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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648543/seasonal-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-against-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-hospitalizations-latin-america-2013
#1
Nathalie El Omeiri, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Mark G Thompson, Wilfrido Clará, Mauricio Cerpa, Rakhee Palekar, Sara Mirza, Alba María Ropero-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Despite widespread utilization of influenza vaccines, effectiveness (VE) has not been routinely measured in Latin America. METHODS: We used a case test-negative control design to estimate trivalent inactivated influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized children aged 6months-5years and adults aged ≥60years which are age-groups targeted for vaccination. We sought persons with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI), hospitalized at 71 sentinel hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, and Paraguay during January-December 2013...
June 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646962/the-long-shadow-of-lemierre-s-syndrome
#2
Joshua Osowicki, Sarah Kapur, Linny Kimly Phuong, Simon Dobson
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare and feared complication of pharyngitis, occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. It is typically defined by the constellation of septic internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, pulmonary and other septic emboli, and sterilesite infection by Fusobacterium necrophorum. The rarity and severity of Lemierre's syndrome has made it an attractive subject for case reports but there is a paucity of evidence to inform areas of persistent uncertainty. In recent years, heightened attention and controversy has focused upon speculation that a purported rise in the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome is due to reduced antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections, that F...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638723/low-dose-methotrexate-in-sickle-cell-disease-a-pilot-study-with-rationale-borrowed-from-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Silvia R Brandalise, Rosemary Assis, Angelo B A Laranjeira, José Andrés Yunes, Pedro O de Campos-Lima
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a major feature of sickle cell disease (SCD). Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) has long been used in chronic inflammatory diseases. This pilot study examined the MTX effect on acute vaso-occlusive pain crises (VOC) in SCD patients. METHODS: Fourteen adults on hydroxyurea with severe and refractory VOC received one intramuscular injection of 10 mg of MTX per week for 12 weeks. A single weekly dose of 5 mg of leucovorin was administered orally 48 h after each MTX injection...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626902/haemophilus-influenzae-oral-vaccination-for-preventing-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
REVIEW
Edward Teo, Kathleen Lockhart, Sai Navya Purchuri, Jennifer Pushparajah, Allan W Cripps, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626021/acute-segmental-poliomyelitis-like-flaccid-paralysis-in-an-adult-in-the-uk-associated-with-enterovirus-d68
#5
Sybil R L Stacpoole, Adam Molyneux, Dirk Bäumer
Enterovirus D68 has been associated with a poliomyelitis-like illness, notably during an outbreak in 2014, and particularly affecting children in the USA. We report a case of acute segmental flaccid paralysis with respiratory involvement in an adult in the UK, with enterovirus D68 detected in a sputum sample. MR imaging of cervical spinal cord showed a longitudinally extensive T2 hyperintensity in the anterior cord. Cerebrospinal fluid showed an elevated white cell count, predominantly lymphocytic, with otherwise normal constituents and negative viral PCRs...
June 16, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611111/the-impact-of-interventions-to-improve-the-quality-of-prescribing-and-use-of-antibiotics-in-primary-care-patients-with-respiratory-tract-infections-a-systematic-review-protocol
#6
Nahara Anani Martínez-González, Samuel Coenen, Andreas Plate, Annelies Colliers, Thomas Rosemann, Oliver Senn, Stefan Neuner-Jehle
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common reason for primary care (PC) consultations and for antibiotic prescribing and use. The majority of RTIs have a viral aetiology however, and antibiotic consumption is ineffective and unnecessary. Inappropriate antibiotic use contributes greatly to antibiotic resistance (ABR) leading to complications, increased adverse events, reconsultations and costs. Improving antibiotic consumption is thus crucial to containing ABR, which has become an urgent priority worldwide...
June 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601216/usefulness-of-ct-value-in-acute-respiratory-infections-caused-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-and-b-and-influenza-virus-a-h1n1-pdm09-a-h3n2-and-b
#7
Jordi Reina, Carmen Morales, María Busquets, Cristina Norte
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory infections of viral cause are very frequent entities. The difficulty in evaluating the detection of a virus in these entities could be solved by determining the viral load. METHODS: A prospective study on the mean Ct value (cycle threshold value) detected against RSV-A, RSV-B and influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2) and B viruses in patients of different origin and age was performed. Detection was performed using a commercial molecular amplification (RT-PCR) technique...
