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acute respiratory infections in adults

Charlotte Warren-Gash, Ruth Blackburn, Heather Whitaker, Jim McMenamin, Andrew C Hayward
While acute respiratory infections can trigger cardiovascular events, the differential effect of specific organisms is unknown. This is important to guide vaccine policy.Using national infection surveillance data linked to the Scottish Morbidity Record, we identified adults with a first myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke from 01/01/2004 to 31/12/2014 and a record of laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection during this period. Using self-controlled case series analysis, we generated age- and season-adjusted incidence ratios (IR) for MI (n=1,227) or stroke (n=762) after infections compared to baseline time...
March 21, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Tiantian Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Xingui Tian, Wenkuan Liu, Duo Xu, Ye Fan, Jiayi Liao, Shujun Gu, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Human adenoviruses types 3 (HAdV-3), 7 (HAdV-7) and 55 (HAdV-55) are major pathogens of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children and adults. More than one type of HAdV can infect patients simultaneously, and the infections are sometimes fatal. However, there is currently no vaccine approved for general use in children and adults. Thus, development of a multivalent HAdV vaccine to combat HAdV infection becomes imperative. In this study, we constructed a new recombinant trivalent human adenovirus vaccine (rAdMHE3-h55), which expresses the hexon protein of HAdV-55 in the E3 region of rAdMHE3, a previously prepared bivalent vaccine candidate against HAdV-3 and HAdV-7...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Lone Simonsen, Gerardo Chowell, Viggo Andreasen, Robert Gaffey, John Barry, Don Olson, Cécile Viboud
Mounting epidemiological evidence supports the occurrence of a mild herald pandemic wave in the spring and summer of 1918 in North America and Europe, several months before the devastating autumn outbreak that killed an estimated 2% of the global population. These epidemiological findings corroborate the anecdotal observations of contemporary clinicians who reported widespread influenza outbreaks in spring and summer 1918, with sporadic occurrence of unusually severe clinical manifestations in young adults...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Elie Azoulay, Virginie Lemiale, Djamel Mokart, Saad Nseir, Laurent Argaud, Frédéric Pène, Loay Kontar, Fabrice Bruneel, Kada Klouche, François Barbier, Jean Reignier, Anabelle Stoclin, Guillaume Louis, Jean-Michel Constantin, Julien Mayaux, Florent Wallet, Achille Kouatchet, Vincent Peigne, Pierre Perez, Christophe Girault, Samir Jaber, Johanna Oziel, Martine Nyunga, Nicolas Terzi, Lila Bouadma, Christine Lebert, Alexandre Lautrette, Naike Bigé, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Laurent Papazian, Antoine Rabbat, Michael Darmon, Sylvie Chevret, Alexandre Demoule
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the leading reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in immunocompromised patients. High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) therapy is an alternative to standard oxygen. By providing warmed and humidified gas, HFNO allows the delivery of higher flow rates via nasal cannula devices, with FiO2 values of nearly 100%. Benefits include alleviation of dyspnea and discomfort, decreased respiratory distress and decreased mortality in unselected patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure...
March 5, 2018: Trials
Hongjing Gu, Yaqian Gao, Shanshan Zhou, Fang Sun, Zhongpeng Zhao, Keyu Wang, Lingna Zhao, Peirui Zhang, Zhaohai Wang, Shaogeng Zhang, Xiliang Wang, Penghui Yang
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are prevalent in pediatric and adult patients with severe acute respiratory disease (ARD). To date, there have been no widely used HAdV vaccines available. In this report, we developed a cold-adapted attenuated influenza virus, termed rg HAdV-Flu ca, carrying epitopes from HAdV hexon protein in the backbone of the ca influenza vaccine neuraminidase (NA) gene using reverse genetics. Rg HAdV-Flu ca virus exhibited a cold-adapted (ca) phenotype, and its morphological characteristics were observed using electron microscopy...
