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HIV cognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632929/persistent-neuropsychiatric-impairment-in-hcv-patients-or-educational-mismatch
#1
Anders Gade
Dirks et al.(1) just published a study of 159 patients infected with hepatitis C virus. They are to be commended for excluding patients with advanced fibrosis or liver cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, and present drug addiction, which have confounded interpretation in many earlier studies of HCV. The four patient groups differed significantly from controls in most cognitive domains studied. However, for the evaluation of these cognitive test results, a crucial piece of information is missing in the article: education...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602461/adapting-systems-of-care-for-people-aging-with-hiv
#2
Eugenia L Siegler, Mark Brennan-Ing
People aging with HIV have medical and psychosocial needs that require more than the HIV services network can provide. HIV providers may lack experience managing multimorbidity or the functional consequences of aging. Social support services may be unable to provide necessary services for people living with HIV (PLWH) who are becoming increasingly frail or facing cognitive impairment. HIV providers will be caring for aging PLWH whose HIV management may seem simple compared with the significant burdens of stigma, mental health needs, social isolation, multimorbidity, and aging-related syndromes...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598903/self-reported-difficulties-with-everyday-function-cognitive-symptoms-and-cognitive-function-in-people-with-hiv
#3
Rosanna Laverick, Lewis Haddow, Marina Daskalopoulou, Fiona Lampe, Richard Gilson, Andrew Speakman, Andrea Antinori, Tina Bruun, Anna Vassilenko, Simon Collins, Alison Rodger
BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive (HIV+) adults in five European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in five domains, psychosocial factors and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598791/croi-2017-neurologic-complications-of-hiv-infection
#4
Serena S Spudich, Beau M Ances
The brain is a major target for HIV infection and is a potential viral reservoir even in virologically well-controlled HIV-infected individuals. Data presented at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) suggested that during early HIV infection, CD4+ T cells in the meninges and choroid plexus serve as an important early site of HIV infection in the central nervous system (CNS), with brain macrophages and microglial cells becoming an important source of viral replication with advancing disease...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584853/the-presence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-is-associated-with-a-lower-adherence-to-combined-antiretroviral-treatment
#5
Susan Kamal, Isabella Locatelli, Gilles Wandeler, Asemaneh Sehhat, Olivier Bugnon, Melanie Metral, Renaud Du Pasquier, Klemens Gutbrod, Matthias Cavassini, Marie P Schneider
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are defined according to their diagnostic degrees as follows: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, mild neurocognitive disorder, and HIV-associated dementia. Because high adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is required to maintain viral suppression among HIV-infected patients, it is important to investigate the impact of HAND on medication adherence. Our study hypothesis was that patients with HAND had a lower medication adherence than patients who did not have HAND...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580181/intercellular-adhesion-molecular-5-as-marker-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#6
Lin Yuan, Feili Wei, Xin Zhang, Xianghua Guo, Xiaofan Lu, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Dexi Chen
Despite the use of antiretroviral drugs HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are still common in HIV-seropositive patients. Identification of HIV patients with cognitive impairment in early-stage might benefit a great deal from disease progression monitoring and treatment adjustment. Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM5), characteristically expressed on neuron, may suppress immune functions by inhibition of T cell activation in central nervous system. Previous studies have shown that ICAM5 could be detected in patients with brain injury...
May 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574961/modifications-in-acute-phase-and-complement-systems-predict-shifts-in-cognitive-status-of-hiv-infected-patients
#7
Ceereena Ubaida-Mohien, Benjamin Lamberty, Alex M Dickens, Michelle M Mielke, Thomas Marcotte, Ned Sacktor, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, Donald Franklin, Pawel Cibrowski, Ravi Tharakan, Justin C McArthur, Howard Fox, Norman J Haughey
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has not changed considerably in the last two decades. Potent antiretroviral therapy has shifted the severity of HAND to milder phenotypes, but excess morbidity and mortality continue to be associated with HAND. Changes in numerous markers of immune function, inflammation, and cellular stress have been repeatedly associated with HAND, but the underlying systems that drive these changes have not been identified...
