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acute respiratory infections in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166367/smoke-free-policies-in-the-world-s-50-busiest-airports-august-2017
#1
Michael A Tynan, Elizabeth Reimels, Jennifer Tucker, Brian A King
Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products causes premature death and disease, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer among nonsmoking adults and sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, exacerbated asthma, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in children (1,2). The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that there is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke (1). Previous CDC reports on airport smoke-free policies found that most large-hub airports in the United States prohibit smoking (3); however, the extent of smoke-free policies at airports globally has not been assessed...
November 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156371/bacterial-microbiota-of-the-nasal-passages-across-the-span-of-human-life
#2
REVIEW
Lindsey Bomar, Silvio D Brugger, Katherine P Lemon
The human nasal passages host major human pathogens. Recent research suggests that the microbial communities inhabiting the epithelial surfaces of the nasal passages are a key factor in maintaining a healthy microenvironment by affecting both resistance to pathogens and immunological responses. The nasal bacterial microbiota shows distinct changes over the span of human life and disruption by environmental factors might be associated with both short- and long-term health consequences, such as susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections and disturbances of the immunological balance...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153065/-genotypes-of-rhinoviruses-in-children-and-adults-patients-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#3
Eda Demirkan, Sevin Kırdar, Emel Ceylan, Ayşe Yenigün, İmran Kurt Ömürlü
Rhinovirus (RV) is one of the most frequent causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections in the world. The virus may cause a mild cold, as well as more serious clinical symptoms in patients with immune system deficiency or comorbidities. Rhinoviruses have been identified by molecular methods under three types: RV-A, RV-B and RV-C. In most of the cases, it was reported that RV-A and RV-C were related with lower respiratory tract infections and asthma exacerbations, while RV-B was rarely reported in lower respiratory tract infections...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152877/rapid-risk-assessment-during-the-early-weeks-of-the-2015-2016-influenza-season-in-ukraine
#4
Sophie Newitt, Alla Mironenko, Olha Holubka, Oleksandr Zaika, Olga Gubar, Katri Jalava, Caroline Brown, Iryna Demchyshyna, Tetiana Dykhanovska
BACKGROUND: Several eastern European countries reported a severe influenza season to the World Health Organization (WHO) during late 2015. A country-specific rapid risk assessment for Ukraine was conducted to assess the season's severity and inform public health action.. METHODS: The exposure and hazard were assessed using acute respiratory infection (ARI), severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), laboratory surveillance, virological and vaccine data from weeks 40/2015 to 7/2016 with comparison to four previous seasons to describe the influenza season start (five week consecutive increase in ARI or SARI),, predominant virus types, geographical spread and affected age groups ...
November 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132978/intensive-care-in-severe-malaria-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Dilip R Karnad, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Severe malaria is common in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South and Central America. It may also occur in travelers returning from endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum accounts for most cases, although P vivax is increasingly found to cause severe malaria in Asia. Cerebral malaria is common in children in Africa, manifests as coma and seizures, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In other regions, adults may also develop cerebral malaria but neurological sequelae in survivors are rare...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119848/management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-immunocompetent-adults-updated-swedish-guidelines-2017
#6
Simon Athlin, Christer Lidman, Anders Lundqvist, Pontus Naucler, Anna C Nilsson, Carl Spindler, Kristoffer Strålin, Jonas Hedlund
Based on expert group work, Swedish recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults are here updated. The management of sepsis-induced hypotension is addressed in detail, including monitoring and parenteral therapy. The importance of respiratory support in cases of acute respiratory failure is emphasized. Treatment with high-flow oxygen and non-invasive ventilation is recommended. The use of statins or steroids in general therapy is not found to be fully supported by evidence. In the management of pleural infection, new data show favourable effects of tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease installation...
November 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114398/multi-system-manifestations-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-young-patient
#7
Ibrahim Al Busaidi, Mohammed Al-Amin, Shadin Ibrahim, Abdullah Balkhair, Zied Gaifer
Introduction.Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a small cell-wall-lacking bacterium that belongs to the mycoplasma (Mollicutes) prokaryote micro-organisms. It is a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections in all age groups. Respiratory illness is the most common manifestation of M. pneumoniae infection; however, extrapulmonary involvement may be present or predominant. The skin, mucus membranes, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, haematopoietic system, kidneys and musculoskeletal system are the most commonly involved extrapulmonary sites...
