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HIV functional impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730408/evolution-of-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-utility-in-assessing-the-progression-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#1
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Understanding the progression of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a critical need as the prevalence of HIV-1 in older individuals (>50 years) is markedly increasing due to the great success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Longitudinal experimental designs, in comparison to cross-sectional studies, provide an opportunity to establish age-related disease progression in HAND. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which has been promoted for investigating the effect of long-term HIV-1 viral protein exposure, was used to examine two interrelated goals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730326/infectious-diseases-causing-autonomic-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Francisco Javier Carod Artal
OBJECTIVES: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase. RESULTS: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Autonomic dysfunction is relatively common in HIV-infected patients and heart rate variability is reduced even in early stages of infection...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729828/working-memory-profiles-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-infected-children-a-comparison-with-neurotypical-controls
#3
Robyn Milligan, Kate Cockcroft
This study compared the working memory profiles of three groups of children, namely HIV-infected (HIV-I; n = 95), HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU; n = 86) and an HIV-unexposed, uninfected, (HIV-UU; n = 92) neurotypical control group. Working memory, an executive function, plays an important role in frontal lobe-controlled behaviors, such as motivation, planning, decision making, and social interaction, and is a strong predictor of academic success in school children. Memory impairments have been identified in HIV-I children, particularly in visuospatial processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721049/the-potential-role-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-depression-a-review-of-literature
#4
REVIEW
William C Nicholson, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Linda Moneyham, David E Vance
Depression is the most common comorbidity and neuropsychiatric complication in HIV. Estimates suggest that the prevalence rate for depression among HIV-infected individuals is three times that of the general population. The association between HIV and clinical depression is complex; however, chronic activation of inflammatory mechanisms, which disrupt central nervous system (CNS) function, may contribute to this association. Disruptions in CNS function can result in cognitive disorders, social withdrawal, fatigue, apathy, psychomotor impairment, and sleep disturbances, which are common manifestations in depression and HIV alike...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716964/a-glun2b-selective-nmdar-antagonist-reverses-synapse-loss-and-cognitive-impairment-produced-by-the-hiv-1-protein-tat
#5
Jonathan D Raybuck, Nicholas J Hargus, Stanley A Thayer
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects approximately half of HIV-infected patients. Loss of synaptic connections is a hallmark of many neurocognitive disorders, including HAND. The HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) disrupts synaptic connections both in vitro and in vivo and has been linked to impaired neurocognitive function in humans. In vitro studies have shown that ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for GluN2B-containing NMDARs, reverses synapse loss when applied after Tat...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716545/effect-of-ageing-on-neurocognitive-function-by-stage-of-hiv-infection-evidence-from-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#6
Karl Goodkin, Eric N Miller, Christopher Cox, Sandra Reynolds, James T Becker, Eileen Martin, Ola A Selnes, David G Ostrow, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND: The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. METHODS: With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function...
July 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713164/human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-induces-a-regulatory-b-cell-like-phenotype-in-vitro
#7
Jacobo Lopez-Abente, Adrián Prieto-Sanchez, Maria-Ángeles Muñoz-Fernandez, Rafael Correa-Rocha, Marjorie Pion
Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) usually show a general dysregulation and hyper-activation of the immune system. A direct influence of HIV-1 particles on B-cell phenotypes and functions has been previously described. However, the consequences of B-cell dysregulation are still poorly understood. We evaluated the phenotypic changes in primary B cells after direct contact with HIV-1 particles in comparison with different types of stimuli. The functionality of treated B cells was challenged in co-culture experiments with autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells...
