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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906001/evolution-of-changes-in-cognitive-function-after-the-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Borja Mora-Peris, Elizabeth Stevens, Francesca Ferretti, Jonathan Underwood, Stephen Taylor, Alan Winston
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function is reported to improve after the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Data on the evolution of such changes are limited. We assessed the dynamics of changes in cognitive parameters, in HIV-positive subjects initiating cART. METHODS: Cognitive function in seven domains was evaluated for HIV-infected patients without clinically significant cognitive impairment prior to the initiation of cART, and 24 and 48 weeks after...
April 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899243/corrigendum-to-brain-and-cognitive-functions-in-two-groups-of-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-patients-selected-for-a-different-plan-of-antiretroviral-therapy-a-qeeg-study-clin-neurophysiol-127-2016-3455-3469
#2
Claudio Babiloni, Alfredo Pennica, Paolo Capotosto, Paolo Onorati, Chiara Muratori, Stefano Ferracuti, Paolo Roma, Valentina Correr, Elisa Piccinni, Giuseppe Noce, Claudio Del Percio, Susanna Cordone, Cristina Limatola, Andrea Soricelli, Francesco Di Campli, Laura Gianserra, Lorenzo Ciullini, Antonio Aceti, Magdalena Viscione, Elisabetta Teti, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896574/cognitive-function-in-early-hiv-infection
#3
Aanchal Prakash, Jue Hou, Lei Liu, Yi Gao, Casey Kettering, Ann B Ragin
This study aimed to examine cognitive function in acute/early HIV infection over the subsequent 2 years. Fifty-six HIV+ subjects and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection Study were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at study enrollment and at 2-year follow-up. Cognitive performance measures were compared in the groups using t tests and mixed-effect models. Patterns of relationship with clinical measures were determined between cognitive function and clinical status markers using Spearman's correlations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892704/the-effects-of-a-16-week-aerobic-exercise-programme-on-cognitive-function-in-people-living-with-hiv
#4
Adam McDermott, Lilia Zaporojan, Patricia McNamara, Colin P Doherty, Janice Redmond, Cuisle Forde, John Gormley, Mikel Egaña, Colm Bergin
High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention...
November 28, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889886/association-of-midlife-smoking-status-with-change-in-processing-speed-and-mental-flexibility-among-hiv-seropositive-and-hiv-seronegative-older-men-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#5
Wajiha Z Akhtar-Khaleel, Robert L Cook, Steve Shoptaw, Eric N Miller, Ned Sacktor, Pamela J Surkan, Jim Becker, Linda A Teplin, Rebecca J Beyth, Catherine Price, Michael Plankey
Smoking is a potential risk factor for age-related cognitive decline. To date, no study has examined the association between smoking and cognitive decline in men living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this present study is to examine whether smoking status and severity in midlife is associated with a rate of decline in cognitive processing speed among older HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men. Data from 591 older HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were examined...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889592/marijuana-effects-on-changes-in-brain-structure-and-cognitive-function-among-hiv-and-hiv-adults
#6
April D Thames, Taylor P Kuhn, Timothy J Williamson, Jacob D Jones, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Andrea Hammond
BACKGROUND: The current study examined the independent and interactive effects of HIV and marijuana (MJ) use on brain structure and cognitive function among a sample of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals. METHODS: Participants (HIV+, n=48; HIV-, n=29) individuals underwent cognitive testing, questionnaires about substance use, and brain MRI. The HIV+ group was clinically stable based upon current plasma CD4 count, 50% had undetectable viral load (i...
November 14, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888531/fate-of-microglia-during-hiv-1-infection-from-activation-to-senescence
#7
REVIEW
Natalie C Chen, Andrea T Partridge, Christian Sell, Claudio Torres, Julio Martín-García
Microglia support productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disturbed microglial function could contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Better understanding of how HIV-1 infection and viral protein exposure modulate microglial function during the course of infection could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for both the eradication of HIV-1 reservoir and treatment of neurocognitive deficits. This review first describes microglial origins and function in the normal central nervous system (CNS), and the changes that occur during aging...
November 26, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885963/coping-with-discrimination-among-hiv-positive-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#8
Laura M Bogart, Sannisha K Dale, Jana Christian, Kinjal Patel, Gary K Daffin, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone
In the USA, HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men show large disparities in disease outcomes compared to other racial/ethnic and risk groups. This study examined the strategies that HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men use to cope with different types of discrimination. A total of 27 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men participated in semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed verbatim and coded using thematic analysis by multiple raters. Major coping themes included reactive avoidance (using behaviours, cognitions and emotions to escape from discrimination), a common reaction to racism; proactive avoidance (avoiding situations in which discrimination is anticipated), manifested as selective disclosure of HIV-serostatus; external attribution for discrimination (versus self-blame), used more for sexual orientation and HIV discrimination; and social support-seeking, which most often emerged in response to racism...