June 7, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599676/a-randomized-trial-of-supplemental-parenteral-nutrition-in-underweight-and-overweight-critically-ill-patients-the-top-up-pilot-trial
#8
Paul E Wischmeyer, Michel Hasselmann, Christine Kummerlen, Rosemary Kozar, Demetrios James Kutsogiannis, Constantine J Karvellas, Beth Besecker, David K Evans, Jean-Charles Preiser, Leah Gramlich, Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, Rupinder Dhaliwal, Xuran Jiang, Andrew G Day, Daren K Heyland
BACKGROUND: Nutrition guidelines recommendations differ on the use of parenteral nutrition (PN), and existing clinical trial data are inconclusive. Our recent observational data show that amounts of energy/protein received early in the intensive care unit (ICU) affect patient mortality, particularly for inadequate nutrition intake in patients with body mass indices (BMIs) of <25 or >35. Thus, we hypothesized increased nutrition delivery via supplemental PN (SPN) + enteral nutrition (EN) to underweight and obese ICU patients would improve 60-day survival and quality of life (QoL) versus usual care (EN alone)...
June 9, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592328/severe-varicella-zoster-virus-pneumonia-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#9
Adrien Mirouse, Philippe Vignon, Prescillia Piron, René Robert, Laurent Papazian, Guillaume Géri, Pascal Blanc, Christophe Guitton, Claude Guérin, Naïke Bigé, Antoine Rabbat, Aurélie Lefebvre, Keyvan Razazi, Muriel Fartoukh, Eric Mariotte, Lila Bouadma, Jean-Damien Ricard, Amélie Seguin, Bertrand Souweine, Anne-Sophie Moreau, Stanislas Faguer, Arnaud Mari, Julien Mayaux, Francis Schneider, Annabelle Stoclin, Pierre Perez, Julien Maizel, Charles Lafon, Frédérique Ganster, Laurent Argaud, Christophe Girault, François Barbier, Lucien Lecuyer, Jérôme Lambert, Emmanuel Canet
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a dreaded complication of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in adults; however, the data are limited. Our objective was to investigate the clinical features, management, and outcomes of critically ill patients with VZV-related community-acquired pneumonia (VZV-CAP). METHODS: This was an observational study of patients with VZV-CAP admitted to 29 intensive care units (ICUs) from January 1996 to January 2015. RESULTS: One hundred and two patients with VZV-CAP were included...
June 7, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580865/the-association-between-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-childhood-respiratory-disease-a-review
#10
A Vanker, R P Gie, H J Zar
Childhood respiratory illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in low and middle-income countries. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a recognised risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory illness. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review the epidemiology of ETS exposure and impact on respiratory health in children. We conducted a search of 3 electronic databases of publications on ETS and childhood respiratory illness from 1990-2015. Key findings were that up to 70% of children are exposed to ETS globally, but under-reporting may mask the true prevalence...
June 14, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567315/respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-myocarditis-requiring-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#11
Anamaria Milas, Aditya Shah, Neesha Anand, Meghan Saunders-Kurban, Samir Patel
Severe fulminant myocarditis causing cardiogenic shock can be a rapidly progressing, life threatening condition. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a very rare infectious culprit infrequently described in medical literature as a cause of myocarditis, particularly in adults. We present a case of acute fulminant myocarditis in a patient with PCR positive RSV infection requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO).
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560041/severe-acute-asthma-caused-by-chlamydophila-pneumoniae-infection
#12
Yoshinari Endo, Toshihiro Shirai, Mika Saigusa, Eisuke Mochizuki
Asthma exacerbation is associated with respiratory infections, including those by viruses and atypical bacteria. We herein report a case of severe acute asthma in an adult caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infection. A 39-year-old woman without a history of asthma reported to the emergency department with progressive worsening of cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing with low oxygen saturation. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed patchy ground-glass opacity and bronchial wall thickening...
