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acute respiratory infections in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225804/an-outbreak-of-acute-respiratory-disease-caused-by-a-virus-associated-rna-ii-gene-mutation-strain-of-human-adenovirus-7-in-china-2015
#1
Xiaoxia Yang, Qiongshu Wang, Beibei Liang, Fuli Wu, Hao Li, Hongbo Liu, Chunyu Sheng, Qiuxia Ma, Chaojie Yang, Jing Xie, Peng Li, Leili Jia, Ligui Wang, Xinying Du, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song
Human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) strains are a major cause of acute respiratory disease (ARD) among adults and children, associated with fatal pneumonia. An ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 that involved 739 college students was reported in this article. To better understand the underlying cause of this large-scale epidemic, virus strains were isolated from infected patients and sequence variations of the whole genome sequence were detected. Evolutionary trees and alignment results indicated that the major capsid protein genes hexon and fibre were strongly conserved among serotype 7 strains in China at that time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220740/the-spectrum-and-outcome-of-surgical-sepsis-in-pietermaritzburg-south-africa
#2
S Green, V Y Kong, D L Clarke, B Sartorius, J Odendaal, J L Bruce, G L Laing, P Brysiewicz, W Bekker, E Harknett
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the incidence appears to be increasing. In the resource-limited environment in low- and middle-income countries, the management of surgical sepsis (SS) continues to represent a significant portion of the workload for most general surgeons. OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of SS seen at a busy emergency department, and categorise the outcomes. METHODS: The Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS) and Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Surgical Service (PMSS) in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa (SA), maintain a prospective electronic registry...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220080/validation-of-a-method-for-the-assessment-of-urinary-neopterin-levels-to-monitor-health-status-in-non-human-primate-species
#3
Verena Behringer, Jeroen M G Stevens, Fabian H Leendertz, Gottfried Hohmann, Tobias Deschner
Determining individual health status is of great importance for a better understanding of life history trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and maintenance. However, existing immunological methods are invasive and therefore not suitable for investigating health status in wild populations. Thus, there is an urgent need for non-invasive methods to assess the immune status of animals. Neopterin is involved in the cell-mediated pathway of the immune response (Th1-type), secreted during the activation of monocytes and macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214758/comparative-analysis-of-viral-shedding-in-pediatric-and-adult-subjects-with-central-nervous-system-associated-enterovirus-infections-from-2013-to-2015-in-switzerland
#4
S Cordey, M Schibler, A G L'Huillier, N Wagner, A R Gonçalves, J Ambrosioni, S Asner, L Turin, K M Posfay-Barbe, L Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Several enterovirus (EV) genotypes can result in aseptic meningitis, but their routes of access to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated and may differ between the pediatric and adult populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the pattern of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with acute EV meningitis and to generate EV surveillance data for Switzerland. STUDY DESIGN: All pediatric and adult subjects admitted to the University Hospitals of Geneva with a diagnosis of EV meningitis between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213342/virtual-visits-for-acute-nonurgent-care-a-claims-analysis-of-episode-level-utilization
#5
Aliza S Gordon, Wallace C Adamson, Andrea R DeVries
BACKGROUND: Expansion of virtual health care-real-time video consultation with a physician via the Internet-will continue as use of mobile devices and patient demand for immediate, convenient access to care grow. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to analyze the care provided and the cost of virtual visits over a 3-week episode compared with in-person visits to retail health clinics (RHC), urgent care centers (UCC), emergency departments (ED), or primary care physicians (PCP) for acute, nonurgent conditions...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207689/interim-estimates-of-2016-17-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-united-states-february-2017
#6
Brendan Flannery, Jessie R Chung, Swathi N Thaker, Arnold S Monto, Emily T Martin, Edward A Belongia, Huong Q McLean, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Richard K Zimmerman, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael L Jackson, Lisa A Jackson, Angie Foust, Wendy Sessions, LaShondra Berman, Sarah Spencer, Alicia M Fry
In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (1). Each influenza season since 2004-05, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine to prevent influenza-associated, medically attended, acute respiratory illness (ARI). This report uses data, as of February 4, 2017, from 3,144 children and adults enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (U.S. Flu VE Network) during November 28, 2016-February 4, 2017, to estimate an interim adjusted effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection associated with medically attended ARI...
