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Roberto Dominici, Dario Finazzi, Letizia Polito, Emanuela Oldoni, Giovanna Bugari, Alessandro Montanelli, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti, Antonio Guaita
BACKGROUND: Several studies performed in the last years on the brain, showed that beta2-microglobulin (β2m) and MHC can act independently of their canonical immune function to regulate normal brain development, synaptic plasticity and behaviour. Increased systemic levels of soluble β2m have been implicated in cognitive impairments like that associated with chronic hemodialysis, or aortic valve replacement. Increased soluble β2m has also been detected in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of patients with HIV-associated dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
May 9, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Kathryn N Devlin, Tania Giovannetti
Despite longstanding acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), existing HAND diagnostic methods classify according to the degree of impairment, without regard to the pattern of neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. Research in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has demonstrated that classifying individuals into subtypes by both their level and pattern of impairment, using either conventional or statistical methods, has etiologic and prognostic utility. Methods for characterizing the heterogeneity of MCI provide a framework that can be applied to other disorders and may be useful in clarifying some of the current challenges in the study of HAND...
June 2017: Neuropsychology Review
Tameem Adel, Taco Cohen, Matthan Caan, Max Welling
Classifying neurodegenerative brain diseases in MRI aims at correctly assigning discrete labels to MRI scans. Such labels usually refer to a diagnostic decision a learner infers based on what it has learned from a training sample of MRI scans. Classification from MRI voxels separately typically does not provide independent evidence towards or against a class; the information relevant for classification is only present in the form of complicated multivariate patterns (or "features"). Deep learning solves this problem by learning a sequence of non-linear transformations that result in feature representations that are better suited to classification...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ethel D Weld, Hiwot Hiruy, Kate Morrow Guthrie, Joseph L Fava, Sara E Vargas, Karen Buckheit, Robert Buckheit, Hans Spiegel, Jennifer Breakey, Edward J Fuchs, Craig W Hendrix
For persons at risk of HIV infection who practice receptive anal intercourse (RAI), topical rectal microbicides represent a promising option for coitally dependent protection. The study compared colorectal distribution and user sensory experiences of two different volumes of rectal gel for suitability as rectal microbicide. Eight HIV-negative men with a history of recent RAI were enrolled into a two-period, sequence-randomized dosing study comparing 3.5 and 10 ml of radiolabeled (1 mCi 99m Tc-DTPA) universal placebo, hydroxyethyl cellulose gel...
May 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
McI Van Schalkwyk, R H Westbrook, J O'Beirne, A Wright, A Gonzalez, M A Johnson, S Kinloch-de Loës
We are not aware of a report detailing the complex obstetrical and medical management of twin pregnancy in the context of HIV infection and early post-liver transplantation period. Here we describe the successful outcome of a twin pregnancy in a 28-year-old HIV-positive female receiving antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive therapy who was the recipient of a liver transplant for previous drug-induced liver failure.
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
February 2017: Glia
Yong Zhang, Dongjin Kwon, Pardis Esmaeili-Firidouni, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Harold Javitz, Victor Valcour, Kilian M Pohl
HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) is the most common constellation of cognitive dysfunctions in chronic HIV infected patients age 60 or older in the U.S. Only few published methods assist in distinguishing HAND from other forms of age-associated cognitive decline, such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). In this report, a data-driven, nonparameteric model to identify morphometric patterns separating HAND from MCI due to non-HIV conditions in this older age group was proposed. This model enhanced the potential for group separation by combining a smaller, longitudinal data set containing HAND samples with a larger, public data set including MCI cases...
December 2016: Human Brain Mapping
L Cuzin, P Dellamonica, Y Yazdanpanah, S Bouchez, D Rey, B Hoen, A Cabié
To describe the consequences of medical care interruptions (MCIs) we selected patients with at least two medical encounters between January 2006 and June 2013 in the Dat'AIDS cohort. Patients with any time interval >15 months between two visits were defined as having a MCI, as opposed to uninterrupted follow-up (UFU). Patients' characteristics at the time of HIV diagnosis and at the censoring date were compared between groups. Cox proportional hazards models were built to assess the role of interruptions on survival (total and AIDS-free)...
