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acute respiratory infections in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324996/laboratory-confirmed-respiratory-infections-as-predictors-of-hospital-admission-for-myocardial-infarction-and-stroke-time-series-analysis-of-english-data-for-2004-2015
#1
R M Blackburn, H Zhao, R Pebody, A C Hayward, C Warren-Gash
Background: Acute respiratory infections are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, however, the role of different organisms is poorly characterised. Methods: We undertook a time-series analysis of English hospital admissions for MI and stroke (age-stratified: 45-64, 65-74, 75+ years), laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections and environmental data for 2004-2015. Weekly counts of admissions were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression with weekly counts of respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus or human meta-pneumovirus (HMPV)) investigated as predictors...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319770/factors-associated-with-hospital-mortality-in-renal-transplant-patients-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit-with-acute-respiratory-failure
#2
Rafael Mendes da Silva, Flavio Geraldo Rezende de Freitas, Antonio Tonete Bafi, Hélio Tedesco Silva Junior, Bartira de Aguiar Roza
INTRODUCTION: The lungs are often involved in a variety of complications after kidney transplantation. Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is one of the most serious manifestations of pulmonary involvement. OBJECTIVE: To describe the main causes of ARF in kidney transplant patients who require intensive care and identify the factors associated with mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated adult patients with ARF admitted to the intensive care unit of a center with high volume of transplants from August 2013 to August 2015...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316914/differential-induction-of-malaria-liver-pathology-in-mice-infected-with-plasmodium-chabaudi-as-or-plasmodium-berghei-nk65
#3
Diletta Scaccabarozzi, Katrien Deroost, Yolanda Corbett, Natacha Lays, Paola Corsetto, Fausta Omodeo Salè, Philippe E Van den Steen, Donatella Taramelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria and severe anaemia are the most common deadly complications of malaria, and are often associated, both in paediatric and adult patients, with hepatopathy, whose pathogenesis is not well characterized, and sometimes also with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, two species of murine malaria, the lethal Plasmodium berghei strain NK65 and self-healing Plasmodium chabaudi strain AS which differ in their ability to cause hepatopathy and/or ARDS were used to investigate the lipid alterations, oxidative damage and host immune response during the infection in relation to parasite load and accumulation of parasite products, such as haemozoin...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316826/the-role-of-metabolomic-markers-for-patients-with-infectious-diseases-implications-for-risk-stratification-and-therapeutic-modulation
#4
Seline Zurfluh, Thomas Baumgartner, Marc A Meier, Manuel Ottiger, Alaadin Voegeli, Luca Bernasconi, Peter Neyer, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
Metabolomics is a rapidly growing area of research. Metabolomic markers can provide information about the interaction of different organ systems, and thereby improve the understanding of physio-pathological processes, disease risk, prognosis and therapy responsiveness in a variety of diseases. Areas covered: In this narrative review of recent clinical studies investigating metabolomic markers in adult patients presenting with acute infectious disease, we mainly focused on patients with sepsis and lower respiratory tract infections...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302540/a-chart-review-of-morbidity-patterns-among-adult-patients-attending-primary-care-setting-in-urban-odisha-india-an-international-classification-of-primary-care-experience
#5
Subhashisa Swain, Sandipana Pati, Sanghamitra Pati
Introduction: Disease burden estimations based on sound epidemiological research provide the foundation for designing health services. Patients visiting a primary care often present with symptoms and signs. Understanding the burden is crucial for developing countries including India. The project aimed to record the reasons for encounter (RFE) at primary care settings for estimating the burden at the health-care facility. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was undertaken at four urban health dispensaries of Bhubaneswar, Odisha, with the aim to explore the prevailing patterns of diseases among patients attending these facilities...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299900/guidelines-for-the-antibiotic-use-in-adults-with-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
REVIEW
Young Kyung Yoon, Chan Soon Park, Jae Wook Kim, Kyurin Hwang, Sei Young Lee, Tae Hoon Kim, Do Yang Park, Hyun Jun Kim, Dong Young Kim, Hyun Jong Lee, Hyun Young Shin, Yong Kyu You, Dong Ah Park, Shin Woo Kim
These guidelines were developed as part of the 2016 Policy Research Servicing Project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A multidisciplinary approach was taken to formulate this guideline to provide practical information about the diagnosis and treatment of adults with acute upper respiratory tract infection, with the ultimate aim to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics. The formulation of this guideline was based on a systematic literature review and analysis of the latest research findings to facilitate evidence-based practice, and focused on key questions to help clinicians obtain solutions to clinical questions that may arise during the care of a patient...
