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HIV cognitive impairment

Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Anas Z Abidin, Adora M DSouza, Mahesh B Nagarajan, Lu Wang, Xing Qiu, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
HIV is capable of invading the brain soon after seroconversion. This ultimately can lead to deficits in multiple cognitive domains commonly referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Clinical diagnosis of such deficits requires detailed neuropsychological assessment but clinical signs may be difficult to detect during asymptomatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore neuroimaging biomarkers are of particular interest in HAND. In this study, we constructed brain connectivity profiles of 40 subjects (20 HIV positive subjects and 20 age-matched seronegative controls) using two different methods: a non-linear mutual connectivity analysis approach and a conventional method based on Pearson's correlation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Virginia D McLane, Saurabh Kumar, Reno Leeming, Sanjay Rau, Colin L Willis, Ling Cao
Opioid use accelerates neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS patients. We assessed the effect of chronic morphine treatment and LP-BM5/murine AIDS (MAIDS) infection on cognition, cytokine production, and type 1 interferon (IFN) expression in the murine CNS. Morphine treatment decreased expression of pro-inflammatory factors (CCL5, iNOS) and reduced cognitive performance in LP-BM5-infected mice, correlating to increased hippocampal viral load and a blunted type 1 IFN response. In the striatum, morphine reduced viral load while increasing IFN-α RNA expression...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Ana Paula de Pereira, Maria Lucia Alves Pedroso, Clea E Ribeiro, Indianara Rotta, Bin Tang, Anya Umlauf, Donald Franklin, Rowan G Saloner, Maria Geny Ribas Batista, Scott Letendre, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Mariana Cherner
Although cognitive impairment has been well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infections, research on neurocognitive effects is limited in the context of HIV/HCV co-infection. The aims of this study were to explore the interplay between HIV and HCV infections in the expression of neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and to examine the differences in test performance between HIV/HCV co-infected and HIV or HCV mono-infected patients. A total of 128 participants from Southern Brazil underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) battery comprising 18 tests...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Trena Mukherjee, Rishanantini Sakthivel, Ho Yen Fong, Megan McStea, Meng Li Chong, Sharifah Faridah Omar, Ai Vyrn Chin, Shahrul Kamaruzzaman, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Lucette A Cysique
This study determines the optimal cut-off scores for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a multi-ethnic Malaysian HIV-positive cohort by developing demographically corrected normative standards among 283 HIV-negative community-based controls with overlapping demographic characteristics. The norms (corrected for age, sex, education, ethnicity) were applied to 342 HIV-positive virally suppressed individuals on cART. Impairment rates were classified using the Global Deficit Score (GDS ≥ ...
March 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Stian Lydersen, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
OBJECTIVE: Older age and lower education levels are known to be associated with worse neurocognitive (NC) performance in healthy adults, and individuals with HIV infection may experience accelerated brain/cognition aging. However, higher education may possibly protect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of age and education in an HIV-1 clade C infected adult population in urban Zambia. METHOD: Demographically corrected Zambian norms on a neuropsychological (NP) test battery were used to correct for normal age and education effects...
March 5, 2018: Neuropsychology
Luminita Ene
Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early, where it can persist, evolve, and become compartmentalized. Central nervous system (CNS) disease can be attributed to HIV alone or to the complex interplay between the virus and other neurotropic pathogens. Aim: The current review aims to describe the direct impact of HIV on the brain as well as its relationship with other pathogens from a practitioner's perspective, to provide a general clinical overview, brief workup, and, whenever possible, treatment guidance...
2018: Infectious Diseases
M Mohamed, P B Barker, R L Skolasky, N Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly N -acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Padraig McGettrick, Elena Alvarez Barco, Patrick W G Mallon
The population of people living with HIV (PLWH) is growing older with an estimated 4 million over the age of 50 years, a figure which has doubled since the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and which is increasing globally. Despite effective ART, PLWH still experience excess morbidity and mortality compared to the general population with increased prevalence of age-related, non-AIDS illnesses (NAI) such as cardiovascular disease, malignancies, cognitive impairment and reduced bone mineral density, which impact disability and everyday functioning...
February 14, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Uraina S Clark, Miguel Arce Rentería, Rachal R Hegde, Susan Morgello
There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV), which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Borja Mora-Peris, George Bouliotis, Kulasegaram Ranjababu, Amanda Clarke, Frank A Post, Mark Nelson, Laura Burgess, Juan Tiraboschi, Saye Khoo, Steve Taylor, Deborah Ashby, Alan Winston
BACKGROUND: Maraviroc-intensified antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be associated with cognitive benefits. METHODS: Therapy naïve, cognitively asymptomatic, HIV-positive individuals were randomly allocated on a 1:1 basis to standard ART (Arm1; tenofovir-emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir) or maraviroc intensified ART (Arm2: abacavir-lamivudine plus darunavir/ritonavir/maraviroc). Over 48 weeks, detailed assessments of cognitive function (CF) tests were undertaken and cerebral metabolites measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
February 12, 2018: AIDS
Priyanka Verma, Ramesh V Asopa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related dementia is the most severe form of neurocognitive disorder in patients with AIDS. It is relatively uncommon in postantiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and is associated with a high cerebrospinal fluid CSF/plasma viral load. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in malignancies, infections, and central nervous system lesions in HIV-infected patients and has been used to explore regional cerebral glucose metabolism patterns in HIV-positive patients with and without cognitive impairment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Martha Martínez-Banfi, Jorge I Vélez, M Victoria Perea, Ricardo García, Pedro J Puentes-Rozo, Moises Mebarak Chams, Valentina Ladera
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) lead to neurocognitive disorders; however, there is still much knowledge to be gained regarding HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive performance, instrumental activities of daily living, depression, and anxiety in patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infections compared with seronegative participants without neurocognitive impairment. We studied a sample consisted of 60 patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infections and 60 seronegative participants without neurocognitive impairment from the city of Barranquilla, Colombia, with a mean age of 36...
