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HIV cognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904086/cognitive-trajectories-over-4-years-among-hiv-infected-women-with-optimal-viral-suppression
#1
Leah H Rubin, Pauline M Maki, Gayle Springer, Lorie Benning, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Maria C Villacres, Xiong Jiang, Adaora A Adimora, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, David E Vance, Hector Bolivar, Christine Alden, Eileen M Martin, Victor G Valcour
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persistent viral suppression alters cognitive trajectories among HIV-infected (HIV+) women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) by investigating performance longitudinally in uninfected (HIV-) and 3 groups of HIV+ women: those with consistent viral suppression after continuous cART use (VS), those without consistent virologic suppression despite continuous cART use (NVS), and those without consistent virologic suppression after intermittent cART use (Int NVS)...
September 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903129/improving-detection-of-hiv-associated-cognitive-impairment-comparison-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-and-a-brief-screening-battery-erratum
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902679/brief-report-peripheral-monocyte-macrophage-phenotypes-associated-with-the-evolution-of-cognitive-performance-in-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Massimiliano Fabbiani, Antonio Muscatello, Paolo Perseghin, Marco Bani, Arianna Incontri, Nicola Squillace, Giuseppe Lapadula, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera
BACKGROUND: The contribution of monocyte activation in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders is not completely understood. This study aimed to explore the predictive value of peripheral monocyte/macrophage (M/M) phenotypes on the evolution of cognitive performance in a population of virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. SETTING: Prospective, observational, longitudinal study. METHODS: HIV-1-infected patients with HIV-RNA <50copies/mL for >12 months underwent neuropsychological examination at baseline and after 1 year...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895090/effort-and-neuropsychological-performance-in-hiv-infected-individuals-on-stable-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Robert Paul, Gina Rhee, Laurie M Baker, Florin Vaida, Sarah A Cooley, Beau M Ances
The expression of cognitive symptoms associated with HIV varies over time and across individuals. This pattern may reflect transient contextual factors, including the degree of effort exerted by individuals undergoing cognitive testing. The present study examined whether effort corresponds to the expression of persistent HIV-related cognitive impairment among individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV+ individuals (n = 111) averaged 48.2 (14.9) years of age and 13.0 (2.7) years of education and HIV- individuals (n = 92) averaged 34...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895064/a-mouse-model-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-brain-behavior-approach-to-discover-disease-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#5
REVIEW
William R Tyor, Heather Bimonte-Nelson
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain highly prevalent despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although the most common forms of HAND are mild and identified through neuropsychological testing, there is evidence that with aging these mild forms become more prevalent and may advance to the most severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia. Therefore, novel therapies must be developed that can be used adjunctively with cART to prevent deterioration or restore normal cognitive function...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895059/central-nervous-system-penetrating-antiretrovirals-impair-energetic-reserve-in-striatal-nerve-terminals
#6
Kelly L Stauch, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox
The use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs with central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) may be useful in the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) as well as targeting a CNS reservoir in strategies to achieve a functional cure for HIV. However, increased cognitive deficits are linked to at least one of these drugs (efavirenz). As mitochondrial dysfunction has been found with a number of ARVs, and as such can affect neuronal function, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of ARV with high CPE for toxicological profiles on presynaptic nerve terminal energy metabolism...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893794/effects-of-hiv-1-tat-and-methamphetamine-on-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-function-in-vitro
#7
Sulay Patel, Crystal R Leibrand, Preetha Palasuberniam, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Babette Weksler, Fay M Jahr, Joseph L McClay, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
Human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection results in neurocognitive deficits in about one half of infected individuals. Despite systemic effectiveness, restricted antiretroviral penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major limitation in fighting CNS-localized infection. Drug abuse exacerbates HIV-induced cognitive and pathologic CNS changes. This study's purpose was to investigate the effects of the HIV-1 protein, Tat, and methamphetamine on factors affecting drug penetration across an in vitro BBB model...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886715/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-potential-molecular-therapeutic-target-for-hiv-1-associated-brain-inflammation
#8
Amila Omeragic, Md Tozammel Hoque, U-Yeong Choi, Reina Bendayan
BACKGROUND: Despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, cognitive impairments remain prevalent due to persistent viral replication and associated brain inflammation. Primary cellular targets of HIV-1 in the brain are macrophages, microglia, and to a certain extent astrocytes which in response to infection release inflammatory markers, viral proteins [i.e., glycoprotein 120 (gp120)] and exhibit impaired glutamate uptake. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857823/perceived-and-post-traumatic-stress-are-associated-with-decreased-learning-memory-and-fluency-in-hiv-infected-women
#9
Leah H Rubin, Judith A Cook, Gayle Springer, Kathleen M Weber, Mardge H Cohen, Eileen M Martin, Victor G Valcour, Lorie Benning, Christine Alden, Joel Milam, Kathryn Anastos, Mary A Young, Deborah R Gustafson, Erin E Sundermann, Pauline M Maki
OBJECTIVE: Psychological risk factors (PRFs) are associated with impaired learning and memory in HIV-infected (HIV+) women. We determined the dynamic nature of the effects of PRFs and HIV serostatus on learning and memory over time. DESIGN: Multi-center, prospective cohort study METHODS:: Every two years between 2009 and 2013 (3 times), 646 HIV+ and 300 demographically-similar HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study completed neuropsychological (NP) testing and questionnaires measuring PRFs (perceived stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms)...
