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HIV cognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074347/pattern-and-motion-related-visual-evoked-potentials-in-hiv-infected-adults
#1
Jana Szanyi, Jan Kremlacek, Zuzana Kubova, Miroslav Kuba, Pavel Gebousky, Jaroslav Kapla, Juraj Szanyi, Frantisek Vit, Jana Langrova
PURPOSE: The goal of the current study was to explore visual function in virally suppressed HIV patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) by using pattern-reversal and motion-onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs). METHODS: The pattern-reversal and motion-onset VEPs were recorded in 20 adult HIV+ patients with a mean age of 38 years and CD4 cell counts ≥230 × 10(6) cells/L of blood. RESULTS: Nine out of 20 patients displayed VEP abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052738/determining-optimal-impairment-rating-methodology-for-a-new-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-screening-procedure
#2
Jody Kamminga, Mark Bloch, Trina Vincent, Angela Carberry, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
INTRODUCTION: The current study sought to determine the optimal impairment rating definition for a new HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) screening procedure as compared to standard neuropsychological testing. METHOD: A total of 55 HIV-infected (HIV+; 19% AIDS; 87% on combination antiretroviral therapy, cART; 80% plasma undetectable) and 22 demographically comparable HIV-uninfected (HIV-) control adults (all male) enrolled in an urban Australian primary care cohort study completed the CogState computerized cognitive screen, a standard independence in activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaire, and a standard neuropsychological test battery...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034850/assessment-of-self-awareness-of-cognitive-function-correlations-of-self-ratings-with-actual-performance-ranks-for-tests-of-processing-speed-memory-and-executive-function-in-non-clinical-samples
#3
Johannes Rothlind, Paul Dukarm, Matthew Kraybill
OBJECTIVE: For individuals with neurologic disorders, self-awareness of cognitive impairment is associated with improved treatment course and clinical outcome. However, methods for assessment of levels of self-awareness are limited, and most require collateral information, which may not be readily available. Although distortions in self-awareness are most often associated with low cognitive ability, the frequently mixed pattern of cognitive strengths and deficits in individuals with neurologic disorders complicates assessment...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009539/sexual-temptation-substance-abuse-no-sex-safe-sex-risky-sex-and-stds
#4
Toto Sutarso, Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Denny R Anerin, Intan W S McCartt, Courtney B Gibson
BACKGROUND: University students' substance abuse and risky sex contribute to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). PURPOSE: We develop and empirically test a formative theoretical model of sexual temptation involving substance abuse (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana), safe sexual behavior (use of condom/barrier for oral and vaginal intercourse), risky sexual behavior (unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners), and STDs: gonorrhea, HIV, and genital herpes. We simultaneously explore these constructs, controlling membership in social groups (fraternity/sorority, varsity athlete, and club sports) and perceived norm of substance abuse...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992497/validation-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-as-a-screening-tool-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-a-german-speaking-hiv-outpatient-clinic
#5
Victor Marin-Webb, Heiko Jessen, Ute Kopp, Arne B Jessen, Katrin Hahn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981189/untangling-the-gordian-knot-of-hiv-stress-and-cognitive-impairment
#6
REVIEW
Arielle N Valdez, Leah H Rubin, Gretchen N Neigh
As individuals live longer with HIV, this "graying of the HIV epidemic" has introduced a new set of challenges including a growing number of age and inflammation-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, cancer, and dementia. The biological underpinnings of these complex and co-morbid diseases are not fully understood and become very difficult to disentangle in the context of HIV and aging. In the current review we examine the contributions and interactions of HIV, stress, and cognitive impairment and query the extent to which inflammation is the linchpin in these dynamic interactions...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980287/a-case-of-neurosyphilis-presenting-with-limbic-encephalitis
#7
Kazuto Tsukita, Akihiro Shimotake, Mitsuyoshi Nakatani, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Akio Ikeda, Ryosuke Takahashi
A 46-year-old man presented with a history of personality change and memory disturbance for 5 months. He gradually became difficult in doing a daily job. Brain MRI showed abnormal hyperintensity within bilateral mesial temporal lobes on T2 weighted image. Therefore, viral and autoimmune limbic encephalitis was initially suspected. However, because treponemal and non-treponemal specific antibodies were positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the diagnosis of neurosyphilis was made. Patients of neurosyphilis with mesiotemporal T2 weighted hyperintensity reportedly showed common features such as relatively young age, HIV-negative, subacute cognitive impairment and seizure, as seen in our patient...
December 16, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940772/hiv-associated-cognitive-impairment-in-perinatally-infected-children-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Nicole Phillips, Taryn Amos, Caroline Kuo, Jacqueline Hoare, Jonathan Ipser, Kevin G F Thomas, Dan J Stein
CONTEXT: Research shows, conclusively, that perinatal HIV infection has negative effects on cognitive functioning of children and adolescents. However, the extent of these cognitive impairments is unknown. Current literature does not document specific cognitive domains most affected in HIV-infected children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyze the degree of cognitive impairment, and the specific cognitive domains affected, in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906001/evolution-of-changes-in-cognitive-function-after-the-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Borja Mora-Peris, Elizabeth Stevens, Francesca Ferretti, Jonathan Underwood, Stephen Taylor, Alan Winston
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function is reported to improve after the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Data on the evolution of such changes are limited. We assessed the dynamics of changes in cognitive parameters, in HIV-positive subjects initiating cART. METHODS: Cognitive function in seven domains was evaluated for HIV-infected patients without clinically significant cognitive impairment prior to the initiation of cART, and 24 and 48 weeks after...
