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acute respiratory infections in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797053/the-epidemiology-of-medically-attended-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-older-adults-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#1
Ann D Colosia, Jin Yang, Eric Hillson, Josephine Mauskopf, Catherine Copley-Merriman, Vivek Shinde, Jeffrey Stoddard
OBJECTIVE: This review was undertaken to assess the historical evidence of the disease incidence and burden of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in medically attended older adults. DESIGN: A qualitative systematic literature review was performed; no statistical synthesis of the data was planned, in anticipation of expected heterogeneity across studies in this population. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was conducted for studies of medically attended RSV in older adults (≥ 50 years) published in the last 15 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783743/andrographis-paniculata-chu%C3%A4-n-x%C3%A4-n-li%C3%A3-n-for-symptomatic-relief-of-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-adults-and-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Xiao-Yang Hu, Ruo-Han Wu, Martin Logue, Clara Blondel, Lily Yuen Wan Lai, Beth Stuart, Andrew Flower, Yu-Tong Fei, Michael Moore, Jonathan Shepherd, Jian-Ping Liu, George Lewith
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a substantial threat to public health. Safe and effective alternatives are required to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Andrographis Paniculata (A. Paniculata, Chuān Xīn Lián) has traditionally been used in Indian and Chinese herbal medicine for cough, cold and influenza, suggesting a role in respiratory tract infections (RTIs). This systematic review aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of A. Paniculata for symptoms of acute RTIs (ARTIs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780503/late-mortality-after-acute-hypoxic-respiratory-failure
#3
Hallie C Prescott, Michael W Sjoding, Kenneth M Langa, Theodore J Iwashyna, Daniel F McAuley
BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxic respiratory failure (AHRF) is associated with significant acute mortality. It is unclear whether later mortality is predominantly driven by pre-existing comorbid disease, the acute inciting event or is the result of AHRF itself. METHODS: Observational cohort study of elderly US Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants in fee-for-service Medicare (1998-2012). Patients hospitalised with AHRF were matched 1:1 to otherwise similar adults who were not currently hospitalised and separately to patients hospitalised with acute inciting events (pneumonia, non-pulmonary infection, aspiration, trauma, pancreatitis) that may result in AHRF, here termed at-risk hospitalisations...
August 5, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776170/viridans-group-streptococci-bloodstream-infections-in-neutropenic-adult-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy-single-center-experience
#4
J Radocha, P Paterová, A Zavřelová, B Víšek, F Gabalec, H Žemličková, P Žák
Viridans group streptococci bloodstream infections (VGS BSI) remain a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with severe neutropenia. The goal of our study was to evaluate clinical course and microbiological susceptibility of VGS BSI at our center. Retrospective analysis of all microbiologically documented bloodstream infections caused by VGS during the 9-year time period (from January 2006 until December 2014) was carried out. Only patients with severe neutropenia (< 500/μL) were included in the study...
August 3, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772168/prevalence-and-seasonality-of-six-respiratory-viruses-during-five-consecutive-epidemic-seasons-in-belgium
#5
Kaat Ramaekers, Els Keyaerts, Annabel Rector, Annie Borremans, Kurt Beuselinck, Katrien Lagrou, Marc Van Ranst
BACKGROUND: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) are a major health problem, especially in young children and the elderly. OBJECTIVES: Insights into the seasonality of respiratory viruses can help us understand when the burden on society is highest and which age groups are most vulnerable. STUDY DESIGN: We monitored six respiratory viruses during five consecutive seasons (2011-2016) in Belgium. Patient specimens (n=22876), tested for one or more of the following respiratory viruses, were included in this analysis: Influenza viruses (IAV & IBV), Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), Adenovirus (ADV) and Human parainfluenza virus (hPIV)...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762839/new-treatment-options-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
Bela Kocsis, Dora Szabo
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute exacerabation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are among the most frequent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). They represent an increased morbidity and mortality rate in adults. Areas covered: This review describes recent advances regarding solithromycin, zabofloxacin and delafoxacin antibacterial agents that have been recently developed for treatment of CAP and in AECOPD. All of them have been introduced into phase III clinical trials. We will be summarising chemical structures, pharmacokinetics, antibacterial efficacy and toxicity of these agents...
