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HIV functional impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217815/hiv-and-kidney-a-dangerous-liaison
#1
Alessia Bertoldi, Elisa De Crignis, Anna Miserocchi, Isabella Bon, Giuseppina Musumeci, Serena Longo, Vanessa D'Urbano, Gaetano La Manna, Leonardo Calza, Maria Carla Re
Kidney disease represents an important health concern among HIV-infected individuals, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 2.4 and 17%. The widespread use of antiretroviral drugs has changed the epidemiology of kidney disease in the HIV positive population, drastically reducing the percentage of patients affected by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a complication characterized by apoptosis and de-differentiation of renal epithelial cells and podocytes. However, impaired kidney function remains an important issue among HIV-infected patients because of their long-term exposure to antiretroviral drugs and the growing burden of traditional risk factors associated with chronic renal disease...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212984/hiv-1-vpr-disrupts-mitochondria-axonal-transport-and-accelerates-neuronal-aging
#2
Ying Wang, Maryline Santerre, Italo Tempera, Kayla Martin, Ruma Mukerjee, Bassel E Sawaya
Disruption of mitochondria axonal transport, essential for the maintenance of synaptic and neuronal integrity and function, has been identified in neurodegenerative diseases. Whether HIV-1 viral proteins affect mitochondria axonal transport is unknown, albeit HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders occur in around half of the patients living with HIV. Therefore, we sought to examine the effect of HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) on mitochondria axonal transport. Using mice primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrated that 4-day Vpr treatment reduced the ratio of moving mitochondria associated with (i) less energy (ATP) supply, (ii) reduction in Miro-1 and (iii) increase of α-synuclein which led to loss of microtubule stability as demonstrated by inconsecutive distribution of acetylated α-tubulin along the axons...
February 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202766/inhibition-of-hiv-1-maturation-via-small-molecule-targeting-of-the-amino-terminal-domain-in-the-viral-capsid-protein
#3
Weifeng Wang, Jing Zhou, Upul D Halambage, Kellie A Jurado, Augusta V Jamin, Yujie Wang, Alan N Engelman, Christopher Aiken
The HIV-1 capsid protein is an attractive therapeutic target owing to its multifunctionality in virus replication and the high fitness cost of amino acid substitutions in capsid to HIV-1 infectivity. To date, small molecule inhibitors have been identified that inhibit HIV-1 capsid assembly and/or impair its function in target cells. Here we describe the mechanism of action of the previously reported capsid-targeting HIV-1 inhibitor, BI compound 1 (C1). We show that C1 acts during HIV-1 maturation to prevent assembly of a mature viral capsid...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202615/il-13-mediated-regulation-of-learning-and-memory
#4
Tiroyaone M Brombacher, Justin K Nono, Keisha S De Gouveia, Nokuthula Makena, Matthew Darby, Jacqueline Womersley, Ousman Tamgue, Frank Brombacher
The role of proinflammatory cytokines in cognitive function has been investigated with both beneficial and possible detrimental effects, depending on the cytokine. More recently, the type 2 IL-4 has been demonstrated to play a role in cognition. In this study, using the Morris water maze task, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are significantly impaired in working memory as well as attenuated reference memory, both functions essential for effective complex learning. During the learning process, wild-type mice increased the number of CD4(+) T cells in the meninges and production of IL-13, whereas neither Morris water maze-trained IL-4 nor trained IL-13-deficient mice were able to increase CD4(+) T cells in the meninges...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195560/impact-of-tenofovir-dose-adjustment-on-both-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-tenofovir-trough-concentration
#5
Sylvie Bregigeon, Caroline Solas, Olivia Faucher, Véronique Obry-Roguet, Catherine Tamalet, Isabelle Poizot-Martin
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based regimen is a treatment option for HIV-infected patients. TDF dose adjustment is recommended in patients with impaired renal function. We assessed the impact of TDF dose adjustment on renal function and tenofovir trough concentration. METHODS: Fourteen HIV patients for whom TDF dose was adjusted (1 tablet/48h) because of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73m(2), and/or due to a tenofovir trough concentration > 90 ng/mL between 2006 and 2013 were selected...