July 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554207/provider-type-and-management-of-common-visits-in-primary-care
#13
Douglas W Roblin, Hangsheng Liu, Lee F Cromwell, Michael Robbins, Brandi E Robinson, David Auerbach, Ateev Mehrotra
OBJECTIVES: Debate continues on whether nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) are more likely to order ancillary services, or order more costly services among alternatives, than primary care physicians (PCPs). We compared prescription medication and diagnostic service orders associated with NP/PA versus PCP visits for management of neck or back (N/B) pain or acute respiratory infection (ARI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study of visits from January 2006 through March 2008 in the adult primary care practice of Kaiser Permanente in Atlanta, Georgia...
April 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546377/respiratory-care-considerations-in-the-childhood-cancer-patient
#14
Lama Elbahlawan, K Jason Rains, Dennis C Stokes
This article reviews the common pulmonary complications seen in the pediatric oncology population and our approach to diagnosis, management, and therapy considerations in this specialized population, including patients receiving chemotherapy, radiation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although infections cause the most significant complications in this population, non-infectious complications, including acute lung injury from chemotherapy or radiation, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, bronchiolitis obliterans, and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, also occur commonly...
June 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534038/analysis-of-mitochondrial-transfer-in-direct-co-cultures-of-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages-mdm-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-msc
#15
Megan V Jackson, Anna D Krasnodembskaya
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are adult stem cells which have been shown to improve survival, enhance bacterial clearance and alleviate inflammation in pre-clinical models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. These diseases are characterised by uncontrolled inflammation often underpinned by bacterial infection. The mechanisms of MSC immunomodulatory effects are not fully understood yet. We sought to investigate MSC cell contact-dependent communication with alveolar macrophages (AM), professional phagocytes which play an important role in the lung inflammatory responses and anti-bacterial defence...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526309/antimicrobial-stewardship-for-hospitalized-patients-with-viral-respiratory-tract-infections
#16
Christopher F Lowe, Michael Payne, David Puddicombe, Allison Mah, Davie Wong, Allison Kirkwood, Mark W Hull, Victor Leung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522352/immune-plasma-for-the-treatment-of-severe-influenza-an-open-label-multicentre-phase-2-randomised-study
#17
John H Beigel, Pablo Tebas, Marie-Carmelle Elie-Turenne, Ednan Bajwa, Todd E Bell, Charles B Cairns, Shmuel Shoham, Jaime G Deville, Eric Feucht, Judith Feinberg, Thomas Luke, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Janine Danko, Dorothy O'Neil, Julia A Metcalf, Karen King, Timothy H Burgess, Evgenia Aga, H Clifford Lane, Michael D Hughes, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite available treatments. Anecdotal reports suggest that plasma with high antibody titres to influenza might be of benefit in the treatment of severe influenza. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial, 29 academic medical centres in the USA assessed the safety and efficacy of anti-influenza plasma with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of 1:80 or more to the infecting strain...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505635/review-in-children-and-adults-vitamin-d3-supplementation-reduces-risk-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infection
#18
Henry S Sacks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502371/decreased-clinic-visits-for-acute-respiratory-infections-following-an-adult-tonsillectomy-a-population-based-study
#19
Shiu-Dong Chung, Shih-Han Hung, Herng-Ching Lin, Kuan-Chen Chen
PURPOSE: This study attempted to investigate the effects of a tonsillectomy on utilization of medical resources for acute respiratory infections by comparing numbers and costs of clinic visits within 1year before and after a tonsillectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for this study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The study includes 481 patients aged 18-80years who underwent a tonsillectomy and 481 comparison patients. A multivariate regression model employing difference-in-difference was carried out to assess the independent association between a tonsillectomy and the number and costs of clinic visits...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500974/ongoing-developments-in-rsv-prophylaxis-a-clinician-s-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Fariba Rezaee, Debra T Linfield, Terri J Harford, Giovanni Piedimonte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children worldwide. Lower respiratory tract infection due to RSV is one of the most common causes of hospitalization for infants, especially those born premature or with chronic lung or heart disease. Furthermore, RSV infection is an important cause of morbidity in adults, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The acute phase of this infection is often followed by episodes of wheezing that recur for months or years and usually lead to a physician diagnosis of asthma...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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