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HIV cognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#1
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112532/speech-in-noise-perception-as-a-marker-of-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection
#2
Yi Zhan, Abigail M Fellows, Tangkai Qi, Odile H Clavier, Sigfrid D Soli, Xiudong Shi, Jiang Gui, Yuxin Shi, Jay C Buckey
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals report hearing difficulties, but standard audiological tests show no, or small, changes in peripheral hearing ability. The hearing complaints may reflect central nervous system (CNS) auditory processing deficits, rather than middle or inner ear problems, and may result from CNS damage due to HIV infection or treatment. If central auditory task performance and cognitive deficits in HIV+ individuals are shown to be related, then central auditory tests might serve as a "window" into CNS function in these patients...
November 4, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112116/application-of-chitosan-chitooligosaccharide-and-their-derivatives-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Qian-Qian Ouyang, Shannon Zhao, Si-Dong Li, Cai Song
Classic hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include cholinergic neuron death, acetylcholine (ACh) deficiency, metal ion dynamic equilibrium disorder, and deposition of amyloid and tau. Increased evidence suggests neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may cause AD. However, none of these factors induces AD independently, but they are all associated with the formation of Aβ and tau proteins. Current clinical treatments based on ACh deficiency can only temporarily relieve symptoms, accompanied with many side-effects...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099110/deterioro-cognitivo-en-adultos-mayores-con-vih-sida-y-s%C3%A3-ndrome-de-fragilidad
#4
Alfonso Zamudio-Rodríguez, Sara Aguilar-Navarro, José Alberto Avila-Funes
In 2014, 17% of newly diagnosed HIV infection cases in the United States were made in people over 50 years of age; actually, it is expected that in the near future this population group will be the most affected. This epidemiological change can be explained by the increased incidence of HIV infection in people over 50 years, but also by its higher prevalence due to treatment advances. As HIV infection has become a chronic one, new challenges have emerged. For instance, early-onset "geriatric syndromes," such as frailty, have been recognized in these patients...
2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081720/effects-of-recent-alcohol-consumption-level-on-neurocognitive-performance-in-hiv-individuals
#5
Kara R Douglas-Newman, Rachel V Smith, Mary V Spiers, Timothy Pond, Henry R Kranzler
OBJECTIVES: Although HIV+ individuals may be at increased risk of alcohol-related cognitive impairment, the relations between drinking level and cognitive performance in these individuals are not well understood. We examined whether higher levels of recent drinking in HIV+ individuals were associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly in executive functioning (EF) and memory. METHODS: We administered a comprehensive cognitive battery to 120 seropositive subjects (101 men) who reported alcohol consumption in the preceding 90 days...
September 2017: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080244/impaired-patient-reported-outcomes-persist-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients-and-in-cirrhotic-patients-despite-hcv-clearance
#6
Fabienne Marcellin, Philippe Morlat, Linda Wittkop, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
Dirks et al.(1) 's recent study provides greater insight into the neuropsychiatric symptoms experienced by HCV infected patients and questions how these symptoms are associated with HCV clearance. The authors show that in HCV infected patients with mild liver disease, none of the following outcomes depend on HCV clearance: cognitive function, mood alteration, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and fatigue (FIS scores). However, these results may not be generalizable to HIV-HCV co-infected patients and cirrhotic patients, who were excluded from the study and who are generally more concerned by fatigue and neuropsychiatric symptoms...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080122/sex-differences-in-select-non-communicable-hiv-associated-comorbidities-exploring-the-role-of-systemic-immune-activation-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Avanthi Raghavan, Dodie E Rimmelin, Kathleen V Fitch, Markella V Zanni
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The goals of this review are to (1) explore HIV-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), neurocognitive impairment, and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC) as heterogeneous model disease states fuelled in part by systemic immune activation/inflammation; (2) consider sex differences in the epidemiology of these diseases in both high-resource and lower-resource settings; and (3) examine biological and environmental factors which may contribute to heightened systemic immune activation/inflammation specifically among women living with HIV (WLHIV)...