February 7, 2018: AIDS Care
Stephanie J Bissel, Kate Gurnsey, Hank P Jedema, Nicholas F Smith, Guoji Wang, Charles W Bradberry, Clayton A Wiley
BACKGROUND: Damage to the central nervous system during HIV infection can lead to variable neurobehavioral dysfunction termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). There is no clear consensus regarding the neuropathological or cellular basis of HAND. We sought to study the potential contribution of aging to the pathogenesis of HAND. Aged (range = 14.7-24.8 year) rhesus macaques of Chinese origin (RM-Ch) (n = 23) were trained to perform cognitive tasks. Macaques were then divided into four groups to assess the impact of SIVmac251 infection (n = 12) and combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) (5 infected; 5 mock-infected) on the execution of these tasks...
February 1, 2018: Retrovirology
Alfonso Zamudio-Rodríguez, Pablo F Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Juan Sierra-Madero, Jennifer Margarita Cuellar-Rodríguez, Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez, Juan Luis Alcalá-Zermeno, Hélène Amieva, José Alberto Avila-Funes
INTRODUCTION: The population of aging adults living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is growing worldwide and evidence suggests that frailty occurs prematurely among them. In turn, frailty has been associated with cognitive decline. It is unknown, however, if people with both frailty and HIV-infection have higher risk of cognitive impairment compared with non-frail HIV-infected persons. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the association between the phenotype of frailty and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among adults aged 50 years or older living with HIV/AIDS...
February 1, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Adria Quigley, Kelly O'Brien, Robin Parker, Marilyn MacKay-Lyons
BACKGROUND: Since the advent of antiretrovirals, people with HIV are living longer and have improved quality of life. However, 30-60% of these individuals experience cognitive impairment. Fortunately, physical activity has emerged as a management strategy for cognitive impairment. PURPOSE: To map the evidence on physical activity and cognition in HIV. METHODS: We searched five databases using terms related to physical activity and HIV. Two authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts for studies that addressed physical activity/exercise and cognition in people with HIV...
January 29, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Denise Cummins, Donna Waters, Christina Aggar, Catherine C O'Connor
AIM: To ascertain whether community-based health care providers were collecting appropriate information to identify patients at risk of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder and whether related documentation was complete. BACKGROUND: HIV associated neurocognitive disorder is a treatable neurological condition that can affect more than 20% of those infected with the HIV. Signs and symptoms of cognitive impairment may be subtle; therefore, documentation of medical and social information could be beneficial in identifying those at risk DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Megan K Suter, Catherine J Karr, Grace C John-Stewart, Laurén A Gómez, Hellen Moraa, Duke Nyatika, Dalton Wamalwa, Michael Paulsen, Christopher D Simpson, Niloufar Ghodsian, Michael J Boivin, Paul Bangirana, Sarah Benki-Nugent
Air pollution exposure and HIV infection can each cause neurocognitive insult in children. The purpose of this study was to test whether children with combined high air pollution exposure and perinatal HIV infection have even greater risk of neurocognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-uninfected unexposed (HUU) and HIV-infected children and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a detailed neuropsychological battery to evaluate neurocognitive functioning in several domains. We measured caregiver 24-h personal CO exposure as a proxy for child CO exposure and child urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a biomarker for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lokesh Shahani, Lucrecia Salazar, Steven P Woods, Rodrigo Hasbun
The current prospective observational study evaluated the impact of baseline neurocognitive impairment on future viral load suppression among antiretroviral medication naive persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score less than 26, to identify patients with neurocognitive deficits. Of the 138 patients enrolled; virologic suppression was seen in 61% of the participants, while 72% of the participants had a MoCA score less than 26 at baseline. Variables significantly associated with low MoCA score included higher age (p < 0...
January 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Judy A Frain, Ling Chen
Objective: The purpose of this randomized-controlled pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of a home-based computerized cognitive training intervention in improving cognitive function in a population of older adults with mild cognitive impairment who are living with HIV. Methods: In all, 24 participants were enrolled in this study. All study participants were impaired [defined as Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score < 26]; 12 were randomly assigned to a computer-training intervention group and 12 to a control group...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
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