December 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279787/acute-chest-syndrome-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#7
REVIEW
Shilpa Jain, Nitya Bakshi, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti
Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a frequent cause of acute lung disease in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Patients may present with ACS or may develop this complication during the course of a hospitalization for acute vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). ACS is associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased risk of respiratory failure, and the potential for developing chronic lung disease. ACS in SCD is defined as the presence of fever and/or new respiratory symptoms accompanied by the presence of a new pulmonary infiltrate on chest X-ray...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262491/-estimating-the-burden-of-influenza-associated-hospitalization-for-cases-of-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-beijing-2015
#8
Y Zhang, C Li, Y Q Tang, X J Zhao, Z C Liu, Y Pan, P Yang, X H Pang, Q Y Wang
Objective: To estimate the influenza infection rate among severe acute respiratory infection(SARI) cases and the hospitalization rates of SARI attributable to influenza, based on two sentinel hospital surveillance databases in Beijing, 2015. Methods: Surveillance was conducted at two sentinel hospitals in Beijing in 2015. A total of 1 842 patients who admitted to the sentinel hospitals and met the definition of SARI were enrolled in the study. The respiratory tract specimens of SARI cases were collected, and sent to laboratories within 48 hours for influenza RNA detection...
December 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260751/-clinical-efficacy-of-the-immunomodulatory-agent-cycloferon-tablets-in-viral-respiratory-infections-results-of-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
N K Mazina, I V Sheshunov, P V Mazin, V P Mazin, A L Kovalenko, V A Zaplutanov
The authors carried out a systematic review and subsequent meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of the immunomodulator agent cycloferon as tablets in adults and children with viral respiratory diseases. A total estimate of its clinical efficacy was obtained in terms of compared heterogeneous groups and response variables. The data published in 16 articles were used to calculate the formal parameters of the clinical efficacy of cycloferon (increased absolute and relative benefits, odds ratio (OR); the number of patients needed to be additionally treated with cycloferon to achieve a favorable outcome or to prevent a poor outcome in one patient, etc...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260527/-detection-and-analysis-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infection-in-hospitalized-adults-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#10
Xing-Qiao Li, Xue-Wei Liu, Tao Zhou, Xiao-Fang Pei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and gene characteristics of different groups of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in hospitalized adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI). METHODS: RT-PCR was used to detect HPIV hemagglutinin (HA) DNA,which was extracted from sputum samples of 1 039 adult patients with ARI from March,2014 to June,2016. The HA gene amplified from randomly selected positive samples were sequenced to analyze the homology and variation...
November 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258592/possible-therapeutic-effect-of-orally-administered-ribavirin-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#11
Byung Woo Yoon, Seung Hyeun Lee
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus usually causes self-limiting upper respiratory infection and occasionally causes pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome in immunocompetent adults has been rarely described. Unfortunately, optimal treatment has not been established for this potentially fatal condition. We report a case of respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome occurring in a previously healthy man successfully treated with orally administered ribavirin...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250670/an-overview-of-resistance-profiles-eskape-pathogens-from-2010-2015-in-a-tertiary-respiratory-center-in-romania
#12
Nicolae Ovidiu Peneş, Andrei Alexandru Muntean, Adriana Moisoiu, Mădălina Maria Muntean, Alexandru Chirca, Miron Alexandru Bogdan, Mircea Ioan Popa
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is an umbrella term that covers a wide spectrum of diseases, comprising mild and severe, acute and chronic conditions. A wide spectrum of pathogens can be implicated, from viruses to pyogenic and atypical bacteria. A special place should be reserved for slow growing bacteria (Mycobacteria spp., Nocardia spp.) and parasites (i.e., hydatic cysts caused by Echinococcus granulosus). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to observe, analyze and establish the drug susceptibility patterns for Enterococcus spp...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250560/pulmonary-susceptibility-of-neonates-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-a-problem-of-innate-immunity
#13
REVIEW
Carole Drajac, Daphné Laubreton, Sabine Riffault, Delphyne Descamps
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious viral agent responsible for acute lower respiratory infection in infants. This pathology characterized by mucus hypersecretion and a disturbed T cell immune response is one of the major causes of infant hospitalization for severe bronchiolitis. Although different risk factors are associated with acute RSV bronchiolitis, the immunological factors contributing to the susceptibility of RSV infection in infants are not clearly elucidated...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249545/burden-of-medically-attended-influenza-infection-and-cases-averted-by-vaccination-united-states-2013-14-through-2015-16-influenza-seasons
#14
Michael L Jackson, C Hallie Phillips, Joyce Benoit, Lisa A Jackson, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Huong Q McLean, Edward A Belongia, Ryan Malosh, Richard Zimmerman, Brendan Flannery
BACKGROUND: In addition to preventing hospitalizations and deaths due to influenza, influenza vaccination programs can reduce the burden of outpatient visits for influenza. We estimated the incidence of medically-attended influenza at three geographically diverse sites in the United States, and the cases averted by vaccination, for the 2013/14 through 2015/16 influenza seasons. METHODS: We defined surveillance populations at three sites from the United States Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network...
