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HIV functional impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436127/tip110-deletion-impaired-embryonic-and-stem-cell-development-involving-down-regulation-of-stem-cell-factors-nanog-oct4-and-sox2
#1
Amanda Whitmill, Ying Liu, Khalid Amine Timani, Yinghua Niu, Johnny J He
HIV-1 Tat-interacting protein of 110 kDa, Tip110, plays important roles in multiple biological processes. In this study, we aimed to characterize the function of Tip110 in embryonic development. Transgenic mice lacking expression of a functional Tip110 gene (Tip110(-/-) ) died post-implantation, and Tip110(-/-) embryos exhibited developmental arrest between 8.5 and 9.5 days post coitum. However, in vitro cultures of Tip110(-/-) embryos showed that Tip110 loss did not impair embryo growth from the zygote to the blastocyst...
April 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433429/immunological-function-of-langerhans-cells-in-hiv-infection
#2
Takamitsu Matsuzawa, Youichi Ogawa, Kohji Moriishi, Shinji Shimada, Tatsuyoshi Kawamura
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cells (LCs) are one of the initial target cells for HIV following sexual exposure and they are productively infected by HIV. HIV-infected LCs migrate to the draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and transmit the virus to CD4(+) T cells, leading to the dissemination of HIV. In contrast with the role of LCs in initial HIV acquisition, little is known about the modulation of immune responses by HIV-infected LCs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate the induction of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), both of which play important roles in regulating the progression of HIV infection...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429290/association-of-long-term-patterns-of-depressive-symptoms-and-attention-executive-function-among-older-men-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#3
Nicole M Armstrong, Pamela J Surkan, Glenn J Treisman, Ned C Sacktor, Michael R Irwin, Linda A Teplin, Ron Stall, Eileen M Martin, James T Becker, Cynthia Munro, Andrew J Levine, Lisa P Jacobson, Alison G Abraham
Older HIV-infected men are at higher risk for both depression and cognitive impairments, compared to HIV-uninfected men. We evaluated the association between longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men aged 50+ years to understand whether HIV infection influenced the long-term effect of depression on attention/executive function. Responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale and attention/executive function tests (Trail Making Test Part B and Symbol Digit Modalities Test) were collected semiannually from May 1986 to April 2015 in 1611 men...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418984/anger-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-a-cross-sectional-study-anrs-co13-hepavih
#4
Fabienne Marcellin, Camelia Protopopescu, Laure Esterle, Linda Wittkop, Lionel Piroth, Hugues Aumaitre, Olivier Bouchaud, Cécile Goujard, Daniel Vittecoq, François Dabis, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Perrine Roux, Maria P Carrieri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to document the relationship between anger dimensions (state, trait, expression, and control) and quality of life (QoL) in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study nested in the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH French national cohort. Anger and QoL were assessed using self-administered questionnaires in 536 HIV-HCV-co-infected patients. Correlations between anger scores (STAXI-2 scale) and QoL scores (WHOQOL-HIV BREF scale) were assessed using Spearman's coefficients...
April 17, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409354/retrosplenial-cortical-thinning-as-a-possible-major-contributor-for-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-patients
#5
Na-Young Shin, Jinwoo Hong, Jun Yong Choi, Seung-Koo Lee, Soo Mee Lim, Uicheul Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To identify brain cortical regions relevant to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV patients. METHODS: HIV patients with HAND (n = 10), those with intact cognition (HIV-IC; n = 12), and age-matched, seronegative controls (n = 11) were recruited. All participants were male and underwent 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Both vertex-wise and region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to analyse cortical thickness. RESULTS: Compared to controls, both HIV-IC and HAND showed decreased cortical thickness mainly in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas, extending to the prefrontal and parietal cortices...