August 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761099/therapeutic-efficacy-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-inhibitor
#7
Dirk Roymans, Sarhad S Alnajjar, Michael B Battles, Panchan Sitthicharoenchai, Polina Furmanova-Hollenstein, Peter Rigaux, Joke Van den Berg, Leen Kwanten, Marcia Van Ginderen, Nick Verheyen, Luc Vranckx, Steffen Jaensch, Eric Arnoult, Richard Voorzaat, Jack M Gallup, Alejandro Larios-Mora, Marjolein Crabbe, Dymphy Huntjens, Pierre Raboisson, Johannes P Langedijk, Mark R Ackermann, Jason S McLellan, Sandrine Vendeville, Anil Koul
Respiratory syncytial virus is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in young children, immunocompromised adults, and the elderly. Intervention with small-molecule antivirals specific for respiratory syncytial virus presents an important therapeutic opportunity, but no such compounds are approved today. Here we report the structure of JNJ-53718678 bound to respiratory syncytial virus fusion (F) protein in its prefusion conformation, and we show that the potent nanomolar activity of JNJ-53718678, as well as the preliminary structure-activity relationship and the pharmaceutical optimization strategy of the series, are consistent with the binding mode of JNJ-53718678 and other respiratory syncytial virus fusion inhibitors...
August 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759481/influenza-and-workplace-productivity-loss-in-working-adults
#8
Jeffrey J Van Wormer, Jennifer P King, Anna Gajewski, Huong Q McLean, Edward A Belongia
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined how acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) influence workplace productivity. We examined the association between laboratory-confirmed influenza and combined absenteeism/presenteeism. METHODS: Linear regression was used to model the association between influenza (by seasonal vaccine status) and productivity loss over 7 to 17 days following symptom onset in 1278 employed adults in an influenza vaccine effectiveness study during the 2012 to 2013 through 2015 to 2016 seasons...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758310/the-global-burden-of-respiratory-infections-in-indigenous-children-and-adults-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Thilini L Basnayake, Lucy C Morgan, Anne B Chang
This review article focuses on common lower respiratory infections (LRIs) in indigenous populations in both developed and developing countries, where data is available. Indigenous populations across the world share some commonalities including poorer health and socio-economic disadvantage compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. Generally, acute and chronic respiratory infections are more frequent and more severe in both indigenous children and adults, often resulting in substantial consequences including higher rates of bronchiectasis and poorer outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
July 30, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750020/antibiotic-prescriptions-for-outpatient-acute-rhinosinusitis-in-canada-2007-2013
#10
Prateek Sharma, Rita Finley, Scott Weese, Shiona Glass-Kaastra, Warren McIsaac
INTRODUCTION: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is a respiratory disease commonly caused by viral infections. Physicians regularly prescribe antibiotics despite bacterial etiologies being uncommon. This is of concern, as this use adds to the selection pressure for resistance. Here we present the descriptive epidemiology of acute rhinosinusitis and corresponding antibiotic prescribing practices by Canadian outpatient physicians from 2007-2013. MATERIALS/METHODS: Diagnosis and antibiotic prescription data for ARS were extracted from the Canadian Disease and Therapeutic Index for 2007 to 2013, and population data were acquired from Statistics Canada...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742677/committee-opinion-no-712-intrapartum-management-of-intraamniotic-infection
#11
(no author information available yet)
Intraamniotic infection, also known as chorioamnionitis, is an infection with resultant inflammation of any combination of the amniotic fluid, placenta, fetus, fetal membranes, or decidua. Intraamniotic infection is a common condition noted among preterm and term parturients. However, most cases of intraamniotic infection detected and managed by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric care providers will be noted among term patients in labor. Intraamniotic infection can be associated with acute neonatal morbidity, including neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and death...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742671/committee-opinion-no-712-summary-intrapartum-management-of-intraamniotic-infection
#12
(no author information available yet)
Intraamniotic infection, also known as chorioamnionitis, is an infection with resultant inflammation of any combination of the amniotic fluid, placenta, fetus, fetal membranes, or decidua. Intraamniotic infection is a common condition noted among preterm and term parturients. However, most cases of intraamniotic infection detected and managed by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric care providers will be noted among term patients in labor. Intraamniotic infection can be associated with acute neonatal morbidity, including neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and death...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741903/the-acceptability-and-validity-of-self-collected-nasal-swabs-for-detection-of-influenza-virus-infection-among-older-adults-in-thailand
#13
Sonal Goyal, Kriengkrai Prasert, Prabda Praphasiri, Malinee Chittaganpitch, Sunthareeya Waicharoen, Darunee Ditsungnoen, Siriluk Jaichuang, Kim A Lindblade
BACKGROUND: Self-collection of nasal swabs could improve the timeliness of influenza virus detection in older adults. OBJECTIVES: Measure the acceptability, adequacy, timeliness and validity of self-collected nasal swabs among adults ≥65 years in Thailand. METHODS: Our evaluation consisted of two parts: a one-month study among randomly-selected, community-dwelling older adults to simulate community-based surveillance for acute respiratory infections (ARI); and a clinic study of older adults with ARI to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of self-collected nasal swabs for influenza virus infection compared with healthcare worker (HCW)-collected nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs...
