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cavia porcellus

Miranda J Sadar, Heather K Knych, Tracy L Drazenovich, Joanne R Paul-Murphy
OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics and sedative effects of buprenorphine after IV and oral transmucosal (OTM) administration in guinea pigs. ANIMALS 14 male guinea pigs (6 adults for preliminary experiment; eight 8 to 11-week-old animals for primary study). PROCEDURES A preliminary experiment was conducted to determine an appropriate buprenorphine dose. In the primary study, buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg) was administered IV or OTM, and blood samples were obtained. The pH of the oral cavity was measured before OTM administration...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Helene F Rosenberg, Kirk M Druey
Asthma is a chronic, heterogeneous, and recurring inflammatory disease of the lower airways, with exacerbations that feature airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Asthma has been modeled extensively via disease induction in both wild-type and genetically manipulated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). Antigen sensitization and challenge strategies have reproduced numerous important features of airway inflammation characteristic of human asthma, notably the critical roles of type 2 T helper cell cytokines...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Dario d'Ovidio, Francesco Marino, Emilio Noviello, Enrico Lanaro, Paolo Monticelli, Chiara Adami
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of alfaxalone administered intramuscularly (IM) as a sedative agent in guinea pigs undergoing survey radiographs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. ANIMALS: A total of 30 client-owned guinea pigs. METHODS: Following baseline assessments, 5 mg kg-1 alfaxalone was administered IM. Heart rate, arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, rectal body temperature, palpebral reflex, response to toe and ear pinch, righting reflex, posture, jaw tone and reaction to manipulation were assessed before and after sedation at 5-minute intervals...
September 18, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Joice Magali Brustolin, Felipe da Silva Krawczak, Marta Elena Machado Alves, Maria Amélia Weiller, Camila Lopes de Souza, Fábio Brum Rosa, Gustavo Cauduro Cadore, Sônia Terezinha Dos Anjos Lopes, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel, Sônia de Avila Botton, Luís Antônio Sangioni
This study describes experimental infection of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) infested with naturally infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain), and the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit this bacterium. Twenty-six guinea pigs were divided into the following groups: G1, 10 animals infested with uninfected A. ovale nymphs; G2, 10 animals infested with nymphs infected with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain); and G3, 6 animals without tick infestation. Blood samples were taken 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infestation for serological and hematological tests...
January 27, 2018: Parasitology Research
Jatziri Torres-Vargas, Matilde Jiménez-Coello, Eugenia Guzmán-Marín, Karla Y Acosta-Viana, Zaida E Yadon, Eduardo Gutiérrez-Blanco, José Leonardo Guillermo-Cordero, Nisha J Garg, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on fertility, gestation outcome, and maternal-fetal transmission in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). METHODS: Animals were infected with T. cruzi H4 strain (TcI lineage) before gestation (IBG) or during gestation (IDG). Tissue and sera samples of dams and fetuses were obtained near parturition. RESULTS: All IBG and IDG dams were seropositive by two tests, and exhibited blood parasite load of 1...
January 24, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Deborah Carbonera Guedes, João Carlos Minozzo, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi Pasquali, Craig Faulds, Carlos Ricardo Soccol, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol
INTRODUCTION: The production of the Montenegro antigen for skin test poses difficulties regarding quality control. Here, we propose that certain animal models reproducing a similar immune response to humans may be used in the quality control of Montenegro antigen production. METHODS: Fifteen Cavia porcellus (guinea pigs) were immunized with Leishmania amazonensis or Leishmania braziliensis , and, after 30 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Nichole L Beebe, Brett R Schofield
Perineuronal nets (PNs) are aggregates of extracellular matrix molecules that surround some neurons in the brain. While PNs occur widely across many cortical areas, subcortical PNs are especially associated with motor and auditory systems. The auditory system has recently been suggested as an ideal model system for studying PNs and their functions. However, descriptions of PNs in subcortical auditory areas vary, and it is unclear whether the variation reflects species differences or differences in staining techniques...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Larissa F Paranaiba, Lucélia J Pinheiro, Diego H Macedo, Armando Menezes-Neto, Ana C Torrecilhas, Wagner L Tafuri, Rodrigo P Soares
One of the Leishmania species known to be non-infective to humans is Leishmania (Mundinia) enriettii whose vertebrate host is the guinea pig Cavia porcellus. It is a good model for cutaneous leishmaniasis, chemotherapeutic and molecular studies. In the last years, an increased interest has emerged concerning the L. (Mundinia) subgenus after the finding of Leishmania (M.) macropodum in Australia and with the description of other new/putative species such as L. (M.) martiniquensis and 'L. (M.) siamensis'. This review focused on histopathology, glycoconjugates and innate immunity...
December 10, 2017: Parasitology
Hani Boshra, Wioleta M Zelek, Timothy R Hughes, Santiago Rodriguez de Cordoba, B Paul Morgan
CD59 is a membrane-bound regulatory protein that inhibits the assembly of the terminal membrane attack complex (C5b-9) of complement. From its original discovery in humans almost 30 years ago, CD59 has been characterized in a variety of species, from primates to early vertebrates, such as teleost fish. CD59 is ubiquitous in mammals; however, we have described circumstantial evidence suggesting that guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) lack CD59, at least on erythrocytes. In this study, we have used a combination of phylogenetic analyses with syntenic alignment of mammalian CD59 genes to identify the only span of genomic DNA in C...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Lily A B Parkinson, Jennifer C Hausmann, Robert J Hardie, Megan A Mickelson, Kurt K Sladky
CASE DESCRIPTION A 5-year-old sexually intact female guinea pig was evaluated because of mild dysuria and a subcutaneous mass located cranioventral to the urogenital openings. CLINICAL FINDINGS Non-contrast-enhanced CT and surgical exploration of the distal aspect of the urethra revealed a urethral diverticulum with an intraluminal urolith. Analysis revealed that the urolith was composed of calcium carbonate and struvite. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The urolith was surgically removed and ablation of the urethral diverticulum was attempted...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Kelsey L Anbuhl, Victor Benichoux, Nathaniel T Greene, Andrew D Brown, Daniel J Tollin
The morphology of the head and pinna shape the spatial and frequency dependence of sound propagation that give rise to the acoustic cues to sound source location. During early development, the physical dimensions of the head and pinna increase rapidly. Thus, the binaural (interaural time and level differences, ITD and ILD) and monaural (spectral shape) cues are also hypothesized to change rapidly. Complex interactions between the size and shape of the head and pinna limit the accuracy of simple acoustical models (e...