April 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400540/cd56-bright-nk-il-7r%C3%AE-expression-negatively-associates-with-hcv-level-and-il-7-induced-nk-function-is-impaired-during-hcv-and-hiv-infections
#6
Chelsey J Judge, Lenche Kostadinova, Kenneth E Sherman, Adeel A Butt, Yngve Falck-Ytter, Nicholas T Funderburg, Alan L Landay, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Johan K Sandberg, Donald D Anthony
Several lines of evidence support the concept that NK cells play an important role in control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection via cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity. IL-7 is a homeostatic cytokine with a role in T cell development, activation, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. The IL-7Rα chain [cluster of differentiation (CD)127] is expressed on NK cells, with greatest abundance on the CD56(bright)CD16(dim/-) (CD56(bright)) subset. Here, we measured CD127 expression on CD56(bright), CD56(dim)CD16(+) (CD56(dim)), or CD56(neg)CD16(+) (CD56(neg)) NK cell subsets of 25 uninfected donors (UD); 34 chronic HCV-infected, treatment-naïve; 25 HIV-infected, virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy (ART); and 42 HCV-HIV-coinfected subjects on ART...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399475/everyday-functional-ability-in-hiv-and-methamphetamine-dependence
#7
Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Scott L Letendre, Robert K Heaton, William Perry
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) use is a risk factor for the transmission of HIV. Each is associated with neurocognitive impairment and subsequent problems in everyday functioning, yet additive effects of HIV and METH are not consistently observed. This study used the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-2) to assess whether METH use disorder and HIV together resulted in poorer functional outcome than either condition alone. METHOD: Participants in the Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC) cohort were stratified based upon HIV infection and METH use disorder: HIV-/METH- (n=49), HIV-/METH+ (n=48), HIV+/METH- (n=37), and HIV+/METH+ (n=38)...
March 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398956/informatic-interrogation-of-csf-proteomic-profiles-from-hiv-infected-subjects-implicates-acute-phase-and-complement-systems-in-shifting-cognitive-status
#8
Ceereena Ubaida-Mohien, Benjamin Lamberty, Alex M Dickens, Michelle M Mielke, Thomas Marcotte, Ned Sacktor, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, D Franklin, Pawel Cibrowski, Ravi Tharakan, Justin C McArthur, Howard Fox, Norman J Haughey
The prevalence of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) has not changed considerably in the last two decades. Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has shifted the severity of HAND to milder phenotypes, but excess morbidity and mortality continue to be associated with HAND. Changes in numerous markers of immune function, inflammation and cellular stress have been repeatedly associated with HAND but the underlying systems that drive these changes have not been identified. In this study we used systems informatics to interrogate the CSF proteomic content of longitudinal samples obtained from HIV-infected adults with stably unimpaired, stably impaired, worsening, or improving neurocognitive (NC) performance...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396994/identifying-the-white-matter-impairments-among-art-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-patients-a-multivariate-pattern-analysis-of-dti-data
#9
Zhenchao Tang, Zhenyu Liu, Ruili Li, Xin Yang, Xingwei Cui, Shuo Wang, Dongdong Yu, Hongjun Li, Enqing Dong, Jie Tian
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter (WM) impairments of the antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV patients by conducting a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data METHODS: We enrolled 33 ART-naïve HIV patients and 32 Normal controls in the current study. Firstly, the DTI metrics in whole brain WM tracts were extracted for each subject and feed into the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operators procedure (LASSO)-Logistic regression model to identify the impaired WM tracts...
April 10, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395172/monocyte-bioenergetic-function-is-associated-with-body-composition-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-women
#10
Amanda L Willig, Philip A Kramer, Balu K Chacko, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Sonya L Heath, E Turner Overton
Women living with HIV may present with high levels of body fat that are associated with altered bioenergetic function. Excess body fat may therefore exacerbate the bioenergetic dysfunction observed with HIV infection. To determine if body fat is associated with bioenergetic function in HIV, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 42 women with HIV who were virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. Body composition was determined via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of monocytes was sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from participants in the fasting state...
