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HIV functional impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351445/impact-of-hiv-infection-on-alpha-1-antitrypsin-in-the-lung
#1
Sarah E Stephenson, Carole L Wilson, Kristina Crothers, Engi F Attia, Cherry Wongtrakool, Irina Petrache, Lynn M Schnapp
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is one of the most common lung diseases in HIV+ individuals. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated emphysema remains unclear; however, radiographic distribution and earlier age of presentation of emphysema in the lungs of HIV+ patients are similar to deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), a key elastase inhibitor in the lung. Reduced levels of circulating A1AT have been detected in HIV+ patients, suggesting a potential mechanism for emphysema development. In the present study, we asked if A1AT levels and activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) differ in patients with and without HIV and emphysema...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350337/baseline-neurocognitive-functioning-predicts-viral-load-suppression-at-1-year-follow-up-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infected-patients
#2
Lokesh Shahani, Lucrecia Salazar, Steven P Woods, Rodrigo Hasbun
The current prospective observational study evaluated the impact of baseline neurocognitive impairment on future viral load suppression among antiretroviral medication naive persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score less than 26, to identify patients with neurocognitive deficits. Of the 138 patients enrolled; virologic suppression was seen in 61% of the participants, while 72% of the participants had a MoCA score less than 26 at baseline. Variables significantly associated with low MoCA score included higher age (p < 0...
January 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346443/exposure-to-previous-cart-is-associated-with-significant-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#3
Evrim Anadol, Kristina Lust, Christoph Boesecke, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Raphael Mohr, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh, Jonel Trebicka
INTRODUCTION: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival in HIV-patients. While the first antiretrovirals, which became available in particular D-drugs (especially didanosine and stavudine) and unboosted protease inhibitors, may impair liver function, the modern cART seems to decrease liver fibrosis. This study assessed the influence of exposure to previous antiretrovirals on liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional single-center study recruited 333 HIV patients and assessed liver fibrosis using transient elastography (TE)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344357/examining-the-effectiveness-of-a-cognitive-intervention-to-improve-cognitive-function-in-a-population-of-older-adults-living-with-hiv-a-pilot-study
#4
Judy A Frain, Ling Chen
Objective: The purpose of this randomized-controlled pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of a home-based computerized cognitive training intervention in improving cognitive function in a population of older adults with mild cognitive impairment who are living with HIV. Methods: In all, 24 participants were enrolled in this study. All study participants were impaired [defined as Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score < 26]; 12 were randomly assigned to a computer-training intervention group and 12 to a control group...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334883/renal-outcomes-in-patients-initiated-on-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-based-antiretroviral-therapy-at-a-community-health-centre-in-malawi
#5
Bongani Chikwapulo, Bagrey Ngwira, Jean Baptiste Sagno, Rhys Evans
Tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy (TDF ART) is the first-line regimen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa. However, contemporary data on nephrotoxicity are lacking. We determined the renal outcomes of patients commenced on TDF ART in Malawi. ART-naïve patients initiated on TDF ART at a community health centre between 1 July 2013 and 31 December 2015 were included. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, Cockcroft-Gault) was recorded at the initiation of therapy and over 18 months thereafter...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321334/mechanism-of-hiv-1-resistance-to-an-electronically-constrained-%C3%AE-helical-peptide-membrane-fusion-inhibitor
#6
Xiyuan Wu, Zixuan Liu, Xiaohui Ding, Danwei Yu, Huamian Wei, Bo Qin, Yuanmei Zhu, Huihui Chong, Sheng Cui, Yuxian He
SC29EK is an electronically constrained α-helical peptide HIV-1 fusion inhibitor highly effective against both wild-type and enfuvirtide (T20)-resistant viruses. In this study, we focused on investigating the mechanism of HIV-1 resistance to SC29EK by two approaches. First, SC29EK-escaping HIV-1 variants were selected and characterized. Three mutant viruses, which possessed two (E43K/E49A) or three (Q39R/N43K/N126K, N43K/E49A/N126K) amino acid substitutions in the N- and C-terminal repeat regions of gp41 were identified as conferring high resistance to SC29EK and cross-resistance to the first-generation (T20, C34) and newly-designed (sifuvirtide, MT-SC29EK, 2P23) fusion inhibitors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313714/decreased-lung-function-and-all-cause-mortality-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#7
Matthew R Gingo, Mehdi Nouraie, Cathy J Kessinger, Ruth M Greenblatt, Laurence Huang, Eric C Kleerup, Lawrence Kingsley, Deborah K McMahon, Alison Morris
RATIONALE: HIV infection is associated with pulmonary disease and worse lung function, but the relationship of lung function with survival in HIV is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if lung function is associated with all-cause mortality in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected participants. RESULTS: HIV-infected pParticipants from cohorts in three locations underwent pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry and single-breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in 2008-2009, computed tomography (CT) of the chest for quantitative emphysema and airway measures, and echocardiogram for estimated left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and tricuspid regurgitant velocity...