October 27, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066542/mechanisms-of-cns-viral-seeding-by-hiv-cd14-cd16-monocytes-establishment-and-reseeding-of-viral-reservoirs-contributing-to-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#8
Mike Veenstra, Rosiris León-Rivera, Ming Li, Lucio Gama, Janice E Clements, Joan W Berman
HIV reservoirs persist despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) and are established within a few days after infection. Infected myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS) may contribute to the establishment of a CNS viral reservoir. The mature CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte subset enters the CNS in response to chemokines, including CCL2. Entry of infected CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes may lead to infection of other CNS cells, including macrophages or microglia and astrocytes, and to release of neurotoxic early viral proteins and additional cytokines...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063516/paroxetine-and-fluconazole-therapy-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-impairment-results-from-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Ned Sacktor, Richard L Skolasky, Richard Moxley, Sheng Wang, Michelle M Mielke, Cynthia Munro, Joseph Steiner, Avindra Nath, Norman Haughey, Justin McArthur
Paroxetine and fluconazole have neuroprotective effects in an in vitro model of HIV protein-mediated neuronal injury. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of both paroxetine and fluconazole for the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). A 24-week randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design study was used. HIV+ individuals with cognitive impairment were enrolled in the 24-week trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) paroxetine 20 mg/day, (2) fluconazole 100 mg every 12 h, (3) paroxetine and fluconazole, or (4) placebo...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063513/variability-in-c-reactive-protein-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-women-living-with-and-without-hiv-a-longitudinal-study
#10
Leah H Rubin, Lorie Benning, Sheila M Keating, Philip J Norris, Jane Burke-Miller, Antonia Savarese, Krithika N Kumanan, Saria Awadalla, Gayle Springer, Kathyrn Anastos, Mary Young, Joel Milam, Victor G Valcour, Kathleen M Weber, Pauline M Maki
Despite the availability of effective antiretroviral therapies, cognitive impairment (CI) remains prevalent in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals. Evidence from primarily cross-sectional studies, in predominantly male samples, implicates monocyte- and macrophage-driven inflammatory processes linked to HIV-associated CI. Thus, peripheral systemic inflammatory markers may be clinically useful biomarkers in tracking HIV-associated CI. Given sex differences in immune function, we focused here on whether mean and intra-individual variability in inflammatory marker-predicted CI in HIV+ and HIV- women...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057859/neurological-manifestations-laboratory-and-neuroimaging-features-in-hiv-infected-patients
#11
Hai Chen, Fangju Lin, Shimeng Liu, Yuwei Da, Dongmei Guo
OBJECTIVE: To present detailed information regarding these aspects in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients making an effort to improve the recognition of neurological complications of HIV infection. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the clinical manifestations, laboratory and neuroimaging results of HIV-infected patients with neurological complications at Xuanwu hospital, Beijing, China from January 2011 to December 2014, one of top-rated hospitals in Beijing, China...
October 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054815/whole-brain-radiotherapy-or-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-as-consolidation-strategies-after-high-dose-methotrexate-based-chemoimmunotherapy-in-patients-with-primary-cns-lymphoma-results-of-the-second-randomisation-of-the-international-extranodal-lymphoma
#12
Andrés J M Ferreri, Kate Cwynarski, Elisa Pulczynski, Christopher P Fox, Elisabeth Schorb, Paul La Rosée, Mascha Binder, Alberto Fabbri, Valter Torri, Eleonora Minacapelli, Monica Falautano, Fiorella Ilariucci, Achille Ambrosetti, Alexander Roth, Claire Hemmaway, Peter Johnson, Kim M Linton, Tobias Pukrop, Jette Sønderskov Gørløv, Monica Balzarotti, Georg Hess, Ulrich Keller, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Jens Panse, Alessandra Tucci, Lorella Orsucci, Francesco Pisani, Alessandro Levis, Stefan W Krause, Hans J Schmoll, Bernd Hertenstein, Mathias Rummel, Jeffery Smith, Michael Pfreundschuh, Giuseppina Cabras, Francesco Angrilli, Maurilio Ponzoni, Martina Deckert, Letterio S Politi, Jürgen Finke, Michele Reni, Franco Cavalli, Emanuele Zucca, Gerald Illerhaus
BACKGROUND: The International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group-32 (IELSG32) trial is an international randomised phase 2 study that addresses two key clinical questions in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma. Results of the first randomisation have demonstrated that methotrexate, cytarabine, thiotepa, and rituximab (called the MATRix regimen) is the induction combination associated with significantly better outcome compared with the other induction combinations tested...