April 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387814/grey-and-white-matter-abnormalities-in-treated-hiv-disease-and-their-relationship-to-cognitive-function
#11
Jonathan Underwood, James H Cole, Matthan Caan, Davide De Francesco, Robert Leech, Rosan A van Zoest, Tanja Su, Gert J Geurtsen, Ben A Schmand, Peter Portegies, Maria Prins, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Caroline A Sabin, Charles Majoie, Peter Reiss, Alan Winston, David J Sharp
Background: Long-term comorbidities such as cognitive impairment remain prevalent in otherwise effectively treated people-living-with-HIV. We investigate the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain structure in successfully treated patients using multi-modal neuroimaging from the Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort. Methods: Cognitive function, brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure were assessed in 134 HIV-positive patients and 79 controls...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384290/mait-cells-are-reduced-in-frequency-and-functionally-impaired-in-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-infection-potential-clinical-implications
#12
Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Benjamin C Greenspun, Emanuela A S Costa, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper G Kallas, Douglas F Nixon, Fabio E Leal
HTLV-1 infection is associated with several inflammatory disorders, including the neurodegenerative condition HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is unclear why a minority of infected subjects develop HAM/TSP. The cellular immune response has been implicated in the development of inflammatory alterations in these patients; however the pathogenic mechanisms for disease progression remain unclear. Furthermore, HTLV-1-infected individuals have an increase incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, suggesting that immunological defect are associated with HTLV-1 infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381429/long-term-effects-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-on-lung-function-in-malawian-children-a-cohort-study
#13
Natasha Lelijveld, Marko Kerac, Andrew Seal, Emmanuel Chimwezi, Jonathan C Wells, Robert S Heyderman, Moffat J Nyirenda, Janet Stocks, Jane Kirkby
Early nutritional insults may increase risk of adult lung disease. We aimed to quantify the impact of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) on spirometric outcomes 7 years post-treatment and explore predictors of impaired lung function.Spirometry and pulse oximetry were assessed in 237 Malawian children (median age: 9.3 years) who had been treated for SAM and compared with sibling and age/sex-matched community controls. Spirometry results were expressed as z-scores based on Global Lung Function Initiative reference data for the African-American population...
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380039/alterations-of-the-nk-cell-pool-in-hiv-hcv-co-infection
#14
Dominik J Kaczmarek, Pavlos Kokordelis, Benjamin Krämer, Andreas Glässner, Franziska Wolter, Felix Goeser, Philipp Lutz, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Christoph Boesecke, Christian P Strassburg, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Ulrich Spengler, Jacob Nattermann
BACKGROUND: A relevant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients is co-infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV co-infection in HIV-positive patients is associated with faster progression of liver disease in comparison to HCV mono-infection. Natural killer (NK) cells critically modulate the natural course of HCV infection. Both HIV and HCV mono-infection are associated with alterations of the NK cell pool. However, little data is available concerning phenotype and function of NK cells in HIV/HCV co-infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368028/tenofovir-inhibits-wound-healing-of-epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts-from-the-upper-and-lower-human-female-reproductive-tract
#15
Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, Mickey V Patel, Zheng Shen, Jack Bodwell, Richard M Rossoll, Charles R Wira
Disruption of the epithelium in the female reproductive tract (FRT) is hypothesized to increase HIV infection risk by interfering with barrier protection and facilitating HIV-target cell recruitment. Here we determined whether Tenofovir (TFV), used vaginally in HIV prevention trials, and Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), an improved prodrug of TFV, interfere with wound healing in the human FRT. TFV treatment of primary epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the endometrium (EM), endocervix (CX) and ectocervix (ECX) significantly delayed wound closure...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364982/medical-male-circumcision-is-associated-with-improvements-in-pain-during-intercourse-and-sexual-satisfaction-in-kenya
#16
Monica P C Nordstrom, Nelli Westercamp, Walter Jaoko, Timothy Okeyo, Robert C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Two cohort studies using data from randomized controlled trials in Africa offer the best evidence to date on the effects of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) on male sexual function and satisfaction, suggesting no significant impairments in sexual function or satisfaction and some improvements in sexual function after male circumcision. AIM: To assess the effects of VMMC on sexual function and satisfaction in a large population-based cohort of men circumcised as adults and uncircumcised controls in Kenya...