January 9, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305338/a-mobile-app-to-screen-for-neurocognitive-impairment-preliminary-validation-of-neuroscreen-among-hiv-infected-south-african-adults
#8
Reuben N Robbins, Hetta Gouse, Henry G Brown, Andries Ehlers, Travis M Scott, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Robert H Remien, Claude A Mellins, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is one of the most common complications of HIV infection, and has serious medical and functional consequences. South Africa has 7 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) with up to three-quarters of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve individuals having NCI. South Africa's health system struggles to meet the care needs of its millions of PLHIV; screening for NCI is typically neglected due to limited clinical staff trained to administer, score, and interpret neuropsychological tests, as well as long test batteries and limited screening tools for South African populations...
January 5, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304123/infection-and-depletion-of-cd4-group-1-innate-lymphoid-cells-by-hiv-1-via-type-i-interferon-pathway
#9
Juanjuan Zhao, Liang Cheng, Hongbo Wang, Haisheng Yu, Bo Tu, Qiang Fu, Guangming Li, Qi Wang, Yanling Sun, Xin Zhang, Zhenwen Liu, Weiwei Chen, Liguo Zhang, Lishan Su, Zheng Zhang
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are severely depleted during chronic HIV-1 infection by unclear mechanisms. We report here that human ILC1s comprising of CD4+ and CD4- subpopulations were present in various human lymphoid organs but with different transcription programs and functions. Importantly, CD4+ ILC1s expressed HIV-1 co-receptors and were productively infected by HIV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, chronic HIV-1 infection activated and depleted both CD4+ and CD4- ILC1s, and impaired their cytokine production activity...
January 5, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303997/high-mannose-but-not-complex-type-glycosylation-of-tetherin-is-required-for-restriction-of-hiv-1-release
#10
Abdul A Waheed, Ariana Gitzen, Maya Swiderski, Eric O Freed
Tetherin is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that inhibits the release of a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses by retaining virions at the surface of infected cells. While the role of specific tetherin domains in antiviral activity is clearly established, the role of glycosylation in tetherin function is not clear. In this study, we carried out a detailed investigation of this question by using tetherin variants in which one or both sites of N-linked glycosylation were mutated (N65A, N92A, and N65,92A), and chemical inhibitors that prevent glycosylation at specific stages of oligosaccharide were added or modified...
January 5, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260041/cognitive-functions-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-hiv-infection-in-a-tertiary-health-facility-assessment-using-community-screening-interview-for-dementia
#11
T A Sumonu, F Imarhiagbe, L F Owolabi, O A Ogunrin, M A Komolafe, O S Ilesanmi
Introduction: Neurocognitive dysfunction is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. In this study we attempt to characterize the pattern of cognitive dysfunction in a sample of Nigerian patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Methods: We conducted a prospective study in which 50 patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were studied along with 50 normal control subjects. The participants were evaluated with the medical history, general, physical and neurological examination...
December 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247305/neurologic-disease-in-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-interventions-for-neuroaids
#12
Christopher Power
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes immunosuppression through virus-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion in feline species. FIV infection is complicated by virus-induced disease in the nervous system. FIV enters the brain soon after primary infection and is detected as FIV-encoded RNA, DNA, and proteins in microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes. FIV infection activates neuroinflammatory pathways including cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and ROS with accompanying neuronal injury and loss...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206302/network-analysis-of-hippocampal-neurons-by-microelectrode-array-in-the-presence-of-hiv-1-tat-and-cocaine
#13
Taha Mohseni Ahooyi, Masoud Shekarabi, Emilie A Decoppet, T Dianne Langford, Kamel Khalili
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders affecting greater than 30% of patients are caused by HIV-1 infection of the CNS, and in part, include neurotoxic effects of the viral transactivator of transcription, Tat protein. In addition to increasing the risk for becoming HIV infected, cocaine abuse enhances the neuropathogenic impacts of HIV-1. To investigate the outcome of Tat and cocaine interference in the hippocampal neuronal network, microelectrode arrays were employed to develop a systematic framework to assess the rank-cross-correlation coefficient in cultured hippocampal neurons...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204910/who-is-the-patient-at-risk-of-cmv-recurrence-a-review-of-the-current-scientific-evidence-with-a-focus-on-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Jan Styczynski
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an agent of global infection, and its acquisition in a population is characterized by an age-dependent rise in seropositivity. After primary infection, CMV remains in the host cells in latent form, and it can reactivate in the case of immune suppression. The risk of CMV recurrence is dependent on the level of incompetency of the immune system, manifested as an impairment of T-cell immunity, including the presence and function of CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This article presents data on the incidence of CMV recurrence in groups of immunocompromised patients, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and other groups of patients, based on a summary of reported data...