October 17, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051714/a-self-report-measure-to-detect-neurocognitive-impairment-among-incarcerated-people-living-with-hiv-in-malaysian-context-an-exploratory-factor-analysis
#13
Roman Shrestha, Damian Weikum, Michael Copenhaver, Frederick L Altice
While neurocognitive impairment (NCI) among people living with HIV (PLWH) who use drugs and its impact on HIV treatment outcomes continue to be widely investigated, there remains a critical gap in NCI assessment among HIV-infected people who use drugs (PWUD) in Malaysian context. The present study, therefore, sought to improve the utility of the existing Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS) as a screening tool for assessing NCI by establishing its psychometric properties in the Malaysian context. The NIS is a brief, self-report measure originally designed to assess NCI by having individuals rate a range of items that may influence cognitive functioning...
August 2017: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049037/fractures-and-the-gut-microbiome
#14
Tara McGinty, Paddy W G Mallon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory, non-AIDS comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and liver disease has become a focus of recent research. Low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture incidence in people living with HIV (PLWH) is also widely reported, however, the relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and bone disease in PLWH has not been previously reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Murine models that manipulate the gut microbiome, either through breeding of 'germ-free' mice or antibiotic-depleted gut microbiome, show differences in bone mineral density and bone mass in those with altered gut microbiome...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016449/self-reported-decline-in-everyday-function-cognitive-symptoms-and-cognitive-function-in-people-with-hiv
#15
Rosanna Laverick, Lewis Haddow, Marina Daskalopoulou, Fiona Lampe, Richard Gilson, Andrew Speakman, Andrea Antinori, Tina Bruun, Anna Vassilenko, Simon Collins, Alison Rodger
BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in 5 domains, psychosocial factors, and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with a decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs and attributed to cognitive difficulties) and self-reported frequency of symptoms of cognitive impairment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990883/learning-to-address-multiple-syndemics-for-people-living-with-hiv-through-client-perspectives-on-cbt
#16
Nicholas S Perry, Jocelyn E Remmert, Christina Psaros, Megan Pinkston, Steven A Safren
OBJECTIVE: The mental health burden among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is high and often involves multiple comorbid psychological and substance use-related psychosocial problems. These co-occurring problems, or syndemics, additively impair engagement in HIV disease management. Existing psychotherapies for mental health and HIV health have generally focused on a single psychosocial problem and little research exists to guide future psychotherapies that address multiple mental health issues...
October 9, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950745/a-systematic-review-of-prospective-memory-in-hiv-disease-from-the-laboratory-to-daily-life
#17
Gunes Avci, David P Sheppard, Savanna M Tierney, Victoria M Kordovski, Kelli L Sullivan, Steven Paul Woods
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM) is described as the capacity to form and maintain an intention that is executed in response to a specific cue. Neural injury and associated neurocognitive disorders are common among persons living with HIV disease, who might therefore be susceptible to impairment in PM. METHOD: This literature review utilized a structured qualitative approach to summarize and evaluate our current understanding of PM functioning in people living with HIV disease...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#18
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904086/cognitive-trajectories-over-4-years-among-hiv-infected-women-with-optimal-viral-suppression
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Leah H Rubin, Pauline M Maki, Gayle Springer, Lorie Benning, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Maria C Villacres, Xiong Jiang, Adaora A Adimora, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, David E Vance, Hector Bolivar, Christine Alden, Eileen M Martin, Victor G Valcour
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persistent viral suppression alters cognitive trajectories among HIV-infected (HIV+) women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) by investigating performance longitudinally in uninfected (HIV-) and 3 groups of HIV+ women: those with consistent viral suppression after continuous cART use (VS), those without consistent virologic suppression despite continuous cART use (NVS), and those without consistent virologic suppression after intermittent cART use (Int NVS)...
October 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903129/improving-detection-of-hiv-associated-cognitive-impairment-comparison-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-and-a-brief-screening-battery-erratum
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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