March 1, 2018: Antiviral Research
Takeshi Saraya, Hirokazu Kimura, Daisuke Kurai, Masaki Tamura, Yukari Ogawa, Sunao Mikura, Mitsuru Sada, Miku Oda, Takayasu Watanabe, Kosuke Ohkuma, Manami Inoue, Kojiro Honda, Masato Watanabe, Takuma Yokoyama, Masachika Fujiwara, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Takizawa
BACKGROUND: The impact of viral infections on acute exacerbations in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and/or non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILDs) has been scarcely described. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the frequency of virus infections in patients with IPF or non-IPF ILDs including idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) or connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated pneumonia, and its influence on their short-term mortality. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult patients with acute exacerbation of IPF and non-IPF ILDs who were admitted to the hospital during the last 3 years, and examined the respiratory samples obtained from nasopharyngeal, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Jim Bartley, Jeff Garrett, Carlos A Camargo, Robert Scragg, Alain Vandal, Rose Sisk, David Milne, Ray Tai, Gene Jeon, Ray Cursons, Conroy Wong
Vitamin D supplementation prevents acute respiratory infections and, through modulating innate and adaptive immunity, could have a potential role in bronchiectasis management. The primary aims of this pilot study were to assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in New Zealand adults with bronchiectasis, and their 25(OH)D levels after vitamin D3 supplementation. Adults with bronchiectasis received an initial 2.5 mg vitamin D3 oral loading dose and 0.625 mg vitamin D3 weekly for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was serum 25(OH)D levels before and after vitamin D3 supplementation...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Bevin Cohen, Jianfang Liu, Adam Ross Cohen, Elaine Larson
OBJECTIVE To quantify the association between having a prior bed occupant or roommate with a positive blood, respiratory, urine, or wound culture and subsequent infection with the same organism. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING The study included 4 hospitals within an academically affiliated network in New York City, including a community hospital (221 beds), a pediatric acute-care hospital (283 beds), an adult tertiary-/quaternary-care hospital (647 beds), and a pediatric and adult tertiary-/quaternary-care hospital (914 beds)...
February 28, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jose L Gomez, Maria P Diaz, Gustavo Nino, Clemente J Britto
BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations are an important cause of morbidity in asthma. Respiratory infections are often involved in asthma exacerbations in both children and adults. Some individuals with asthma have increased susceptibility to viral infections and as a result increased rates of asthma exacerbations. We sought to identify a transcriptomic signature in the blood associated with asthma exacerbations triggered by respiratory infections (AETRI) and determine its association with increased risk for asthma exacerbations...
February 27, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Jae H Park, F Andres Romero, Ying Taur, Michel Sadelain, Renier J Brentjens, Tobias M Hohl, Susan K Seo
Background: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells that target the CD19 antigen present a novel promising therapy for the treatment of relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity have emerged as predominant non-infectious complications of CD19 CAR T cell therapy, infections associated with this treatment modality have not been well documented. Methods: We analyzed infectious complications that followed CD19 CAR T cell therapy in 53 adult patients with relapsed ALL enrolled in a phase I clinical trial at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (NCT01044069)...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Piyush Kalakoti, Daniel M Sciubba, Andrew J Pugely, Matthew J McGirt, Kanika Sharma, Devi P Patra, Kevin Phan, Karthik Madhavan, Richard P Menger, Christina Notarianni, Bharat Guthikonda, Anil Nanda, Hai Sun
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of psychiatric diseases on short-term outcomes in patients undergoing fusion surgery for LDDD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Limited literature exists on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric comorbidities on outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDDD). METHODS: Adult patients (>18 years) registered in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2002-2011) and undergoing an elective spine fusion for LDDD that met inclusion criteria formed the study population...
February 23, 2018: Spine
Patrick Joseph, Eliot Godofsky
Background: The majority of oral antibiotics are prescribed in outpatient primary and urgent care clinics for acute respiratory infections. Effective antibiotic stewardship must include proper prescribing for outpatients as well as for those in a hospital or long-term care facility. Methods: Major databases, including MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, were searched for prospective human clinical studies, including children and/or adults published between January 1966 and November 2017 that evaluated Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) as a biomarker for diagnosing viral infections as well as both C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) as potential biomarkers for identifying and differentiating true bacterial upper respiratory infection (URI) from colonization...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
David W Dodick, Messoud Ashina, Jan Lewis Brandes, David Kudrow, Michel Lanteri-Minet, Vera Osipova, Kerry Palmer, Hernan Picard, Daniel D Mikol, Robert A Lenz
Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide plays an important role in migraine pathophysiology. Erenumab, a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, is being evaluated for migraine prevention. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, 577 adults with episodic migraine were randomized to placebo or 70 mg erenumab; 570 patients were included in efficacy analyses. Primary endpoint was change in monthly migraine days. Secondary endpoints were ≥50% reduction in monthly migraine days, change in acute migraine-specific medication treatment days, and ≥5-point reduction in Physical Impairment and Impact on Everyday Activities domain scores measured by the Migraine Physical Function Impact Diary...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
B M Varghese, E Dent, M Chilver, S Cameron, N P Stocks
Acute respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality accounting for 5.8 million deaths worldwide. In Australia, influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as cough, fever and fatigue is a common presentation in general practice and results in reduced productivity and lost working days. Little is known about the epidemiology of ILI in working-age adults. Using data from the ASPREN influenza surveillance network in Australia (2010-2013) we found that working-age adults made up 45.2% of all ILI notifications with 55% of samples positive for at least one respiratory virus...