August 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Ming-hua Chen, Ye-xiang Wu, Biao Dong, Xiu-yong Fan, Li-yan Yu, Wei Jiang, Shu-yi Si
Eleven compounds were isolated from the culture of Streptomyces sp. CPCC 202950 by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over macroporous resin HP-20, MCI, and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were identified as 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide(1),5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioinosine(2), vanillamide(3), trans-3-methylthioacrylamide(4), 1,2,3,4-Tetraydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid(5), cyclo(L-pro-L-tyr) (6), N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)]ethylacetamide(7), benzamide (8), cyclo ('L-leucyl-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline)(9), cyclo-(Phe-Gly) (10), and tryptophan (11)...
April 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
David P Sheppard, Jennifer E Iudicello, Mark W Bondi, Katie L Doyle, Erin E Morgan, Paul J Massman, Paul E Gilbert, Steven Paul Woods
With the rising number of individuals in their 50s and 60s who are infected with HIV, concerns have emerged about possible increases in the rates of non-HIV-associated dementias. The current study examined the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older HIV-infected adults, since MCI is an intermediate state between typical cognitive aging and dementia that emerges in this age range. Participants included 75 adults with HIV disease aged 50 years and older who were on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and had undetectable plasma viral loads and 80 demographically similar HIV-seronegative comparison subjects...
October 2015: Journal of Neurovirology
Murat Kutlu, Cağrı Ergin, Ferda Bir, Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Ramazan Gümral, Ceyda Necan, Ali Koçyiğit, Selda Sayın-Kutlu
Mucormycosis is increasingly common in patients with risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, and corticosteroid therapy. However, mucormycosis seems to be less common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to patients with other risk factors. Despite their lower virulence, Lichtheimia species should be regarded as emerging pathogens among Mucoralean fungi. We report a fatal case of pulmonary mucormycosis due to Lichtheimia ramosa in a 52-year-old man with an end-stage HIV infection...
August 2014: Mycopathologia
Mona A Mohamed, Peter B Barker, Richard L Skolasky, Ola A Selnes, Richard T Moxley, Martin G Pomper, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) has been extensively studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at field strengths of 1.5 T. Higher magnetic field strengths (such as 3 T) allow for more reliable determination of certain compounds, such as glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln). The current study was undertaken to investigate the utility of 3-T MRS for evaluating HIV+ patients with different levels of cognitive impairment with emphasis on the measurement of Glu and Glx (the sum of Glu and Gln)...
November 2010: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
P M Thompson, L G Apostolova
The cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) accumulate in the living brain up to 30 years before the characteristic symptoms of dementia can be identified. Brain changes in AD are difficult to distinguish from those in normal ageing, and this has led to the development of powerful computational methods to extract statistical information on the brain changes that are characteristic of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and different dementia subtypes. Time-lapse maps can be built to show how the disease spreads in the brain, and where treatment affects the disease trajectory...
December 2007: British Journal of Radiology
Guo-Fang Lai, Shi-De Luo, Jian-Xin Cao, Yi-Fen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-HIV constituents from the root of Mirabilis jalapa. METHOD: The compounds were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH - 20, MCI-gel CHP-20P and RP-18. The structure were identified by means of NMR and MS analyses (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS). RESULT: Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as astragaloside II (1), astragaloside II (2), astragaloside IV (3), astragaloside VI (4), flazin (5), 4'-hydroxy-2, 3-dihydroflavone 7-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), gingerglycolipid A (7), 3, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyd (8), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (9), beta-sitosterol (10) and daucosterol (11)...