August 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854283/transdermal-rivastigmine-for-hiv-associated-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-pilot-study
#10
Jose A Muñoz-Moreno, Anna Prats, José Moltó, Maite Garolera, Núria Pérez-Álvarez, Crisanto Díez-Quevedo, Cristina Miranda, Carmina R Fumaz, Maria J Ferrer, Bonaventura Clotet
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of transdermal rivastigmine for the treatment of HIV-associated cognitive impairment. METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected patients with cognitive impairment on stable antiretroviral therapy in a randomized controlled pilot trial with a 48-week follow-up. An additional assessment was held at 12 weeks. Participants received transdermal rivastigmine (9.5 mg daily), lithium (400 mg twice daily, titrated progressively), or remained in a control group (no new medication)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837678/clinical-utility-of-the-ucsd-performance-based-skills-assessment-brief-upsa-b-in-adults-living-with-hiv-associations-with-neuropsychological-impairment-and-patient-reported-everyday-functioning-difficulties
#11
Raeanne C Moore, Emily W Paolillo, Anne Heaton, Pariya L Fazeli, Dilip V Jeste, David J Moore
OBJECTIVE: Requiring only 10-15 minutes to complete, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) has high clinical utility as a brief measure of functional capacity. This study aimed to validate the UPSA-B in adults living with HIV/AIDS (HIV+), and identify whether the UPSA-B can be used as an indicator of functional dependence in this population. METHOD: One hundred and three HIV+ adults and 91 HIV- adults completed a comprehensive neuropsychological and neuromedical battery, including a self-report measure of functional status (IADL Dependence vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833868/the-use-of-visual-rating-scales-to-quantify-brain-mri-lesions-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#12
Jessica Robinson-Papp, Allison Navis, Mandip S Dhamoon, Uraina S Clark, Jose Gutierrez-Contreras, Susan Morgello
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients commonly have abnormalities in cerebral white matter that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as hyperintensities (WMHs). Visual rating scales (VRSs) have been used to quantify WMH in other diseases such as cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), but not in HIV. Such scales are advantageous because they are applicable to routinely acquired MRIs and so are suitable for large-scale studies and clinical care...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831774/humanized-mice-models-for-evaluating-neurohiv-and-cure-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Jenna B Honeycutt, J Victor Garcia
While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic was initially characterized by a high prevalence of severe and widespread neurological pathologies, the development of better treatments to suppress viremia over years and even decades has mitigated many of the severe neurological pathologies previously observed. Despite effective treatment, mild neurocognitive impairment and premature cognitive aging are observed in HIV-infected individuals, suggesting a changing but ongoing role of HIV infection in the central nervous system (CNS)...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813936/using-upper-limb-kinematics-to-assess-cognitive-deficits-in-people-living-with-both-hiv-and-stroke
#14
Kevin D Bui, Roshan Rai, Michelle J Johnson
In this study, we aim to explore ways to objectively assess cognitive deficits in the stroke and HIV/stroke populations, where cognitive and motor impairments can be hard to separate. Using an upper limb rehabilitation robot called the Haptic TheraDrive, we collect performance error scores and motor learning data on the impaired and unimpaired limb during a trajectory tracking task. We compare these data to clinical cognitive scores. The preliminary results suggest a possible relationship between unimpaired upper limb performance error and visuospatial/executive function cognitive domains, but more work needs to be done to further investigate this...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800335/an-overview-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-common-neurological-complications-does-aging-pose-a-challenge
#15
Anantha Ram Nookala, Joy Mitra, Nitish S Chaudhari, Muralidhar L Hegde, Anil Kumar
