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HIV functional impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346318/predictors-of-impaired-hdl-function-in-hiv-1-infected-compared-to-uninfected-individuals
#1
Theodoros Kelesidis, Michael N Oda, Mark S Borja, Yumin Yee, Kit F Ng, Diana Huynh, David Elashoff, Judith S Currier
OBJECTIVE: HDL function rather than absolute level may be a more accurate indicator for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Novel methods can measure HDL function using patient samples. The objective of this study is to identify factors that may contribute to HDL dysfunction in chronic, treated HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective study of HDL function measured in two ways in HIV-1 infected males with low overall CVD risk and healthy males with no known CVD risk matched by race to the HIV-1 infected participants...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337206/cases-of-impaired-oxidative-burst-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-neutrophils-a-pilot-study
#2
Anicet Christel Maloupazoa Siawaya, Amandine Mveang-Nzoghe, Ofilia Mvoundza Ndjindji, Armel Mintsa Ndong, Paulin N Essone, Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya
An increased risk of serious bacterial infections in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants has been demonstrated. Although neutrophils are essential for the protection of infants against bacterial infections, no study has investigated their profile in HEU infants to date. In this study, we assessed the function of neutrophils in HEU infants using the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. Among 25 HEU infants, 9 (36%) showed a reduced ability of their neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species upon stimulation with bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321930/uncovering-allostery-and-regulation-in-samhd1-through-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#3
Kajwal Kumar Patra, Akash Bhattacharya, Swati Bhattacharya
The human sterile alpha motif and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a retroviral restriction factor in myeloid cells and non-cycling CD4+ T cells, a feature imputed to its phosphohydrolase activity - the enzyme depletes the cellular dNTP levels inhibiting reverse transcription. The functionally active form of SAMHD1 is an allosterically triggered tetramer which utilizes GTP-Mg(+2) -dNTP cross bridges to link and stabilize adjacent monomers. However, very little is known about how it assembles into a tetramer and how long the tetramer stays intact...
March 21, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317034/european-mitochondrial-dna-haplogroups-are-associated-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-inflammation-in-hiv-infection
#4
David C Samuels, Asha R Kallianpur, Ronald J Ellis, William S Bush, Scott Letendre, Donald Franklin, Igor Grant, Todd Hulgan
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are ancestry-related patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with differential mitochondrial function in model systems, neurodegenerative diseases in HIV-negative populations, and chronic complications of HIV infection, including neurocognitive impairment. We hypothesized that mtDNA haplogroups are associated with neuroinflammation in HIV-infected adults. METHODS: CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) is a US-based observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent standardized neurocognitive assessments...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316508/longitudinal-functional-models-with-structured-penalties
#5
Madan G Kundu, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Timothy W Randolph
This article addresses estimation in regression models for longitudinally-collected functional covariates (time-varying predictor curves) with a longitudinal scaler outcome. The framework consists of estimating a time-varying coefficient function that is modeled as a linear combination of time-invariant functions with time-varying coefficients. The model uses extrinsic information to inform the structure of the penalty, while the estimation procedure exploits the equivalence between penalized least squares estimation and a linear mixed model representation...
April 2016: Statistical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315271/role-of-sigma-1-receptor-in-cocaine-abuse-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#6
Yu Cai, Lu Yang, Fang Niu, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch
Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1R) are recognized as a unique class of non-G protein-coupled intracellular protein. Sig-1R binds to its ligand such as cocaine , resulting in dissociation of Sig-1R from mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plasma membrane, and nuclear membrane, regulating function of various proteins. Sig-1R has diverse roles in both physiological as well as in pathogenic processes. The disruption of Sig-1R pathways has been implicated as causative mechanism(s) in the development of both neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD ), Parkinson disease (PD ), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS ) and Huntington Disease (HD ) ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#7
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300601/functional-contacts-between-mper-and-the-anti-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-4e10-extend-into-the-core-of-the-membrane
#8
Edurne Rujas, Sara Insausti, Miguel García-Porras, Rubén Sánchez-Eugenia, Kouhei Tsumoto, José L Nieva, Jose M M Caaveiro
The exceptional breadth of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the transmembrane protein gp41 makes this class of antibodies an ideal model to design HIV vaccines. From a practical point of view, however, the preparation of vaccines eliciting bNAbs is still a major roadblock that limits their clinical application. Fresh mechanistic insights are necessary to develop more effective strategies. In particular, the function of the unusually long complementary determining region three of the heavy chain (CDRH3) of 4E10, an anti-MPER bNAb, is an open question that fascinates researchers in the field...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294530/the-association-between-physical-activity-and-cognition-in-men-with-and-without-hiv-infection
#9
A K Monroe, L Zhang, L P Jacobson, M W Plankey, T T Brown, E N Miller, E Martin, J T Becker, A J Levine, A Ragin, N C Sacktor
OBJECTIVES: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are highly prevalent, and physical activity (PA) is a modifiable behaviour that may affect neurocognitive function. Our objective was to determine the association between PA and neurocognitive function and the effect of HIV on this association. METHODS: PA was assessed in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A neuropsychological test battery assessed global impairment and domain-specific impairment (executive function, speed of processing, working memory, learning, memory, and motor function) every 2 years...