February 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Maroun Sfeir, Marissa Walsh, Rossana Rosa, Laura Aragon, Sze Yan Liu, Timothy Cleary, Marylee Worley, Corey Frederick, Lilian M Abbo
Background: Infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus group strains are usually resistant to multiple antimicrobials and challenging to treat worldwide. We describe the risk factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients in 2 large academic medical centers in the United States. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adults with a positive culture for M. abscessus in Miami, Florida (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014). Demographics, comorbidities, the source of infection, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and clinical outcomes were analyzed...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Brendan Flannery, Jessie R Chung, Edward A Belongia, Huong Q McLean, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Richard K Zimmerman, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael L Jackson, Lisa A Jackson, Arnold S Monto, Emily T Martin, Angie Foust, Wendy Sessions, LaShondra Berman, John R Barnes, Sarah Spencer, Alicia M Fry
In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (1). During each influenza season since 2004-05, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with medically attended acute respiratory illness (ARI). This report uses data from 4,562 children and adults enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (U.S. Flu VE Network) during November 2, 2017-February 3, 2018...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Steve R Barnes, Zimy Wansaula, Kristen Herrick, Eyal Oren, Kacey Ernst, Sonja J Olsen, Mariana G Casal
BACKGROUND: From October 2010 through February 2016, Arizona conducted surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) among adults hospitalized in the Arizona-Mexico border region. There are few accurate mortality estimates in SARI patients, particularly in adults ≥ 65 years old. The purpose of this study was to generate mortality estimates among SARI patients that include deaths occurring shortly after hospital discharge and identify risk factors for mortality. METHODS: Patients admitted to two sentinel hospitals between 2010 and 2014 who met the SARI case definition were enrolled...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kathryn E Mansfield, Ian J Douglas, Dorothea Nitsch, Sara L Thomas, Liam Smeeth, Laurie A Tomlinson
Background: The relative risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) following different infections, and whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) modify the risk, is unclear. We aimed to determine the risks of hospital admission with AKI following infections (urinary tract infection [UTI], lower respiratory tract infection [LRTI], and gastroenteritis) among users of antihypertensive drugs. Methods: We used UK electronic health records from practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics database...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Emine Alp, Tuğba Tok, Leylagül Kaynar, Fatma Cevahir, İsmail Hakkı Akbudak, Kürşat Gündoğan, Mustafa Çetin, Jordi Rello
BACKGROUND: Haematological cancer (HC) patients are increasingly requiring intensive care (ICUs). The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of HC patients in our ICU and evaluate 5 days-full support as a breakpoint for patients' re-assessment for support. METHODS: Retrospective study enrolling 112 consecutive HC adults, requiring ICU in January-December 2015. Patients' data were collected from medical records and Infection Control Committee surveillance reports...
February 8, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Jianxing Yu, Zhengde Xie, Tiegang Zhang, Yanqin Lu, Hongwei Fan, Donghong Yang, Thomas Bénet, Philippe Vanhems, Kunling Shen, Fang Huang, Jinxiang Han, Taisheng Li, Zhancheng Gao, Lili Ren, Jianwei Wang
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a great public health challenge globally. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with ARIs attending at different hospital settings is fully undetermined. METHODS: Laboratory-based surveillance for ARIs was conducted at inpatient and outpatient settings of 11 hospitals in North China. The first 2-5 patients with ARIs were recruited in each hospital weekly from 2012 through 2015. The presence of respiratory viruses was screened by PCR assays...
February 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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