December 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200184/structural-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychologic-signatures-of-vertically-acquired-hiv
#15
Robert Paul, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Neda Jahanashad, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Paul Thompson, Linda Aurpibul, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Pope Kosalaraksa, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Wicharn Luesomboon, Sukalaya Lerdlum, Mantana Pothisri, Pannee Visrutaratna, Victor Valcour, Talia M Nir, Arvin Saremi, Stephen Kerr, Jintanat Ananworanich
BACKGROUND: Children with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit persistent cognitive impairments, yet the corresponding neuroimaging signature of vertical infection remains unclear. METHODS: Fifty healthy control children and 51 vertically infected children were included in the study. The HIV-infected group consisted of survivors who had not received antiretroviral therapy (ART) at birth. The HIV-infected group averaged 11.4 (2.5) years of age, with a median CD4 count of 683 cells/mm...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197575/trametinib-suppresses-hiv-1-replication-by-interfering-with-the-disassembly-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-capsid-core
#16
Takeo Dochi, Ayano Akita, Naoki Kishimoto, Nobutoki Takamune, Shogo Misumi
Our previous study showed that the phosphorylation of a highly conserved serine residue, Ser16 in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid (CA) protein is promoted by virion-incorporated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) and required for proper peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (Pin1)-mediated uncoating. Interestingly, western blot analysis demonstrated that phosphorylated/activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), the upstream activator of ERK2, as well as ERK2 are incorporated into virions...
November 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187544/genetically-intact-but-functionally-impaired-hiv-1-env-glycoproteins-in-the-t-cell-reservoir
#17
Anne de Verneuil, Julie Migraine, Fabrizio Mammano, Jean-Michel Molina, Sébastien Gallien, Hugo Mouquet, Allan J Hance, François Clavel, Jacques Dutrieux
HIV-infected subjects under ART harbor a persistent viral reservoir in resting CD4+ T-cells, which accounts for the resurgence of HIV replication after ART interruption. A large majority of HIV reservoir genomes are genetically defective, but even among intact proviruses, few seem able to generate infectious virus. To understand this phenomenon, we have examined the function and expression of HIV envelope glycoproteins reactivated from the reservoir of 4 HIV-infected subjects under suppressive ART. We studied full-length genetically intact env sequences from both replicative viruses and cell-associated mRNAs...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182762/cognitive-function-among-antiretroviral-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-infected-with-hiv-1-subtype-g-versus-crf02_ag-in-nigeria
#18
Jibreel Jumare, Nicaise Ndembi, Samer S El-Kamary, Laurence Magder, Laura Hungerford, Tricia Burdo, Lindsay M Eyzaguirre, Patrick Dakum, Anya Umlauf, Mariana Cherner, Alash'le Abimiku, Man Charurat, William A Blattner, Walter Royal
Background: HIV-1 subtype has been shown to be associated with disease progression. We compared cognitive function between individuals infected with HIV-1 subtype G and CRF02_AG in Nigeria. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, samples were analyzed from 146 antiretroviral naïve participants. Genotypic analysis of plasma HIV RNA was performed by nested PCR of protease and reverse transcriptase genes, and sequences aligned with curated HIV-1 subtype references...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181691/irreversible-phenotypic-perturbation-and-functional-impairment-of-b-cells-during-hiv-1-infection
#19
Jingjing Yan, Shuye Zhang, Jun Sun, Jianqing Xu, Xiaoyang Zhang
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can damage humoral immunity. The knowledge of B cell perturbations during chronic HIV-1 infection and their recovery after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is not complete yet, and thus attempts to further improve humoral immunity are impeded. In this study, an HIV-1 chronically infected cohort with similar demographics, infection history, genetic background, and HIV-1 genotype was established to probe B cell perturbations. Results showed that the B cells from this cohort were highly activated and prone to cell death, and B cell compartments were altered significantly...
November 27, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179726/modulation-of-the-functional-association-between-the-hiv-1-intasome-and-the-nucleosome-by-histone-amino-terminal-tails
#20
Mohamed S Benleulmi, Julien Matysiak, Xavier Robert, Csaba Miskey, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Paul Lesbats, Stéphane Chaignepain, Daniel R Henriquez, Christina Calmels, Oyindamola Oladosu, Eloïse Thierry, Oscar Leon, Marc Lavigne, Marie-Line Andreola, Olivier Delelis, Zoltán Ivics, Marc Ruff, Patrice Gouet, Vincent Parissi
BACKGROUND: Stable insertion of the retroviral DNA genome into host chromatin requires the functional association between the intasome (integrase·viral DNA complex) and the nucleosome. The data from the literature suggest that direct protein-protein contacts between integrase and histones may be involved in anchoring the intasome to the nucleosome. Since histone tails are candidates for interactions with the incoming intasomes we have investigated whether they could participate in modulating the nucleosomal integration process...
November 28, 2017: Retrovirology
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