March 13, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290161/corticosteroids-for-tuberculous-pleurisy
#10
REVIEW
Hannah Ryan, Jinho Yoo, Padmapriya Darsini
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids used in addition to antituberculous therapy have been reported to benefit people with tuberculous pleurisy. However, research findings are inconsistent and raise doubt as to whether such treatment is worthwhile. There is also concern regarding the potential adverse effects of corticosteroids, especially in HIV-positive people. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of adding corticosteroids to drug regimens for tuberculous pleural effusion...
March 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288232/-tenofovir-associated-fanconi-s-syndrome-and-rickets-in-a-hiv-infected-girl
#11
Marcela Zúñiga, Armando Galindo, María Isabel Galaz, Maritza Vivanco, Patricio Romero, Paulina Balboa, Claudia Torrejón
Tenofovir (TDF) is an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase nucleotide analogue, although it has good tolerability and high anti-retroviral activity, its effect on the kidney has been a concern. OBJECTIVE: To describe a girl infected with HIV who presented Fanconi syndrome during antiretroviral therapy with TDF. CLINICAL CASE: We describe a HIV-1-infected girl, who after 18 months treatment with TDF presented loss of strength and pain of the lower extremities with functional impairment...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276994/immunosenescence-and-hurdles-in-the-clinical-management-of-older-hiv-patients
#12
Marco Ripa, Stefania Chiappetta, Giuseppe Tambussi
People living with HIV (PLWH) who are treated with effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have a similar life expectancy to the general population. Moreover, an increasing proportion of new HIV diagnoses are made in people older than 50 y. The number of older HIV-infected patients is thus constantly growing and it is expected that by 2030 around 70% of PLWH will be more than 50 y old. On the other hand, HIV infection itself is responsible for accelerated immunosenescence, a progressive decline of immune system function in both the adaptive and the innate arm, which impairs the ability of an individual to respond to infections and to give rise to long-term immunity; furthermore, older patients tend to have a worse immunological response to HAART...
February 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275841/individual-level-factors-associated-with-mental-health-in-rwandan-youth-affected-by-hiv-aids
#13
Pamela Scorza, Cristiane S Duarte, Anne Stevenson, Christine Mushashi, Fredrick Kanyanganzi, Morris Munyana, Theresa S Betancourt
PURPOSE: Prevention of mental disorders worldwide requires a greater understanding of protective processes associated with lower levels of mental health problems in children who face pervasive life stressors. This study aimed to identify culturally appropriate indicators of individual-level protective factors in Rwandan adolescents where risk factors, namely poverty and a history of trauma, have dramatically shaped youth mental health. METHODS: The sample included 367 youth aged 10-17 in rural Rwanda...