June 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553295/developing-an-integrated-brief-biobehavioral-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-high-risk-drug-users-in-treatment-the-process-and-outcome-of-formative-research
#8
Roman Shrestha, Frederick Altice, Pramila Karki, Michael Copenhaver
To date, HIV prevention efforts have largely relied on singular strategies (e.g., behavioral or biomedical approaches alone) with modest HIV risk-reduction outcomes for people who use drugs (PWUD), many of whom experience a wide range of neurocognitive impairments (NCI). We report on the process and outcome of our formative research aimed at developing an integrated biobehavioral approach that incorporates innovative strategies to address the HIV prevention and cognitive needs of high-risk PWUD in drug treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549526/mobile-phone-ecological-momentary-assessment-of-daily-stressors-among-people-living-with-hiv-elucidating-factors-underlying-health-related-challenges-in-daily-routines
#9
Shu Farmer, Deborah Mindry, W Scott Comulada, Dallas Swendeman
Stressful life events and daily hassles affect people living with HIV (PLWH). However, capturing stress-related events and cognitive impairment is often plagued with recall biases. Incorporating reliable information technology, such as mobile phones, can be a resourceful method for measuring health behaviors (MHB). We report findings from an MHB pilot study with 32 African American, Latino/Hispanic, and White PLWH from Los Angeles. Participants reported perceived stressors in their daily routines using a smartphone Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) application...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536861/heterogeneity-of-neuropsychological-impairment-in-hiv-infection-contributions-from-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
REVIEW
Kathryn N Devlin, Tania Giovannetti
Despite longstanding acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), existing HAND diagnostic methods classify according to the degree of impairment, without regard to the pattern of neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. Research in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has demonstrated that classifying individuals into subtypes by both their level and pattern of impairment, using either conventional or statistical methods, has etiologic and prognostic utility. Methods for characterizing the heterogeneity of MCI provide a framework that can be applied to other disorders and may be useful in clarifying some of the current challenges in the study of HAND...
May 24, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533442/the-role-of-shed-prp-c-in-the-neuropathogenesis-of-hiv-infection
#11
Bezawit W Megra, Eliseo A Eugenin, Joan W Berman
HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after peripheral infection and causes chronic neuroinflammation and neuronal damage that leads to cognitive impairment in 40-70% of HIV-infected people. The nonpathogenic cellular isoform of the human prion protein (PrP(c)) is an adhesion molecule constitutively expressed in the CNS. Previously, our laboratory showed that shed PrP(c) (sPrP(c)) is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected people with cognitive deficits as compared with infected people with no impairment. In this article, we demonstrate that CCL2 and TNF-α, inflammatory mediators that are elevated in the CNS of HIV-infected people, increase shedding of PrP(c) from human astrocytes by increasing the active form of the metalloprotease ADAM10...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525592/neurosyphilis-increases-hiv-associated-central-nervous-system-inflammation-but-does-not-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-syphilis
#12
Emily L Ho, Clare L Maxwell, Shelia B Dunaway, Sharon K Sahi, Lauren C Tantalo, Sheila A Lukehart, Christina M Marra
Background: HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis have cognitive impairment. We tested the hypothesis that neurosyphilis causes cognitive impairment in HIV by amplifying HIV-related CNS inflammation. Methods: 132 HIV-infected participants enrolled in a study of CSF abnormalities in syphilis underwent the mental alternation test (MAT), venipuncture and lumbar puncture. CSF concentrations of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and neurofilament light (NFL) were determined by commercial assays...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503143/impairments-of-motor-function-while-multitasking-in-hiv
#13
Sharif I Kronemer, Jordan A Mandel, Ned C Sacktor, Cherie L Marvel
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480240/a-high-prevalence-rate-of-a-positive-screen-for-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-attending-an-irish-clinic
#14
Patricia H McNamara, Robert Coen, Janice Redmond, Colin P Doherty, Colm Bergin
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders occurs in 20%-50% of HIV-positive patients. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of a positive screen for cognitive impairment in the clinic population at our institution and to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a screening program in routine clinical encounters. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, and patients were recruited prospectively between December 2010 and February 2013...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472307/antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-patients-can-harbour-resistant-viruses-in-csf-despite-an-undetectable-viral-load-in-plasma
#15