April 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892704/the-effects-of-a-16-week-aerobic-exercise-programme-on-cognitive-function-in-people-living-with-hiv
#10
Adam McDermott, Lilia Zaporojan, Patricia McNamara, Colin P Doherty, Janice Redmond, Cuisle Forde, John Gormley, Mikel Egaña, Colm Bergin
High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention...
November 28, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888531/fate-of-microglia-during-hiv-1-infection-from-activation-to-senescence
#11
REVIEW
Natalie C Chen, Andrea T Partridge, Christian Sell, Claudio Torres, Julio Martín-García
Microglia support productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disturbed microglial function could contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Better understanding of how HIV-1 infection and viral protein exposure modulate microglial function during the course of infection could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for both the eradication of HIV-1 reservoir and treatment of neurocognitive deficits. This review first describes microglial origins and function in the normal central nervous system (CNS), and the changes that occur during aging...
November 26, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882497/soluble-tlr2-and-4-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-hiv-siv-related-neuropathological-conditions
#12
Khutso M Mothapo, J Ten Oever, P Koopmans, F F Stelma, S Burm, J Bajramovic, M M Verbeek, M G Olde Rikkert, M G Netea, G Koopman, A J van der Ven
HIV in the central nervous system (CNS) mainly infects microglial cells which are known to express toll-like receptors (TLRs). This paper aimed to study the role of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2), sTLR4, and other inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in HIV/Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-related neurological sequelae. We determined sTLR2 and sTLR4 levels in CSF and serum/plasma of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with and without neurological sequelae, as well as in HIV-infected patients with and without cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and matched controls...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#13
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875827/disability-among-persons-aging-with-hiv-aids
#14
Suzanne G Leveille, Saurja Thapa
Persons surviving to older ages with HIV/AIDS often face an accelerated aging accompanied by increased comorbidity and decline in health and function. In this chapter, we review the process of disablement among persons aging with HIV/AIDS, from chronic conditions to impairments and functional limitations, leading to disability. Chronic immune activation related to chronic HIV infection may contribute to early development of chronic conditions that are common in older adults resulting in premature disablement...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#15
Lindsay M K Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in a sample of older adults with HIV. One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load. SCA was defined as the absence of neurocognitive impairment (as defined by deficits in tasks of episodic learning, information processing speed, executive function, and motor skills) depression, and functional impairment (instrumental activities of daily living)...
January 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862491/alarmins-and-central-nervous-system-inflammation-in-hiv-associated-neurological-disorders
#16
M-L Gougeon
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in infected individuals with adequate immunological and virological status. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include hepatitis C virus co-infection, host genetic factors predisposing to HAND, the early establishment of the virus in the CNS and its persistence under HAART; thus, the CNS is an important reservoir for HIV. Microglial cells are permissive to HIV-1, and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated genes were found expressed in brains of HIV-1-infected persons, contributing to brain disease...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861242/higher-cystatin-c-levels-are-associated-with-neurocognitive-impairment-in-older-hiv-adults
#17
Marissa E Sakoda, Pariya L Fazeli, Ronald J Ellis, Dilip V Jeste, Igor Grant, Scott L Letendre, David J Moore
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to determine whether cystatin C is associated with HIV disease and HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI). METHODS: Participants included 124 (HIV+ n = 77; HIV- n = 47) older adults (age ≥ 50 years) examined at the UCSD HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program. Cystatin C, a biomarker of kidney functioning that has been linked to poor health outcomes, was measured in blood. Participants completed a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment that was used to define both global and domain NCI...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856673/associations-of-memory-and-executive-functioning-with-academic-and-adaptive-functioning-among-youth-with-perinatal-hiv-exposure-and-or-infection
#18
Patricia A Sirois, Miriam C Chernoff, Kathleen M Malee, Patricia A Garvie, Lynnette L Harris, Paige L Williams, Steven P Woods, Molly L Nozyce, Betsy L Kammerer, Cenk Yildirim, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) confers risk for neurocognitive impairment, which potentially affects school performance and functional independence of infected children. In this study, we examined the associations of 2 key neurocognitive domains, memory and executive function (EF), with academic and adaptive skills among youth with PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. METHODS: Participants ages 9 to <19 years enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study's Memory and Executive Functioning Study completed standardized measures of reading and math...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835616/association-of-cognitive-activity-and-neurocognitive-function-in-blacks-and-whites-with-hiv
#19
Kristin R Krueger, Oluwatoyin Adeyemi, Sue Leurgans, Raj C Shah, Antonio D Jimenez, Lawrence Ouellet, Alan L Landay, David A Bennett, Lisa L Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Older persons with HIV are at risk for impaired cognition, yet there is limited information on modifiable factors associated with neurocognitive function in this group. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional observational study of cognitive activities and neurocognitive function. METHODS: We examined the relation between frequency of cognitive activity and current neurocognitive performance in 176 older persons with HIV [70% African American, 76% men; mean age = 58...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833555/ginkgolic-acid-protects-against-a%C3%AE-induced-synaptic-dysfunction-in-the-hippocampus
#20
Dalila Mango, Filippo Weisz, Robert Nisticò
Ginkgo leaf is the most used form of supplement for cognitive ailments. The standardized extract formulation EGb 761 is a dietary supplement with proven benefit in several neurological and psychiatric conditions including memory decline in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and dementia. Ginkgolic acid (GA) is a component of this extract which shows pleiotropic effects including antitumoral and anti-HIV action; however, its effect on memory is still unknown. Here, we carried out an electrophysiological analysis to investigate the effects of GA on long term potentiation and synaptic transmission at CA1 hippocampal synapses...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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