April 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359324/cerebrospinal-fluid-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-is-associated-with-hiv-replication-iron-transport-and-mild-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-impairment
#17
Sanjay R Mehta, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Todd Hulgan, Tyler R C Day, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Haley Gittleman, Scott Letendre, Ronald Ellis, Robert Heaton, Stephanie Patton, Jesse D Suben, Donald Franklin, Debralee Rosario, David B Clifford, Ann C Collier, Christina M Marra, Benjamin B Gelman, Justin McArthur, Allen McCutchan, Susan Morgello, David Simpson, James Connor, Igor Grant, Asha Kallianpur
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are abundant organelles critical for energy metabolism and brain function. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), released during cellular injury and as part of the innate immune response to viral pathogens, contains CpG motifs that act as TLR-9 ligands. We investigated relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell-free mtDNA levels and HIV viral load (VL), biomarkers of inflammation and iron transport, and neurocognitive (NC) function in the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359212/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-adolescents-with-hiv-aids-pediatric-advance-care-planning
#18
Maureen E Lyon, Lawrence J D'Angelo, Ronald H Dallas, Pamela S Hinds, Patricia A Garvie, Megan L Wilkins, Ana Garcia, Linda Briggs, Patricia M Flynn, Sohail R Rana, Yao Iris Cheng, Jichuan Wang
The objective of this study is to determine if pediatric advance care planning (pACP) increases adolescent/family congruence in end-of-life (EOL) treatment preferences longitudinally. Adolescents aged 14-21 years with HIV/AIDS and their families were randomized (N = 105 dyads) to three-60-minute sessions scheduled one week apart: either the pACP intervention (survey administered independently, facilitated conversation with adolescent and family present, completion of legal advance directive document with adolescent and family present) or an active control (developmental history, safety tips, nutrition and exercise education)...
March 30, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358738/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-inhibition-by-indinavir-implications-for-cognitive-dysfunction-in-treated-hiv-disease
#19
Sean Ekins, Paul Mathews, Erin K Saito, Natalie Diaz, David Naylor, Julia Chung, Aaron M McMurtray
OBJECTIVE: The study set out to determine if the HIV protease inhibitor, indinavir, alters responsiveness of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to acetylcholine. DESIGN: Treatment with HAART has dramatically reduced development of HIV-associated dementia and more severe forms of cognitive impairment. However, many individuals continue to experience cognitive decline of uncertain cause. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate significant alterations of functional brain connectivity, structural brain changes, or changes in cerebral blood flow sufficient to explain cognitive decline in virally suppressed individuals...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353539/coronary-artery-endothelial-dysfunction-is-present-in-hiv-positive-individuals-without-significant-coronary-artery-disease
#20
Micaela Iantorno, Michael Schär, Sahar Soleimanifard, Todd T Brown, Richard Moore, Patricia Barditch-Crovo, Matthias Stuber, Shenghan Lai, Gary Gerstenblith, Robert G Weiss, Allison G Hays
OBJECTIVE: HIV+ individuals experience an increased burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) not adequately accounted for by traditional CAD risk factors. Coronary endothelial function (CEF), a barometer of vascular health, is depressed early in atherosclerosis and predicts future events but has not been studied in HIV+ individuals. We tested whether CEF is impaired in HIV+ subjects without CAD as compared to an HIV- population matched for cardiac risk factors. DESIGN/METHODS: In this observational study, CEF was measured noninvasively by quantifying isometric handgrip exercise (IHE)-induced changes in coronary vasoreactivity with MRI in 18 participants with HIV but no CAD (HIV+CAD-, based on prior imaging), 36 age- and cardiac risk factor-matched healthy participants with neither HIV nor CAD (HIV-CAD-), 41 subjects with no HIV but with known CAD (HIV-CAD+) and 17 subjects with both HIV and CAD (HIV+CAD+)...
March 28, 2017: AIDS
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