Cathia Soulie, Maxime Grudé, Diane Descamps, Corinne Amiel, Laurence Morand-Joubert, Stéphanie Raymond, Coralie Pallier, Pantxika Bellecave, Sandrine Reigadas, Mary-Anne Trabaud, Constance Delaugerre, Brigitte Montes, Francis Barin, Virginie Ferré, Hélène Jeulin, Chakib Alloui, Sabine Yerly, Anne Signori-Schmuck, Aurélie Guigon, Samira Fafi-Kremer, Stéphanie Haïm-Boukobza, Audrey Mirand, Anne Maillard, Sophie Vallet, Catherine Roussel, Lambert Assoumou, Vincent Calvez, Philippe Flandre, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin
Background: HIV therapy reduces the CSF HIV RNA viral load (VL) and prevents disorders related to HIV encephalitis. However, these brain disorders may persist in some cases. A large population of antiretroviral-treated patients who had a VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF with detectable or undetectable VL in plasma associated with cognitive impairment was studied, in order to characterize discriminatory factors of these two patient populations. Methods: Blood and CSF samples were collected at the time of neurological disorders for 227 patients in 22 centres in France and 1 centre in Switzerland...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471947/measuring-and-managing-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv
#16
Sam Nightingale, Alan Winston
: Cognitive impairment remains a frequently reported complaint in HIV-positive patients despite virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Rates of cognitive impairment in antiretroviral treated HIV-positive cohorts vary and strongly depend on definitions utilized.The underlying pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and includes immune activation, neuroinflammation, antiretroviral neurotoxicity, the presence of noninfectious comorbidities such as vascular disease and depression and patient lifestyle factors such as recreational drug use...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470583/interaction-effects-between-hiv-and-aging-on-selective-neurocognitive-impairment
#17
Yingying Ding, Haijiang Lin, Weiwei Shen, Qionghai Wu, Meiyang Gao, Na He
HIV infection and aging are each associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI). This study examined the combined effects of HIV infection and aging on NCI. We performed a cross-sectional survey among 345 HIV-infected and 345 HIV-uninfected participants aged at least 40 years. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) and Chinese version of Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to screen for NCI. HIV-infected individuals had higher prevalence of NCI than uninfected individuals (46.7% vs 15...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462628/frequent-use-of-khat-an-amphetamine-like-substance-as-a-risk-factor-for-poor-adherence-and-lost-to-follow-up-among-patients-new-to-hiv-care-in-ethiopia
#18
Alan R Lifson, Sale Workneh, Tibebe Shenie, Desalegn Admassu Ayana, Zenebe Melaku, Lemlem Bezabih, Hiwot Tekle Waktola, Behailu Dagne, Rose Hilk, Ken C Winters, Lucy Slater
Khat, a plant native to East Africa, has amphetamine-like psychoactive constituents, and is a potential risk factor for HIV infection. Chronic use can cause cognitive impairment and other mental disorders, raising concerns about effects on retention and adherence with HIV care. During 2013-2014, 322 Ethiopian patients newly enrolled at HIV clinics in Dire Dawa and Harar were surveyed about khat use and prospectively followed for 1 year; 9% died, 18% transferred care to other clinics, and 22% were lost to follow-up (LTFU) (no clinic visit for >3 months)...
May 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458492/prevalence-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-deficit-among-hiv-positive-people-in-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-at-ayder-referral-hospital
#19
Tilahun Belete, Girmaw Medfu, Ephrem Yemiyamrew
BACKGROUND: HIV associated neurocognitive deficit impairs motor activity, neuropsychiatric functioning, daily activity and work activity usually due to the immune suppression effect of the virus. Sub-Saharan region including Ethiopia is the region with the highest burden of HIV. However, a few studies are found on this aspect nationally. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and the factors associated with cognitive impairment among HIV positive people in Ethiopia who attended Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital...
January 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447399/genome-wide-association-study-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-hand-a-charter-group-study
#20
Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Todd Hulgan, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Cinnamon S Bloss, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Nicholas Schork, Christina M Marra, Ann C Collier, David B Clifford, Benjamin B Gelman, Ned Sacktor, Susan Morgello, David M Simpson, J Allen McCutchan, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Donald R Franklin, Debralee Rosario, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) often complicates HIV infection despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may be influenced by host genomics. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HAND in 1,050 CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Study participants. All participants underwent standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive, and neuromedical assessments to determine if they had cognitive impairment as assessed by the Global Deficit Score (GDS), and individuals with comorbidities that could confound diagnosis of HAND were excluded...
June 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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