March 8, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264037/cognitive-change-trajectories-in-virally-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals-indicate-high-prevalence-of-disease-activity
#14
Chloe Gott, Thomas Gates, Nadene Dermody, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
BACKGROUND: The longitudinal rate and profile of cognitive decline in persons with stable, treated, and virally suppressed HIV infection is not established. To address this question, the current study quantifies the rate of cognitive decline in a cohort of virally suppressed HIV+ persons using clinically relevant definitions of decline, and determine cognitive trajectories taking into account historical and baseline HAND status. METHODS: Ninety-six HIV+ (clinically stable and virally undetectable) and 44 demographically comparable HIV- participants underwent standard neuropsychological testing at baseline and 18-months follow-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250114/c-terminal-hiv-1-transframe-p6-tetra-peptide-blocks-enhanced-gag-cleavage-incurred-by-leucine-zipper-replacement-of-a-deleted-p6-domain
#15
Fu-Hsien Yu, Kuo-Jung Huang, Chin-Tien Wang
HIV-1 protease (PR) functions as a homodimer mediating virus maturation following virus budding. Gag-Pol dimerization is believed to trigger embedded PR activation by promoting PR dimer formation. Early PR activation can lead to markedly reduced virus yields due to premature Gag cleavage. The p6* peptide, located between Gag and PR, is believed to ensure virus production by preventing early PR maturation. Studies aimed at finding supporting evidence for this proposal are limited due to a reading frame overlap between p6* and the p6gag budding domain...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248548/lung-function-in-south-african-adolescents-infected-perinatally-with-hiv-and-treated-long-term-with-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Leah Nyawira Githinji, Diane M Gray, Sipho Hlengwa, Landon Myer, Heather J Zar
RATIONALE: Lung disease is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in HIV-infected adolescents, but there is limited information on the spectrum of lung function impairment in adolescents on antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate lung function in HIV-infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort. METHODS: A total of 515 South African adolescents aged 9 to 14 years, stable on antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months, underwent baseline lung function testing...
March 1, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247479/does-efavirenz-replacement-improve-neurological-function-in-treated-hiv-infection
#17
B Payne, T J Chadwick, A Blamire, K N Anderson, J Parikh, J Qian, A M Hynes, J Wilkinson, D A Price
OBJECTIVES: The contribution of specific antiretroviral drugs to cognitive function in HIV-infected people remains poorly understood. Efavirenz (EFV) may plausibly cause cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was therefore to determine whether chronic EFV therapy is a modifier of neurocognitive and neurometabolic function in the setting of suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We performed an open-label phase IV controlled trial. Adult subjects who were stable on suppressive EFV therapy for at least 6 months were switched to ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) with no change in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone...
March 1, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245099/hiv-infection-does-not-prevent-the-metabolic-benefits-of-diet-induced-weight-loss-in-women-with-obesity
#18
Dominic N Reeds, Terri A Pietka, Kevin E Yarasheski, W Todd Cade, Bruce W Patterson, Adewole Okunade, Nada A Abumrad, Samuel Klein
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that HIV infection impairs the beneficial effects of weight loss on insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. METHODS: A prospective clinical trial evaluated the effects of moderate diet-induced weight loss on body composition, metabolic function, and adipose tissue biology in women with obesity who were HIV-seronegative (HIV-) or HIV-positive (HIV+). Body composition, multiorgan insulin sensitivity (assessed by using a two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with stable isotopically labeled tracer infusions), and adipose tissue expression of markers of inflammation, autophagy, and ER stress were evaluated in 8 HIV- and 20 HIV+ women with obesity before and after diet-induced weight loss of 6% to 8%...
February 28, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241080/replication-of-cmv-in-the-gut-of-hiv-infected-individuals-and-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#19
Ekaterina Maidji, Ma Somsouk, Jose M Rivera, Peter W Hunt, Cheryl A Stoddart
Although invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is uncommon in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), asymptomatic CMV coinfection is nearly ubiquitous in HIV infected individuals. While microbial translocation and gut epithelial barrier dysfunction may promote persistent immune activation in treated HIV infection, potentially contributing to morbidity and mortality, it has been unclear whether CMV replication in individuals with no symptoms of CMV disease might play a role in this process. We hypothesized that persistent CMV replication in the intestinal epithelium of HIV/CMV-coinfected individuals impairs gut epithelial barrier function...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236279/oas-gene-family-expression-is-associated-with-hiv-related-neurocognitive-disorders
#20
C Sanfilippo, M R Pinzone, D Cambria, A Longo, M Palumbo, R Di Marco, F Condorelli, G Nunnari, L Malaguarnera, M Di Rosa
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are common in HIV-infected individuals, even in the combination antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) era. Several mechanisms are involved in neuronal damage, including chronic inflammation immune activation. Mammalian 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) genes are produced in response to interferon (IFN), mainly by monocytes, and exert their antiviral functions by activation of RNase L that degrades viral and cellular RNAs. In this study, we aimed at exploring OAS gene family RNA expression in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (SIVE), in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and in HIV-associate dementia (HAD)...
February 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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