July 25, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728317/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-associated-hepatitis-without-lung-involvement
#14
Han Taek Jeong, Jae Young Oh, Jung Eun Song, Byung Seok Kim, Chang Hyeong Lee
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a major cause of community acquired respiratory infections. And it also causes a number of extrapulmonary manifestations including cardiovascular, dermatological, musculoskeletal, and hematological systems. But, acute hepatitis without lung involvement is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of 32-year-old man who presented with fever, chilling, myalgia, and headache. Biochemical analysis showed severely impaired liver function and leukopenia. Laboratory tests and liver biopsy demonstrated a hepatocellular pattern of M...
July 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722615/assessing-the-short-term-global-health-experience-a-cross-sectional-study-of-demographics-socioeconomic-factors-and-disease-prevalence
#15
Olivia Geen, Allison Pumputis, Cristina Kochi, Andrew Costa, Karl Stobbe
Interest in short-term global health experiences to underserviced populations has grown rapidly in the last few decades. However, there remains very little research on what participants can expect to encounter. At the same time, it has been suggested that in order for physicians and workers to provide safe and effective care, volunteers should have a basic understanding of local culture, health systems, epidemiology, and socioeconomic needs of the community before arriving. Our objective was to add to the limited literature on what short-term global health trips can expect to encounter through a cross-sectional study of patient demographics, socioeconomic markers, and the prevalence of diseases encountered on a short-term medical service trip to Lima, Peru...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676408/respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-adults-with-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting
#16
Jocelyn Moyes, Sibongile Walaza, Marthi Pretorius, Michelle Groome, Anne von Gottberg, Nicole Wolter, Sumayya Haffejee, Ebrahim Variava, Adam L Cohen, Stefano Tempia, Kathleen Kahn, Halima Dawood, Marietjie Venter, Cheryl Cohen, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in HIV-infected adults or the elderly in Africa. We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations in adults in South Africa from 2009 through 2013. METHODS: Individuals admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals were investigated by respiratory tract swabs for RSV, using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669380/acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-adult-patients-with-seasonal-influenza-infection
#17
Ana Dovč, Vladimir Premru, Blaž Pečavar, Rafael Ponikvar
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 22.4 - 100% of critically-ill hospitalized patients with influenza infection. In up to 2/3, it is severe enough to necessitate renal replacement therapy. We aimed to document the incidence of AKI among patients with influenza-related critical illness and its relation to clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of all adult patients with acute respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza infection admitted to non-surgical intensive care units at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana between January 1, 2016, and March 31, 2016...
July 2, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667069/role-of-human-metapneumovirus-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-asthma-exacerbations-where-are-we-now
#18
REVIEW
Penny A Rudd, Belinda J Thomas, Ali Zaid, Martin MacDonald, Keiko Kan-O, Michael S Rolph, Anand R Soorneedi, Philip G Bardin, Suresh Mahalingam
Since its discovery in 2001, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been identified as an important cause of respiratory tract infection in young children, second only to the closely related respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Clinical evidence suggests that hMPV is associated with acute exacerbations of asthma in both children and adults, and may play a role in initiating asthma development in children. Animal models have demonstrated that airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation are triggered following hMPV infection, and hMPV is able to persist in vivo by inhibiting innate immune responses and causing aberrant adaptive responses...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648543/seasonal-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-against-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-hospitalizations-latin-america-2013
#19
Nathalie El Omeiri, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Mark G Thompson, Wilfrido Clará, Mauricio Cerpa, Rakhee Palekar, Sara Mirza, Alba María Ropero-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Despite widespread utilization of influenza vaccines, effectiveness (VE) has not been routinely measured in Latin America. METHODS: We used a case test-negative control design to estimate trivalent inactivated influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized children aged 6months-5years and adults aged ≥60years which are age-groups targeted for vaccination. We sought persons with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI), hospitalized at 71 sentinel hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, and Paraguay during January-December 2013...
June 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646962/the-long-shadow-of-lemierre-s-syndrome
#20
Joshua Osowicki, Sarah Kapur, Linny Kimly Phuong, Simon Dobson
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare and feared complication of pharyngitis, occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. It is typically defined by the constellation of septic internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, pulmonary and other septic emboli, and sterilesite infection by Fusobacterium necrophorum. The rarity and severity of Lemierre's syndrome has made it an attractive subject for case reports but there is a paucity of evidence to inform areas of persistent uncertainty. In recent years, heightened attention and controversy has focused upon speculation that a purported rise in the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome is due to reduced antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections, that F...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
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