July 17, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692581/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-suppresses-secretion-of-ifn%C3%AE-by-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-from-healthy-and-hiv-infected-individuals
#8
Joseph E Henriquez, Michael D Rizzo, Matthias A Schulz, Robert B Crawford, Peter Gulick, Norbert E Kaminski
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a crucial role in host antiviral immune response through secretion of type I interferon. Interferon alpha (IFNα), a type I IFN, is critical for mounting the initial response to viral pathogens. A consequence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) infection is a decrease in both pDC number and function, but prolonged pDC activity has been linked with progression from HIV infection to the development of AIDS. Patients with HIV in the United States routinely use cannabinoid-based therapies to combat the side effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689493/hiv-associated-executive-dysfunction-in-the-era-of-modern-antiretroviral-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Keenan A Walker, Gregory G Brown
OBJECTIVE: While some reports suggest that HIV+ individuals continue to display executive function (EF) impairment in the era of cART, findings have been contradictory and appear to differ based on the aspect of EF being measured. To improve the understanding of how discrete executive abilities may be differentially affected or spared in the context of HIV infection, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to (a) determine whether and to what extent HIV+ adults experience deficits in EFs, and (b) understand how demographic and clinical characteristics may modify the associations between HIV infection and executive abilities...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685715/high-staphylococcus-epidermidis-colonization-and-impaired-permeability-barrier-in-facial-seborrheic-dermatitis
#10
Qian An, Meng Sun, Rui-Qun Qi, Li Zhang, Jin-Long Zhai, Yu-Xiao Hong, Bing Song, Hong-Duo Chen, Xing-Hua Gao
BACKGROUND: Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common inflammatory skin condition. The etiology is unclear, although overgrowth of Malassezia on the skin has been suggested to cause SD. This study investigated whether colonization with Staphylococcus plays a role in facial SD, which was not well addressed previously. METHODS: The study was conducted from September 1, 2011 to February 20, 2012 in the First Hospital of China Medical University. In the first phase, the study evaluated the level of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus in defined skin areas of SD patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive (HIV [+] SD [+] group, n = 13), classical SD (HIV [-] SD [+] group, n = 24) patients, HIV seropositive-non-SD (HIV [+] SD [-] group, n = 16) patients, and healthy volunteers (HIV [-] SD [-] group, n = 16)...
July 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681344/neurocognitive-functioning-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-southern-india
#11
Rujvi Kamat, Allen McCutchan, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Thomas D Marcotte, Anya Umlauf, Poongulali Selvamuthu, Rachel Meyer, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Ajay R Bharti
The validity of a comprehensive international neuropsychological (NP) test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a Tamil speaking southern Indian cohort (69 HIV+ and 67 HIV-) was explored. The prevalence of HAND was significantly higher in the HIV+ vs. HIV- group (33 vs.13%; p < 0.01). Impairment rates were highest in the motor and speed of information processing domains. An NP battery translated into Tamil appears to be a valid tool for assessing HAND because the prevalence it found of HAND in southern India is similar to that found elsewhere...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679596/peripheral-neuropathy-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-in-rakai-uganda
#12
Deanna Saylor, Gertrude Nakigozi, Noeline Nakasujja, Kevin Robertson, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Ned Sacktor
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and functional impairment associated with peripheral neuropathy in a prospective cohort of adults in rural Uganda. METHODS: Eight hundred participants (400 HIV- and 400 antiretroviral-naive HIV+) in the Rakai Community Cohort Study underwent detailed neurologic evaluations including assessment of neuropathy symptoms, functional measures (Patient Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Karnofsky Performance Status scores), and neurologic evaluation by a trained medical officer...
July 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675304/immune-markers-diurnal-blood-pressure-profile-and-cardiac-function-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-patients
#13
Ingjerd W Manner, Bård Waldum-Grevbo, Birgit Nomeland Witczak, Morten Bækken, Olav Øktedalen, Ingrid Os, Thomas Schwartz, Ivar Sjaastad
PURPOSE: Non-dipping nocturnal blood pressure (BP) pattern has been reported prevalent among HIV-infected patients and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aims of this observational study were to identify predictors of nocturnal BP decline, and to explore whether diurnal BP profile is associated with alterations in cardiac structure and function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 108 treated HIV-infected patients with suppressed viremia underwent ambulatory BP measurement, 51 of these patients also underwent echocardiography...
