatives to the C5DT domains...
March 9, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Wen Li, Yuen-Ki Cheong, Hui Wang, Guogang Ren, Zhuo Yang
Etidronate is one of the best known bisphosphonates (BP) derivatives. It is often used as a reference drug in research related to hypercalcaemia and other common bone diseases. 2,3,3-trisphosphonate (TrisPP) is brand new analogue of BP, that also contains a 'germinal bisphosphonate' unit with an additional phosphoryl group attached in proximity to the BP unit. It is known that BPs bind to calcium by chemisorptions to form Ca-BP complexes through (O)P-C-P(O) moiety and hydrogen coordinations, and so they suppress calcium flow by interfering with Ca(2+) channel operations...
April 2016: Neurochemical Research
Orlando José Castejón
The biopathology of astrocyte cells in severe human brain traumatic injuries complicated with subdural and epidural haematoma and hygroma is reviewed. Clear and dense oedematous and hypertrophic reactive astrocytes are distinguished in severe primary traumatic vasogenic and secondary cytotoxic brain oedema. Swollen perineuronal astrocytes appear compressing and indenting clear and dark degenerated pyramidal and non-pyramidal nerve cells, degenerated myelinated axons and synaptic contacts. Hypertrophic astrocytes display dense cytoplasm and contain numerous rosettes of alpha, beta- and gamma-type glycogen granules, swollen mitochondria, dilated smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, oedematous Golgi apparatus, microtubules, gliofilaments, intermediate filaments, lysosomes and liposomes...
2015: Folia Neuropathologica
Lavinia Lumu, Lynda Albertyn, Christopher Paul Szabo
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical presentation and service requirements for those under six years of age referred to a specialised child and adolescent psychiatry unit. METHOD: This study used a retrospective review of preschoolers, six years and younger, assessed at a child, family and adolescent psychiatric unit (January 2006 to 31 December 2010). Data analysis established predominant diagnoses (prevalence percentages) and correlations and associations (diagnoses and a range of clinical variables - Fischer's exact test and chi-square test)...
2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Kei Mizuno, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Mika Yamazaki, Mizuki Asano, Shiho Kato, Kikuko Kuriyama, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Norihiro Sadato, Akemi Tomoda
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is characterized by markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness due to parental maltreatment. RAD patients often display a high number of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and certain RAD symptoms are difficult to discriminate from ADHD. One of the core characteristics of ADHD is a decrease in neural reward processing due to dopamine dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the brain activity involved in reward processing in RAD patients is impaired in comparison with ADHD patients and typically developed controls...
October 2015: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Koji Shimada, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Sakae Mizushima, Takashi X Fujisawa, Daisuke N Saito, Hirotaka Kosaka, Hidehiko Okazawa, Akemi Tomoda
Child maltreatment increases the risk for psychiatric disorders throughout childhood and into adulthood. One negative outcome of child maltreatment can be a disorder of emotional functioning, reactive attachment disorder (RAD), where the child displays wary, watchful, and emotionally withdrawn behaviours. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of RAD. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether RAD was associated with alterations in grey matter volume (GMV)...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
Barry Wright, Melissa Barry, Ellen Hughes, Dominic Trépel, Shehzad Ali, Victoria Allgar, Lucy Cottrill, Steven Duffy, Jenny Fell, Julie Glanville, Danya Glaser, Lisa Hackney, Laura Manea, Dean McMillan, Stephen Palmer, Vivien Prior, Clare Whitton, Amanda Perry, Simon Gilbody
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for 'severe attachment problems' (disorganised attachment patterns and attachment disorders). Several government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at-risk groups. This report was commissioned to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parenting interventions for children with severe attachment problems (the main review). One supplementary review explored the evaluation of assessment tools and a second reviewed 10-year outcome data to better inform health economic aspects of the main review...
July 2015: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Christian T Madsen, Kathrine B Sylvestersen, Clifford Young, Sara C Larsen, Jon W Poulsen, Marianne A Andersen, Eva A Palmqvist, Martin Hey-Mogensen, Per B Jensen, Jonas T Treebak, Michael Lisby, Michael L Nielsen
The essential vitamin biotin is a covalent and tenaciously attached prosthetic group in several carboxylases that play important roles in the regulation of energy metabolism. Here we describe increased acetyl-CoA levels and mitochondrial hyperacetylation as downstream metabolic effects of biotin deficiency. Upregulated mitochondrial acetylation sites correlate with the cellular deficiency of the Hst4p deacetylase, and a biotin-starvation-induced accumulation of Hst4p in mitochondria supports a role for Hst4p in lowering mitochondrial acetylation...
2015: Nature Communications
Kai von Klitzing, Mirko Döhnert, Michael Kroll, Matthias Grube
BACKGROUND: About 17% of all children suffer from a mental disorder in early childhood, defined as the period up to the age of 6 years. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and the Web of Science, as well as on the authors' clinical and scientific experience. RESULTS: In children up to age 2, disorders of emotional and motor regulation are common (ca. 7%), as are feeding problems (25%), which persist in 2% of children to meet the diagnostic criteria for a feeding disorder...
May 25, 2015: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Stine Lehmann, Kyrre Breivik, Einar R Heiervang, Toril Havik, Odd E Havik
This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and external correlates of the constructs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following were addressed: First, do our data support the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD/DSED as two separate constructs? Second, are RAD and DSED distinct from other well-established dimensions of child psychopathology? Third, what are the external correlates of RAD/DSED in this sample? The study sample included 122 foster children aged 6-10 years...
April 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Claire Davidson, Anne O'Hare, Fiona Mactaggart, Jonathan Green, David Young, Christopher Gillberg, Helen Minnis
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) versus Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a common diagnostic challenge for clinicians due to overlapping difficulties with social relationships. RAD is associated with neglect or maltreatment whereas ASD is not: accurate differential diagnosis is therefore critical. Very little research has investigated the relationship between the two, and it is unknown if standardised measures are able to discriminate between ASD and RAD. The current study aimed to address these issues...
May 2015: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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