February 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194140/hiv-1-tat-and-viral-latency-what-we-can-learn-from-naturally-occurring-sequence-variations
#6
REVIEW
Doreen Kamori, Takamasa Ueno
Despite the effective use of antiretroviral therapy, the remainder of a latently HIV-1-infected reservoir mainly in the resting memory CD4(+) T lymphocyte subset has provided a great setback toward viral eradication. While host transcriptional silencing machinery is thought to play a dominant role in HIV-1 latency, HIV-1 protein such as Tat, may affect both the establishment and the reversal of latency. Indeed, mutational studies have demonstrated that insufficient Tat transactivation activity can result in impaired transcription of viral genes and the establishment of latency in cell culture experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188599/effects-of-depression-alleviation-on-work-productivity-and-income-among-hiv-patients-in-uganda
#7
Glenn J Wagner, Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Eric Robinson, Victoria K Ngo, Peter Glick, Seggane Musisi, Dickens Akena
PURPOSE: Depression is common among people living with HIV, and it is associated with impaired work functioning. However, little research has examined whether depression alleviation improves work-related outcomes in this population, which is the focus of this analysis. METHOD: A sample of 1028 depressed HIV clients in Uganda enrolled in a comparative trial of depression care models and were surveyed over 12 months. Serial regression analyses examined whether depression alleviation (measured by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire) was associated with change in self-reported weekly amount of hours worked and income earned, and whether these relationships were mediated by change in work-related self-efficacy...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186978/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-cart-restores-hiv-1-infection-mediated-impairment-of-jak-stat-signaling-pathway
#8
Man-Qing Liu, Min Zhao, Wen-Hua Kong, Li Tang, Fang Wang, Ze-Rong Zhu, Xia Wang, Hong-Yan Qiu, Dun-Jin Zhou, Xu Wang, Wen-Zhe Ho, Wang Zhou
JAK-STAT signaling pathway has a crucial role in host innate immunity against viral infections, including HIV-1. We therefore examined the impact of HIV-1 infection and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Compared to age-matched healthy donors (n = 18), HIV-1-infected subjects (n = 18) prior to cART had significantly lower expression of toll-like receptors (TLR-1/4/6/7/8/9), the IFN regulatory factors (IRF-3/7/9), and the antiviral factors (OAS-1, MxA, A3G, PKR, and Tetherin)...
February 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174773/dietary-fibre-based-scfa-mixtures-promote-both-protection-and-repair-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-in-a-caco-2-cell-model
#9
Tingting Chen, Choon Young Kim, Amandeep Kaur, Lisa Lamothe, Maliha Shaikh, Ali Keshavarzian, Bruce R Hamaker
Impaired gut barrier function plays an important role in the development of many diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and in HIV infection. Dietary fibres have been shown to improve intestinal barrier function through their fermentation products, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the effects of individual SCFAs have been studied. Here, different SCFA mixtures representing possible compositions from fibre fermentation products were studied for protective and reparative effects on intestinal barrier function...
February 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170120/physical-function-grip-strength-and-frailty-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Charlotte Bernard, François Dabis, Nathalie de Rekeneire
OBJECTIVE: To present the current knowledge on physical function, grip strength and frailty in HIV-infected patients living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the phenomenon is largely underestimated. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on Medline, Scopus and African Index Medicus. We reviewed articles on sub-Saharan African people living with HIV (PLHIV) >18 years old, published until November 2016. RESULTS: Of 537 articles, 13 were conducted in six African countries and included in this review...
February 7, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169874/impact-of-hiv-and-atiretroviral-therapy-on-neurocognitive-outcomes-among-school-aged-children
#11
Heena Brahmbhatt, Michael Boivin, Victor Ssempijja, Joseph Kagaayi, Godfrey Kigozi, David Serwadda, Avy Violari, Ronald H Gray
INTRODUCTION: The impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on neurocognitive outcomes among children aged 7 to 14 years was assessed. We hypothesized that ART would ameliorate neurocognitive sequelae of HIV infection. METHODS: HIV-positive and negative mother-child pairs from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) and ART clinics in Rakai, Uganda were followed prospectively over 4 years. Exposures were stratified as: Perinatally HIV Infected (PHIV), Perinatally HIV Exposed but Uninfected (PHEU), and HIV Unexposed and Uninfected (HUU)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164171/diminished-cd103-%C3%AE-e%C3%AE-7-expression-on-resident-t-cells-from-the-female-genital-tract-of-hiv-positive-women
#12
David C Moylan, Paul A Goepfert, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Michael S Saag, Holly E Richter, Jiri Mestecky, Steffanie Sabbaj
BACKGROUND: Tissue resident memory T cells (TrM) provide an enhanced response against infection at mucosal surfaces, yet their function has not been extensively studied in humans, including the female genital tract (FGT). METHODS: Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we studied TrM cells, defined as CD62L-CCR7-CD103(+)CD69(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in mucosa-derived T cells from healthy and HIV-positive women. RESULTS: We demonstrate that TrM are present in the FGT of healthy and HIV-positive women...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160772/renal-safety-of-lithium-in-hiv-infected-patients-established-on-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-containing-antiretroviral-therapy-analysis-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Eric H Decloedt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of bipolar disorder in HIV-infected patients is higher than the general population. Lithium is the most effective mood stabiliser, while tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is frequently used as part of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both TDF and lithium are associated with renal tubular toxicity, which could be additive, or a pharmacokinetic interaction may occur at renal transporters with a decrease in TDF elimination. OBJECTIVE: We report on the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the modification of diet in renal disease formula in participants who received ART including TDF and were enrolled in a 24 week randomised trial of lithium versus placebo in patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment...