February 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193663/results-from-a-patient-based-health-education-intervention-in-reducing-antibiotic-use-for-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-private-sector-primary-care-setting-in-singapore
#7
Magdalene Hui Min Lee, Darius Shaw Teng Pan, Joyce Huixin Huang, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Joash Wen Chen Chong, Ee Hui Goh, Lili Jiang, Yee Sin Leo, Tau Hong Lee, Chia Siong Wong, Victor Weng Keong Loh, Fong Seng Lim, Adrian Zhongxian Poh, Tat Yean Tham, Wei Mon Wong, Yue Yu
We investigated the efficacy of patient-targeted education in reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) amongst adults in the private primary care setting in Singapore. Our randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 21 years and above presenting at GP (general practitioner) clinics with URTI symptoms for 7 days or less. Intervention arm patients were verbally educated via pamphlets about the aetiology of URTIs, role of antibiotics in treating URTIs, and consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183395/swine-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-siv-infection-requiring-extracorporeal-life-support-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-patient-with-indirect-exposure-to-pigs-italy-october-2016
#8
Francesca Rovida, Antonio Piralla, Federico Capra Marzani, Ana Moreno, Giulia Campanini, Francesco Mojoli, Marco Pozzi, Alessia Girello, Chiara Chiapponi, Fausto Vezzoli, Paola Prati, Elena Percivalle, Anna Pavan, Maria Gramegna, Giorgio Antonio Iotti, Fausto Baldanti
We describe a case of severe swine influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in an immunocompetent middle-aged man in October 2016 in Italy who had only indirect exposure to pigs. The patient developed a severe acute distress respiratory syndrome which was successfully supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and treated with antiviral therapy. The sole risk factor for influenza was a body mass index > 30 kg/m(2). After a month of hospitalisation, the patient was discharged in good health.
February 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182643/ige-sensitization-to-inhalant-allergens-and-the-risk-of-airway-infection-and-disease-a-population-based-study
#9
Tea Skaaby, Lise Lotte Nystrup Husemoen, Betina Heinsbæk Thuesen, Runa Vavia Fenger, Allan Linneberg
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization, which is the propensity to develop IgE antibodies against common environmental allergens, is associated with a lymphocyte T-helper type 2 (Th2) skewed immune response and a high risk of allergic respiratory disease. Little is known about whether IgE sensitization confers an increased risk of respiratory infections in adults. We investigated the association between IgE sensitization and the incidence of acute airway infections, other infections and chronic lower airway disease events as recorded in nation-wide registries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173962/prevalence-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-polish-adult-intensive-care-units-summary-data-from-the-ecdc-european-point-prevalence-survey-of-hospital-associated-infections-and-antimicrobial-use-in-poland-2012-2014
#10
A Deptuła, E Trejnowska, G Dubiel, M Żukowski, A Misiewska-Kaczur, T Ozorowski, W Hryniewicz
BACKGROUND: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. Local epidemiological studies need to be conducted to set the priorities for surveillance and prevention programmes. AIM: To investigate the epidemiology of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among patients admitted to Polish adult ICUs over a three-year period. METHODS: Data were collected according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) European Union Point Prevalence Survey of Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use in European Acute Care Hospitals (EU-PPS HAI & AU) protocol for 39,318 patients within 160 acute care hospitals...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166743/molecular-point-of-care-testing-for-respiratory-viruses-versus-routine-clinical-care-in-adults-with-acute-respiratory-illness-presenting-to-secondary-care-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol-respoc
#11
Nathan J Brendish, Ahalya K Malachira, Tristan W Clark
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses are associated with a huge socio-economic burden and are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory illness in hospitalised adults. Laboratory PCR is accurate but takes at least 24 h to generate a result to clinicians and antigen-based point-of-care tests (POCT) lack sensitivity. Rapid molecular platforms, such as the FilmArray Respiratory Panel, have equivalent diagnostic accuracy to laboratory PCR and can generate a result in 1 h making them deployable as POCT...
February 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159154/viral-pneumonia-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Raj D Shah, Richard G Wunderink
Respiratory viruses are a common cause of severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults. The advent of new diagnostic technologies, particularly multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, have increased the recognition of viral respiratory infections in critically ill adults. Supportive care for adults with ARDS caused by respiratory viruses is similar to the care of patients with ARDS from other causes. Although antiviral therapy is available for some respiratory viral infections, further research is needed to determine which groups of patients would benefit...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149575/veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-cannulation-techniques
#13
REVIEW
Carlo Banfi, Matteo Pozzi, Nils Siegenthaler, Marie-Eve Brunner, Didier Tassaux, Jean-Francois Obadia, Karim Bendjelid, Raphaël Giraud
The development of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) technology allows a new approach for the intensive care management of acute cardiac and/or respiratory failure in adult patients who are not responsive to conventional treatment. Current ECMO therapies provide a variety of options for the multidisciplinary teams who are involved in the management of these critically ill patients. In this regard, veno-venous ECMO (VV-ECMO) can provide quite complete respiratory support, even if this highly complex technique presents substantial risks, such as bleeding, thromboembolic events and infection...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148246/development-of-a-respiratory-severity-score-for-hospitalized-adults-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting-south-africa-2010-2011
#14
Alexander J Millman, Adena Greenbaum, Sibongile Walaza, Adam L Cohen, Michelle J Groome, Carrie Reed, Meredith McMorrow, Stefano Tempia, Marietjie Venter, Florette K Treurnicht, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen, Ebrahim Variava
BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a frequent cause of hospitalization and mortality in South Africa; however, existing respiratory severity scores may underestimate mortality risk in HIV-infected adults in resource limited settings. A simple predictive clinical score for low-resource settings could aid healthcare providers in the management of patients hospitalized with LRTI. METHODS: We analyzed 1,356 LRTI hospitalizations in adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) surveillance in three South African hospitals from January 2010 to December 2011...