With increasing survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the manifestation of heterogeneous neurological complications is also increasing alarmingly in these patients. Currently, more than 30% of about 40 million HIV-1 infected people worldwide develop central nervous system (CNS)-associated dysfunction, including dementia, sensory, and motor neuropathy. Furthermore, the highly effective antiretroviral therapy has been shown to increase the prevalence of mild cognitive functions while reducing other HIV-1-associated neurological complications...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798420/hiv-1-tat-induced-diarrhea-evokes-an-enteric-glia-dependent-neuroinflammatory-response-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Giuseppe Esposito, Elena Capoccia, Stefano Gigli, Marcella Pesce, Eugenia Bruzzese, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Carla Cirillo, Alessandro di Cerbo, Rosario Cuomo, Luisa Seguella, Luca Steardo, Giovanni Sarnelli
Despite the effectiveness of combined anti-retroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected-patients frequently report diarrhea and neuropsychological deficits. It is claimed that the viral HIV-1 Trans activating factor (HIV-1 Tat) protein is responsible for both diarrhea and neurotoxic effects, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We hypothesize that colonic application of HIV-1 Tat activates glial cells of the enteric nervous system (EGCs), leading to a neuroinflammatory response able to propagate to the central nervous system...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798382/chronic-low-level-expression-of-hiv-1-tat-promotes-a-neurodegenerative-phenotype-with-aging
#17
Alex M Dickens, Seung Wan Yoo, Alfred C Chin, Jiadi Xu, Tory P Johnson, Amanda L Trout, Kurt F Hauser, Norman J Haughey
The widespread use of combinational antiretroviral therapies (cART) in developed countries has changed the course of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection from an almost universally fatal disease to a chronic infection for the majority of individuals. Although cART has reduced the severity of neurological damage in HIV-infected individuals, the likelihood of cognitive impairment increases with age, and duration of infection. As cART does not suppress the expression of HIV non-structural proteins, it has been proposed that a constitutive production of HIV regulatory proteins in infected brain cells may contribute to neurological damage...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791626/fatal-ruxolitinib-related-jc-virus-meningitis
#18
Begoña Ballesta, Héctor González, Vicente Martín, Juan J Ballesta
We report a possible association between ruxolitinib and JC virus meningitis. A 72-year-old man with myelofibrosis started treatment with ruxolitinib. Fourteen days later, the patient presented to the emergency department with fever and nausea. HIV test was negative. Ruxolitinib was suspended. Symptoms progressed with neck stiffness, cognitive impairment, and motor aphasia. CSF was positive for JC virus. MRI showed nonspecific abnormal findings. Five days after the clinical debut, the patient died. The clinical picture, MRI imaging, and positive JC virus PCR in CSF strongly suggest ruxolitinib-related JC virus meningitis...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783374/hiv-and-cognitive-impairment-in-clinical-practice-the-evaluation-of-a-stepwise-screening-protocol-in-relation-to-clinical-outcomes-and-management
#19
Charlotte S Hakkers, Jordan M Kraaijenhof, Esther B van Oers-Hazelzet, Anne J M A Visser-Meily, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends, Roos E Barth
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is an increasingly important comorbidity in an ageing HIV+ population. Despite the lack of available treatment modalities, screening for NCI is recommended. In the UMC Utrecht, yearly NCI screening is done using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool and the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). The aim of this study was to evaluate this screening protocol in relation to clinical outcomes and management. A retrospective cohort study was performed in suppressed adult HIV+ patients...
August 7, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764704/objective-impairments-of-gait-and-balance-in-adults-living-with-hiv-1-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#20
Karina Berner, Linzette Morris, Jochen Baumeister, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Gait and balance deficits are reported in adults with HIV infection and are associated with reduced quality of life. Current research suggests an increased fall-incidence in this population, with fall rates among middle-aged adults with HIV approximating that in seronegative elderly populations. Gait and postural balance rely on a complex interaction of the motor system, sensory control, and cognitive function. However, due to disease progression and complications related to ongoing inflammation, these systems may be compromised in people with HIV...
August 1, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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