July 4, 2017: Blood Pressure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667761/persistent-accumulation-of-gut-macrophages-with-impaired-phagocytic-function-correlates-with-siv-disease-progression-in-macaques
#14
Zachary D Swan, Anthea L Bouwer, Elizabeth R Wonderlich, Simon M Barratt-Boyes
The contribution of macrophages in the gastrointestinal tract to disease control or progression in HIV infection remains unclear. To address this question, we analyzed CD163(+) macrophages in ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes (LN) from SIV-infected rhesus macaques with dichotomous expression of controlling MHC class I alleles predicted to be SIV controllers or progressors. Infection induced accumulation of macrophages into gut mucosa in the acute phase that persisted in progressors but was resolved in controllers...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665215/neurocognitive-profile-of-hiv-positive-adults-on-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-single-centre-study-in-serbia
#15
Brigitta Malagurski, Vojislava Bugarski Ignjatović, Daniela Marić, Željka Nikolašević, Ljiljana Mihić, Snežana Brkić
The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has prolonged the life expectancy of HIV + individuals and decreased the incidence of HIV-associated dementia. However, milder forms of neurocognitive impairment remain common and are often associated with poor daily functioning and lower medication adherence. This paper presents a research aimed at exploring the cognitive status differences between HIV + subjects (N = 39) on cART therapy and a group of demographically comparable healthy subjects (N = 39) in Serbia...
June 30, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664684/cross-cultural-assessment-of-hiv-associated-cognitive-impairment-using-the-kaufman-assessment-battery-for-children-a-systematic-review
#16
Kaylee S van Wyhe, Tanya van de Water, Michael J Boivin, Mark F Cotton, Kevin Gf Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Despite improved efficacy of, and access to, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated cognitive impairments remain prevalent in both children and adults. Neuropsychological tests that detect such impairment can help clinicians formulate effective treatment plans. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), although developed and standardized in the United States, is used frequently in many different countries and cultural contexts to assess paediatric performance across various cognitive domains...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655608/cholesterol-metabolizing-enzyme-cytochrome-p450-46a1-as-a-pharmacologic-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Natalia Mast, Aicha Saadane, Ana Valencia-Olvera, James Constans, Erin Maxfield, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Young Li, Gary Landreth, Irina A Pikuleva
Cytochrome P450 46A1 (CYP46A1 or cholesterol 24-hydroxylase) controls cholesterol elimination from the brain and plays a role in higher order brain functions. Genetically enhanced CYP46A1 expression in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease mitigates the manifestations of this disease. We enhanced CYP46A1 activity pharmacologically by treating 5XFAD mice, a model of rapid amyloidogenesis, with a low dose of the anti-HIV medication efavirenz. Efavirenz was administered from 1 to 9 months of age, and mice were evaluated at specific time points...
June 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655206/deficient-emotion-processing-is-associated-with-everyday-functioning-capacity-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#18
Jonathan M Grabyan, Erin E Morgan, Marizela V Cameron, Javier Villalobos, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
Objective: Emotion processing has received little research focus in HIV, but emerging evidence suggests that abilities such as facial affect discrimination may be features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The present study hypothesized that individuals with HAND would evidence an emotion processing deficit relative to cognitively unimpaired individuals with HIV and seronegative comparison participants on a task assessing these abilities. Moreover, it was expected that this deficit would be significantly associated with social aspects of everyday functioning...
June 26, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651626/selective-impairments-of-alerting-and-executive-control-in-hiv-infected-patients-evidence-from-attention-network-test
#19
Yi-Quan Wang, Yang Pan, Sheng Zhu, Yong-Guang Wang, Zhi-Hua Shen, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Attention ability can be subdivided into three functionally independent networks, i.e., alerting network, orienting network, and executive network. Previous literature has documented that deficits in attention are a common consequence of HIV infection. However, the precise nature of deficits of attention in HIV-infected patients is poorly understood. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to identify whether the HIV-infected patients showed a specific attention network deficit or a general attentional impairment...
June 27, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647827/association-between-cd4-viral-load-and-pulmonary-function-in-hiv
#20
Marjan Islam, Navitha Ramesh, Samuel Kolman, Sanjana Koshy, Matthew Frank, Nadim Salomon, Albert Miller, Mary Harris
PURPOSE: The antiretroviral therapy era has shifted the epidemiology of HIV-associated diseases, increasing the recognition of non-infectious pulmonary complications secondary to HIV. We aimed to determine the association between CD4(+), viral load, and pulmonary function in individuals with uncontrolled HIV, and determine how changes in these parameters are associated with pulmonary function longitudinally. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of individuals with HIV who underwent pulmonary function testing in an urban medical center between August 1997 and November 2015...
June 24, 2017: Lung
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