February 2, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128353/genotyping-of-human-rhinovirus-in-adult-patients-with-acute-respiratory-infections-identified-predominant-infections-of-genotype-a21
#15
Lili Ren, Donghong Yang, Xianwen Ren, Mingkun Li, Xinlin Mu, Qi Wang, Jie Cao, Ke Hu, Chunliang Yan, Hongwei Fan, Xiangxin Li, Yusheng Chen, Ruiqin Wang, Fucheng An, Shuchang An, Ming Luo, Ying Wang, Yan Xiao, Zichun Xiang, Yan Xiao, Li Li, Fang Huang, Qi Jin, Zhancheng Gao, Jianwei Wang
Human rhinovirus (HRV) is an important causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). The roles of specific HRV genotypes in patients suffering from ARTIs have not been well established. We recruited 147 adult inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 291 adult outpatients with upper ARTIs (URTIs). Respiratory pathogens were screened via PCR assays. HRV was detected in 42 patients, with 35 species A, five B and two C. Seventeen genotypes were identified, and HRV-A21 ranked the highest (9/42, 21...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128095/antimicrobial-prescribing-patterns-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-shanghai-china
#16
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Ping Du, Fang Huang, Dong-Jie Li, Jun Gu, Fu-Ming Shen, Yuan-Ying Jiang
Whilst the 'Principles of clinical use of antibiotics' was released by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China in 2004, limited research has been conducted to evaluate the quality of antibiotic use in real-world practice. In this study, we sought to examine antimicrobial prescribing patterns in a large tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. De-identified outpatient and emergency department pharmacy records containing antimicrobials were extracted from the hospital electronic health records system...
December 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124861/nosocomial-blood-stream-infections-in-patients-treated-with-venovenous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-at-the-croatian-referral-center-for-respiratory-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#17
Marko Kutleša, Marija Santini, Vladimir Krajinović, Neven Papić, Anđa Novokmet, Renata Josipović Mraović, Bruno Baršić
BACKROUND: The incidence of complication rates in patients treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) remains substantial and impacts the results of any future trial dealing with ECMO efficacy. Of these complications blood stream infections (BSI) are less well studied. Our objective was to report influence of BSI in ARDS patients treated with VV ECMO. METHODS: 100 adult patients with ARDS treated with VV ECMO at the tertiary care hospital in Zagreb, Croatia between the October of 2009 and the June of 2016 were prospectively included in the study...
January 25, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122829/qualitative-study-of-primary-care-clinicians-views-on-point-of-care-testing-for-c-reactive-protein-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-family-medicine
#18
Victoria Hardy, Matthew Thompson, Gina A Keppel, William Alto, M Ashworth Dirac, Jon Neher, Christopher Sanford, Jaime Hornecker, Allison Cole
OBJECTIVE: To explore clinicians views of the barriers and facilitators to use of C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care tests (POCT) in US family medicine clinics for the management of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in adults. SETTING: Five family medicine clinics across two US states. PARTICIPANTS: 30 clinicians including 18 physicians, 9 physician residents, 2 physician assistants and 1 nurse practitioner, took part in the study...
January 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116595/early-risk-factors-and-the-role-of-fluid-administration-in-developing-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-septic-patients
#19
Raghu R Seethala, Peter C Hou, Imoigele P Aisiku, Gyorgy Frendl, Pauline K Park, Mark E Mikkelsen, Steven Y Chang, Ognjen Gajic, Jonathan Sevransky
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a major risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there remains a paucity of literature examining risk factors for ARDS in septic patients early in their course. This study examined the role of early fluid administration and identified other risk factors within the first 6 h of hospital presentation associated with developing ARDS in septic patients. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of septic adult patients presenting to the Emergency Department or being admitted for high-risk elective surgery from the multicenter observational cohort study, US Critical Injury and Illness trial Group-Lung Injury Prevention Study 1 (USCIITG-LIPS 1, NCT00889772)...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111238/age-specific-profiles-of-antibody-responses-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#20
Nao Jounai, Megumi Yoshioka, Miyuki Tozuka, Kazue Inoue, Tatsuya Oka, Kazuki Miyaji, Katsuyasu Ishida, Naoki Kawai, Hideyuki Ikematsu, Chiaki Kawakami, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Masaaki Mori, Ken J Ishii, Fumihiko Takeshita
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most prevalent causative agents of lower respiratory tract infections worldwide, especially in infants around 3 to 4months old. Infants at such a young age have maternally-transferred passive antibodies against RSV but do not have active immune systems efficient enough for the control of RSV infection. In order to elucidate age-specific profiles of immune responses against RSV protection, antibody responses were examined by using blood samples in both acute and convalescent phases obtained from child patients and adult patients...
January 16, 2017: EBioMedicine
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