September 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108950/amoxicillin-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-primary-care-subgroup-analysis-by-bacterial-and-viral-etiology
#8
Robin Bruyndonckx, Beth Stuart, Paul Little, Niel Hens, Margareta Ieven, Christopher C Butler, Theo Verheij, Herman Goossens, Samuel Coenen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of amoxicillin treatment in adult patients presenting to primary care with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) who are infected with a potential bacterial, viral, or mixed bacterial/viral infection. METHODS: The multicenter randomized controlled trial focused on adults with LRTI not suspected for pneumonia. Patients were randomized to receive either antibiotic (amoxicillin 1g) or placebo three times daily for seven consecutive days using computer-generated random numbers (follow-up 28 days)...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102433/effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-non-skeletal-disorders-a-systematic-review-of-meta-analyses-and-randomised-trials
#9
REVIEW
Philippe Autier, Patrick Mullie, Alina Macacu, Miruna Dragomir, Magali Boniol, Kim Coppens, Cécile Pizot, Mathieu Boniol
Randomised trials reported up to Dec 31, 2012, did not confirm that vitamin D supplementation could protect from non-skeletal health conditions affecting adults, as was expected on the basis of data from observational studies. To examine whether the more recently published meta-analyses and trials would change past conclusions, we systematically reviewed meta-analyses of vitamin D supplementation and non-skeletal disorders published between Jan 1, 2013, and May 31, 2017, that included study participants of all ages, including pregnant women...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097050/a-county-level-estimate-of-pm2-5-related-chronic-mortality-risk-in-china-based-on-multi-model-exposure-data
#10
Qing Wang, Jiaonan Wang, Mike Z He, Patrick L Kinney, Tiantian Li
BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a serious environmental problem in China, but evidence of health effects with higher resolution and spatial coverage is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a better overall understanding of long-term mortality effects of PM2.5 pollution in China and a county-level spatial map for estimating PM2.5 related premature deaths of the entire country. METHOD: Using four sets of satellite-derived PM2...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096010/macrolides-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-panacea-or-placebo
#11
Christopher C Blyth, Jeffrey S Gerber
Pneumonia, most often caused by a respiratory virus, is common in childhood. Mycoplasma pneumoniae also is detected frequently, particularly in older children in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Despite recommendations for β-lactam antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, including erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, are prescribed frequently to children with acute lower respiratory infection. However, the significance of detecting "atypical" pathogens, including M pneumoniae, in children remains contentious...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095723/antiviral-treatment-of-severe-non-influenza-respiratory-virus-infection
#12
Nathan J Brendish, Tristan W Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-influenza respiratory virus infections are a frequent cause of severe acute respiratory infections, especially in infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. We review here the current treatment options for non-influenza respiratory viruses and promising candidate antiviral agents currently in development. RECENT FINDINGS: Small molecule antiviral agents active against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), such as ALS-8176 and GS-5806, show considerable promise in challenge studies and are undergoing late-phase clinical trials in hospitalised adults and children...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093098/identification-of-a-critical-and-conformational-neutralizing-epitope-in-human-adenovirus-type-4-hexon
#13
Xingui Tian, Hongling Qiu, Zhichao Zhou, Shouli Wang, Ye Fan, Xiao Li, Ruiai Chu, Haitao Li, Rong Zhou, Hui Wang
Human adenovirus type 4 (HAdV-4) is an epidemic virus that contributes to serious acute respiratory disease (ARD) in both pediatric and adult patients. However, no licensed drug or vaccine is currently available to the civilian population. The identification of the neutralizing epitopes of HAdV-4 should allow the development of a novel antiviral vaccine and novel gene transfer vector, and an effective neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) will be useful in developing appropriate antiviral drugs. In this study, the MAb MN4b is reported to show strong neutralizing activity against HAdV-4...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092901/cohort-profile-the-china-ageing-reespiratory-infections-study-cares-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-older-adults-in-eastern-china
#14
Benjamin J Cowling, Cuiling Xu, Fenyang Tang, Jun Zhang, Jinjin Shen, Fiona Havers, Rachael Wendladt, Nancy Hl Leung, Carolyn Greene, A Danielle Iuliano, Pat Shifflett, Ying Song, Ran Zhang, Lindsay Kim, Yuyun Chen, Daniel Kw Chu, Huachen Zhu, Yuelong Shu, Hongjie Yu, Mark G Thompson
PURPOSE: This study was established to provide direct evidence on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in older adults in two cities in Jiangsu Province, China, and the potential impact of acute respiratory infections on frailty. PARTICIPANTS: The cohort was enrolled in Suzhou and Yancheng, two cities in Jiangsu Province in Eastern China. Between November 2015 and March 2016, we enrolled 1532 adults who were 60-89 years of age, and collected blood samples along with baseline data on demographics, general health, chronic diseases, functional status and cognitive function through face-to-face interviews using a standardised questionnaire...