December 2017: Hearing Research
Tara J Fetzer, Christoph Mans
An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity...
2017: Open Veterinary Journal
Alireza Zahedi, Zoey Durmic, Alexander W Gofton, Susan Kueh, Jill Austen, Malcolm Lawson, Lauren Callahan, John Jardine, Una Ryan
The morphological, biological, and molecular characterisation of a new Cryptosporidium species from the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium homai n. sp. is proposed. Histological analysis conducted on a post-mortem sample from a guinea pig euthanised due to respiratory distress, identified developmental stages of C. homai n. sp. (trophozoites and meronts) along the intestinal epithelium. Molecular analysis at 18S rRNA (18S), actin and hsp70 loci was then conducted on faeces from an additional 7 guinea pigs positive for C...
October 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Julia Hankel, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Martina Warschau, Anna Milena Thöle, Michael Fehr
OBJECTIVE: Renal tumours apparently are rare not only in cats and dogs, but also in guinea pigs and can be difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings in guinea pigs with renal tumours. Furthermore, the symptoms, diagnostic possibilities and therapy are compared with renal tumours in other small animals, including cats and dogs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During a period of 4 years and 4 months the data of guinea pigs that had been presented in the clinic were retrospectively analysed...
September 20, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Florence Mujinga Kampemba, Innocent Muamba Tshibangu, Nathan Utshudienyema Nyongombe, Jean-Luc Hornick
Nine fodders commonly offered to the guinea pigs by the breeders in Lubumbashi (Democratic Republic of Congo) were compared for chemical composition and for both daily dry matter intake and palatability indices by using 13 three-month-old guinea pigs. Four different plant families were provided to each guinea pig, and each animal was exposed to all the experimental diets studied for 8 consecutive days. The fodder species were three grasses: Trypsacum laxum, Panicum maximum, and Pennisetum purpureum; three trees or bushes Moringa oleifera, Leucaena leucocephala, and Bauhinia variegata; and three flowering plants Bidens oligoflora, Bidens pilosa, and Commelina diffusa...
December 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Deborah L Beaudoin, Mania Kupershtok, Jonathan B Demb
The mammalian retina encodes visual information in dim light using rod photoreceptors and a specialized circuit: rods→rod bipolar cells→AII amacrine cell. The AII amacrine cell uses sign-conserving electrical synapses to modulate ON cone bipolar cell terminals and sign-inverting chemical (glycinergic) synapses to modulate OFF cone cell bipolar terminals; these ON and OFF cone bipolar terminals then drive the output neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), following light increments and decrements, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sampath K Gollapudi, Sherif M Reda, Murali Chandra
Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a pharmacological agent that augments cardiac contractile function by enhancing myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Given that interventions that increase myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity have the potential to alter length-dependent activation (LDA) of cardiac myofilaments, we tested the influence of OM on this fundamental property of the heart. This is significant not only because LDA is prominent in cardiac muscle but also because it contributes to the Frank-Starling law, a mechanism by which the heart increases stroke volume in response to an increase in venous return...
August 22, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Luciana S Simões, Tais H C Sasahara, Phelipe O Favaron, Ricardo Marques, Moacir F DE Oliveira, Márcia R F Machado, Maria Angelica Miglino
The germinative, Sertoli and Leydig cells of two caviomorph rodents (Cavia porcellus and Dasyprocta agouti) were counted as well as the estimation of the total volume of the testis and the total volume of seminiferous tubules and interstitium in prepubertal, pubertal and adult animals. The number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids cells increased during the pubertal phase in both rodents, notably the spermatid cells. The spermatocyte and spermatid slightly decreased in the adult of both rodents, but the increment in spermatogonia cells number was seen, mainly in cutias...
July 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jiri Killer, Radko Pechar, Pavel Švec, Hana Salmonová, Roman Švejstil, Martina Geigerová, Vojtěch Rada, Eva Vlková, Chahrazed Mekadim
A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-negative bacterial strain designated MOZM2T, having 98.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016T, was isolated from a swab of the oral cavity of a home-bred guinea pig. Comparative analyses based on the hsp60, pheS and tuf genes confirmed L. reuteri as its closest relative species, with calculated sequence similarities of 92.8, 88.8 and 96.9 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridisation revealed a 42 % degree of genetic similarity between the novel strain and L...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Hana Sechovcová, Jiri Killer, Radko Pechar, Martina Geigerová, Roman Švejstil, Hana Salmonová, Chahrazed Mekadim, Vojtěch Rada, Eva Vlková, Olga Kofroňová, Oldřich Benada
A slightly irregular, short rod-shaped bacterial strain, MOZIV/2T, showing activity of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase was isolated from the oral cavity of a home-bred guinea-pig. Based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, its closest relatives were Alloscardovia omnicolens DSM 21503T and Alloscardovia criceti DSM 17774T with 96.0 and 95.6 % pairwise similarities, respectively. Completeness of the compared sequences was 97.3 and 96.9 %, respectively. Growth was found only under anaerobic conditions...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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