December 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238587/bacterial-infections-in-acute-variceal-hemorrhage-despite-antibiotics-a-multicenter-study-of-predictors-and-clinical-impact
#15
Stephen Lee, Lynora Saxinger, Mang Ma, Verónica Prado, Joaquin Fernández, Deepali Kumar, Juan Gonzalez-Abraldes, Adam Keough, Ravin Bastiampillai, Michelle Carbonneau, Javier Fernandez, Puneeta Tandon
Background and aims: Current guidelines recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in all patients presenting with cirrhosis and acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH). We aimed to evaluate the characteristics and clinical impact of "early" infections (developing within 14 days) of AVH in a real-world setting. Methods: We analyzed retrospective data from a cohort of 371 adult patients with cirrhosis and AVH all of whom had received antibiotic prophylaxis (74% men; mean age 56 years), admitted to tertiary care hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and Barcelona, Spain...
December 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238574/role-of-guaifenesin-in-the-management-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#16
REVIEW
Helmut H Albrecht, Peter V Dicpinigaitis, Eric P Guenin
Guaifenesin, a mucoactive drug, acts by loosening mucus in the airways and making coughs more productive. It is used for relief of wet cough and chest congestion due to the common cold, and remains the only legally marketed expectorant in the US (per OTC Monograph). An ingredient in numerous over-the-counter (OTC) cough/cold medications, guaifenesin has a secondary indication for use in stable chronic bronchitis (professional indication). Clinical pharmacology and patient studies support the clinical utility of guaifenesin in respiratory conditions where mucus hypersecretion is prevalent: acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), stable chronic bronchitis, and possibly rhinosinusitis...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238240/the-effect-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-on-asthma-control-an-administrative-database-study-to-evaluate-a-potential-pathophysiological-relationship
#17
Gene Colice, David Price, Maria Gerhardsson de Verdier, Karma Rabon-Stith, Christopher Ambrose, Katherine Cappell, Debra E Irwin, Paul Juneau, Anna Vlahiotis
Rationale: DPP-4 may regulate immunological pathways implicated in asthma. Assessing whether DPP-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) use might affect asthma control is clinically important because DPP-4i use in type 2 diabetes mellitus management (T2DM) is increasing. This study evaluated associations between DPP-4i use and asthma control. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, matched cohort study using administrative claims in the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters (Commercial) and Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits (Medicare Supplemental) databases...
2017: Pragmatic and Observational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236286/corticosteroids-for-pneumonia
#18
REVIEW
Anat Stern, Keren Skalsky, Tomer Avni, Elena Carrara, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials...
December 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230194/acute-flaccid-paralysis-by-enterovirus-d68-infection-first-italian-description-in-adult-patient-and-role-of-electrophysiology
#19
Marco Ceccanti, Emilia Sbardella, Federica Letteri, Manuela De Michele, Anne Falcou, Federica Romanzi, Emanuela Onesti, Maurizio Inghilleri
A Peruvian woman was admitted to the Emergency Department, due to an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) of the upper limbs that progressively involved also lower limbs and respiratory muscles. She previously suffered from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and had to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A magnetic resonance imaging showed a T2 hyperintensity in the anterior and central region of the cervical segment with an elective involvement of gray matter. This finding, combined with other clinical, laboratory, and electrophysiological data, led to a diagnosis of AFP...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229095/primary-immune-deficiency-diseases-as-unrecognized-causes-of-chronic-respiratory-disease
#20
REVIEW
Melvin Berger, Bob Geng, D William Cameron, Ladonna M Murphy, Edward S Schulman
BACKGROUND: More than half of all primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDD) affect antibody production and are well known as causes of recurrent sinusitis and lung infections. Chronic and recurrent infections of the upper and/or lower airways can contribute to inflammatory and obstructive processes in the lower airways which are initially reversible and considered "asthma", but can eventually cause irreversible remodeling and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conversely, several lines of evidence suggest that many patients who present with a diagnosis of asthma have an increased incidence of infection, suggesting underlying host-defense defects...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
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