November 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080708/classification-of-cough-as-a-symptom-in-adults-and-management-algorithms-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#15
Richard S Irwin, Cynthia L French, Anne B Chang, Kenneth W Altman
BACKGROUND: We performed systematic reviews using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) format to answer the following key clinical question: Are the CHEST 2006 classifications of acute, subacute and chronic cough and associated management algorithms in adults that were based on durations of cough useful? METHODS: We used the CHEST Expert Cough Panel's protocol for the systematic reviews and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodological guidelines and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework...
November 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062070/new-opportunities-for-managing-acute-and-chronic-lung-infections
#16
REVIEW
William O C M Cookson, Michael J Cox, Miriam F Moffatt
Lung diseases caused by microbial infections affect hundreds of millions of children and adults throughout the world. In Western populations, the treatment of lung infections is a primary driver of antibiotic resistance. Traditional therapeutic strategies have been based on the premise that the healthy lung is sterile and that infections grow in a pristine environment. As a consequence, rapid advances in our understanding of the composition of the microbiota of the skin and bowel have not yet been matched by studies of the respiratory tree...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059465/what-is-old-is-new-again-delafloxacin-a-modern-fluoroquinolone
#17
Jonathan C Cho, Matthew P Crotty, Bryan P White, Marylee V Worley
Delafloxacin is a new fluoroquinolone antimicrobial approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in adults using dosage regimens of 300 mg intravenously every 12 hours, 450 mg orally every 12 hours, or switching from intravenous to oral regimens for a 5 to 14 day treatment duration. Dosage adjustments in patients with severe renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] = 15-29 ml/min/1.73m(2) ) are not required for oral doses but should be decreased to 200 mg intravenously every 12 hours in patients requiring parenteral therapy...
October 23, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045280/sedation-practice-in-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-treated-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-retrospective-study
#18
Julian deBacker, Erik Tamberg, Laveena Munshi, Lisa Burry, Eddy Fan, Sangeeta Mehta
Our objective was to characterize sedation management in adult patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). We conducted a retrospective chart review of these patients treated at Toronto General Hospital between January 2012 and October 2015. Medications administered (sedative, analgesic, paralytic, and antipsychotic), sedation depth (Sedation Agitation Scale [SAS] score) delirium assessments, and mobilization were recorded daily...
October 18, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030136/implementation-of-a-sentinel-surveillance-system-for-influenza-like-illness-ili-and-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-sari-in-the-country-of-georgia-2015-2016
#19
Giorgi Chakhunashvili, Abram L Wagner, Ann Machablishvili, Irakli Karseladze, Olgha Tarkhan-Mouravi, Khatuna Zakhashvili, Paata Imnadze, Matthew L Boulton
OBJECTIVES: Due to reports of substandard influenza preparedness, the country of Georgia developed two influenza surveillance systems. This paper describes these surveillance systems in their capacity to detect influenza. METHODS: Two surveillance systems for influenza operate in Georgia: an influenza-like illness (ILI) sentinel surveillance system for out-patient cases, based in the capital, Tbilisi, and a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) sentinel surveillance system for in-patient cases with five sentinel sites - one in Tbilisi, and four in Kutaisi...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025303/serum-surfactant-protein-d-as-a-marker-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#20
Suja Vinod, Andrew Gow, Barry Weinberger, Debra Potak, Mark Hiatt, Shaku Chandra, Thomas Hegyi
BACKGROUND: Lung epithelial cells express surfactant protein D (SP-D), a calcium-dependent lectin that plays an important role in antibody-independent pulmonary host defense. Previous studies have shown that it is found in the peripheral circulation in patients with pulmonary disease, likely because of translocation into the blood when lung epithelial barriers are disrupted by inflammation or acute injury. In adults, serum SP-D levels are biomarkers for the progression and severity of chronic lung disease...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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