February 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160684/major-depressive-disorder-and-suicidality-in-early-hiv-infection-and-its-association-with-risk-factors-and-negative-outcomes-as-seen-in-semi-urban-and-rural-uganda
#14
Eugene Kinyanda, Noeline Nakasujja, Jonathan Levin, Harriet Birabwa, Richard Mpango, Heiner Grosskurth, Soraya Seedat, Vikram Patel
INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of research into the psychiatric problems associated with early stage HIV clinical disease in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken among 899 adult ART naïve persons in early stage HIV clinical disease (participants with CD4≥250 and who were at WHO clinical Stage I or II) attending a semi-urban and a rural clinic in Uganda. RESULTS: The prevalence of major depressive disorder in this study was 14...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155864/aberrant-neuronal-dynamics-during-working-memory-operations-in-the-aging-hiv-infected-brain
#15
Tony W Wilson, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Jennifer O'Neill, Kevin R Robertson, Howard S Fox, Susan Swindells
Impairments in working memory are among the most prevalent features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), yet their origins are unknown, with some studies arguing that encoding operations are disturbed and others supporting deficits in memory maintenance. The current investigation directly addresses this issue by using a dynamic mapping approach to identify when and where processing in working memory circuits degrades. HIV-infected older adults and a demographically-matched group of uninfected controls performed a verbal working memory task during magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141781/low-dose-hydrocortisone-has-acute-enhancing-effects-on-verbal-learning-in-hiv-infected-men
#16
Leah H Rubin, K Luan Phan, Sheila M Keating, Kathleen M Weber, Pauline M Maki
OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoids are released in response to stress and alter cognition and brain function through both rapid, nongenomic and slow, genomic mechanisms. Administration of glucocorticoids in the form of hydrocortisone enhances aspects of learning and memory in individuals with PTSD, but impairs these abilities in healthy individuals. We examine the time-dependent effects of glucocorticoids on cognition in HIV-infected men. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we examined the time-dependent effects of a single low dose of hydrocortisone (10mg; LDH) on cognition in 45 HIV-infected men...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130496/induction-of-il21-in-peripheral-t-follicular-helper-cells-is-an-indicator-of-influenza-vaccine-response-in-a-previously-vaccinated-hiv-infected-pediatric-cohort
#17
Lesley R de Armas, Nicola Cotugno, Suresh Pallikkuth, Li Pan, Stefano Rinaldi, M Celeste Sanchez, Louis Gonzalez, Alberto Cagigi, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma, Savita Pahwa
HIV-infected patients of all ages frequently underperform in response to seasonal influenza vaccination, despite virologic control of HIV. The molecular mechanisms governing this impairment, as well as predictive biomarkers for responsiveness, remain unknown. This study was performed in samples obtained prevaccination (T0) from HIV-infected children who received the 2012-2013 seasonal influenza vaccine. Response status was determined based on established criterion for hemagglutination inhibition titer; participants with a hemagglutination titer ≥1:40 plus a ≥4-fold increase over T0 at 3 wk postvaccination were designated as responders...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125811/loneliness-in-older-black-adults-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-is-associated-with-poorer-cognition
#18
S Duke Han, Oluwatoyin Adeyemi, Robert S Wilson, Sue Leurgans, Antonio Jimenez, Lawrence Oullet, Raj Shah, Alan Landay, David A Bennett, Lisa L Barnes
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with cognitive impairment, and loneliness is associated with cognitive decline in old age. Older Black adults with HIV may be at particular risk of loneliness due to stigma and lack of social resources. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that (1) older Black adults with HIV would show greater loneliness than older White adults with HIV, and (2) greater loneliness among older Black adults with HIV would be associated with poorer cognitive function...
January 27, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122474/screening-for-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-positive-adults-aged-50-years-and-older-montreal-cognitive-assessment-relates-to-self-reported-and-clinician-rated-everyday-functioning
#19
P L Fazeli, K B Casaletto, E Paolillo, R C Moore, D J Moore, The Hnrp Group
As the HIV+ population ages, the risk for and need to screen for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) increases. The aim of this study is to determine the utility and ecological validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) among older HIV+ adults. A total of 100 HIV+ older adults aged 50 years or over completed a comprehensive neuromedical and neurocognitive battery, including the MoCA and several everyday functioning measures. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicates ≤26 as the optimal cut-off balancing sensitivity (84...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121708/cerebral-blood-flow-and-cognitive-function-in-hiv-infected-men-with-sustained-suppressed-viremia-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Tanja Su, Henk-Jan Mutsaerts, Matthan W A Caan, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Judith Schouten, Gert J Geurtsen, David J Sharp, Maria Prins, E Richard, Peter Portegies, Peter Reiss, Charles B Majoie
OBJECTIVE: To assess if HIV-infected patients on long-term successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) show cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations in comparison to HIV-uninfected, otherwise similar controls. To explore whether such alterations are associated with HIV-associated cognitive impairment and to explore potential determinants of CBF alterations in HIV. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of CBF in an observational cohort study. METHODS: Clinical, cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 100 middle-aged aviremic HIV-infected men on cART and 69 HIV-uninfected controls were collected and compared...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
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