January 2008: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Paul M Thompson, Kiralee M Hayashi, Rebecca A Dutton, Ming-Chang Chiang, Alex D Leow, Elizabeth R Sowell, Greig De Zubicaray, James T Becker, Oscar L Lopez, Howard J Aizenstein, Arthur W Toga
Population-based brain mapping provides great insight into the trajectory of aging and dementia, as well as brain changes that normally occur over the human life span. We describe three novel brain mapping techniques, cortical thickness mapping, tensor-based morphometry (TBM), and hippocampal surface modeling, which offer enormous power for measuring disease progression in drug trials, and shed light on the neuroscience of brain degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We report the first time-lapse maps of cortical atrophy spreading dynamically in the living brain, based on averaging data from populations of subjects with Alzheimer's disease and normal subjects imaged longitudinally with MRI...
February 2007: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Yi-Fen Wang, Tian-Hui Mu, Ji-Jun Chen, Shi-De Luo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-HIV constituents from the root of Polygonatum kingianum. METHOD: The compounds were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, MCI-gel CHP-20P and their structures were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic evidence including IR, MS and NMR data. RESULT: 13 compounds were isolated, of which nine compounds were identified as liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, 4', 7-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyisoflavone, (6aR, 11aR)-10-hydroxy-3, 9-dimethoxypterocarpan, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, salicylic acid, n-butyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside, n-butyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside, n-butyl-alpha-D-fructofuranoside...
June 2003: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Marilyn J Manco-Johnson, Rachelle Nuss, James Lear, Jerome Wiedel, Susan J Geraghty, Michele R Hacker, Sharon Funk, Ray F Kilcoyne, James Murphy
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to prospectively evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost of injecting P-colloid into joints of children with hemophilia and synovitis to decrease the rate of joint bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligibility included a diagnosis of hemophilia, history of more than six hemorrhages into a joint within a 6-month period, and evidence of synovitis by objective imaging. With written, informed consent, 0.25 to 1.0 mCi of P-colloid was injected into the problem joints...
October 2002: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
E C Rodriguez-Merchan, V Jimenez-Yuste, A Villar, M Quintana, C Lopez-Cabarcos, F Hernandez-Navarro
Between 1994 and 1999 we performed 66 Yttrium-90 (90Y) synoviortheses on 44 persons with haemophilia (45 knees, 12 elbows, nine ankles). At the time of injection 23 patients were HIV+ and two had inhibitors. The average age was 21.1 years (range: 9-39). Five mCi of 90Y were injected into the knees, and 3 mCi into the elbows and ankles. The average follow-up was 3.5 years (range: 1-6). Of the 45 knees, there were eight excellent, 10 good, 15 fair and 12 poor results. Of the 12 elbows there were three excellent results, five good, three fair and two poor...
July 2001: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
C Giannakenas, H P Kalofonos, D Apostolopoulos, T Petsas, C Kalogeropoulou, E Tzorakelefterakis, C D Skopa, P J Vassilakos
The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of (111)In-DTPA-octreotide (OC) for in vivo scintigraphic imaging of these relatively uncommon tumors. Thirteen patients (9 males, 4 females, mean age 59 years) with known sarcomatous lesions were studied. All patients had known lesions as demonstrated by previous investigation with other modalities, e.g. CAT, MRI. Following intravenous injection of 10 microg of OC labeled with 2.8-4.2 mCi (111)In, planar imaging was done at 6 +/- 1 and 22 +/- 2 h, respectively...
2000: Oncology
H H Abu-Judeh, R Parker, M Singh, H el-Zeftawy, S Atay, M Kumar, S Naddaf, S Aleksic, H M Abdel-Dayem
We present SPET brain perfusion findings in 32 patients who suffered mild traumatic brain injury without loss of consciousness and normal computed tomography. None of the patients had previous traumatic brain injury, CVA, HIV, psychiatric disorders or a history of alcohol or drug abuse. Their ages ranged from 11 to 61 years (mean = 42). The study was performed in 20 patients (62%) within 3 months of the date of injury and in 12 (38%) patients more than 3 months post-injury. Nineteen patients (60%) were involved in a motor vehicle accident, 10 patients (31%) sustained a fall and three patients (9%) received a blow to the head...
June 1999: Nuclear Medicine Communications
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