November 25, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883927/randomized-pilot-trial-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-alcohol-self-harm-and-hiv-prevention-program-for-teens-in-mental-health-treatment
#9
Christianne Esposito-Smythers, Wendy Hadley, Timothy W Curby, Larry K Brown
Adolescents with mental health conditions represent a high-risk group for substance use, deliberate self-harm (DSH), and risky sexual behavior. Mental health treatment does not uniformly decrease these risks. Effective prevention efforts are needed to offset the developmental trajectory from mental health problems to these behaviors. This study tested an adjunctive cognitive-behavioral family-based alcohol, DSH, and HIV prevention program (ASH-P) for adolescents in mental healthcare. A two group randomized design was used to compare ASH-P to an assessment only control (AO-C)...
November 12, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882497/soluble-tlr2-and-4-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-hiv-siv-related-neuropathological-conditions
#10
Khutso M Mothapo, J Ten Oever, P Koopmans, F F Stelma, S Burm, J Bajramovic, M M Verbeek, M G Olde Rikkert, M G Netea, G Koopman, A J van der Ven
HIV in the central nervous system (CNS) mainly infects microglial cells which are known to express toll-like receptors (TLRs). This paper aimed to study the role of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2), sTLR4, and other inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in HIV/Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-related neurological sequelae. We determined sTLR2 and sTLR4 levels in CSF and serum/plasma of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with and without neurological sequelae, as well as in HIV-infected patients with and without cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and matched controls...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882489/psychological-distress-mediates-the-effect-of-alexithymia-on-2-year-change-in-hiv-viral-load
#11
Roger C McIntosh, Gail Ironson, Michael Antoni, Betty Lai, Mahendra Kumar, Mary Ann Fletcher, Neil Schneiderman
PURPOSE: Individuals with trait alexithymia (AL) display poor cognitive assimilation of thoughts, feelings, and emotions. This may result in the persistence of stress, anxiety, and depressive disorders. The cumulative effect of this psychological distress is also linked clinical markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. This study examines the indirect effect of AL on HIV viral load as a function of baseline levels and change in psychological distress. METHODS: N = 123 HIV positive adults aged 37...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879980/theory-based-interventions-for-contraception
#12
REVIEW
Laureen M Lopez, Thomas W Grey, Mario Chen, Elizabeth E Tolley, Laurie L Stockton
BACKGROUND: The explicit use of theory in research helps expand the knowledge base. Theories and models have been used extensively in HIV-prevention research and in interventions for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The health behavior field uses many theories or models of change. However, many educational interventions addressing contraception have no explicit theoretical base. OBJECTIVES: To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that tested a theoretical approach to inform contraceptive choice and encourage or improve contraceptive use...
November 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#13
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875827/disability-among-persons-aging-with-hiv-aids
#14
Suzanne G Leveille, Saurja Thapa
Persons surviving to older ages with HIV/AIDS often face an accelerated aging accompanied by increased comorbidity and decline in health and function. In this chapter, we review the process of disablement among persons aging with HIV/AIDS, from chronic conditions to impairments and functional limitations, leading to disability. Chronic immune activation related to chronic HIV infection may contribute to early development of chronic conditions that are common in older adults resulting in premature disablement...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875824/multimorbidity-and-burden-of-disease
#15
Todd T Brown, Giovanni Guaraldi
With effective antiretroviral therapy, HIV has become a chronic disease, and life expectancy among HIV-infected persons is approaching that of HIV-uninfected persons. Despite this success, epidemiologic evidence suggests that the burden of multiple aging-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, liver disease, metabolic abnormalities, chronic kidney disease, cognitive dysfunction, and osteoporosis, is higher in HIV-infected persons compared to their HIV-uninfected peers. These comorbid diseases tend to cluster in a single person, leading to multimorbidity and polypharmacy...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#16
Lindsay Mk Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David J Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in sample of older adults with HIV. METHODS: One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least one year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863996/interventions-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#17
Steve Kanters, Jay J H Park, Keith Chan, Maria Eugenia Socias, Nathan Ford, Jamie I Forrest, Kristian Thorlund, Jean B Nachega, Edward J Mills
BACKGROUND: High adherence to antiretroviral therapy is crucial to the success of HIV treatment. We evaluated comparative effectiveness of adherence interventions with the aim of informing the WHO's global guidance on interventions to increase adherence. METHODS: For this systematic review and network meta-analysis, we searched for randomised controlled trials of interventions that aimed to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy regimens in populations with HIV...
November 15, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862491/alarmins-and-central-nervous-system-inflammation-in-hiv-associated-neurological-disorders
#18
M-L Gougeon
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in infected individuals with adequate immunological and virological status. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include hepatitis C virus co-infection, host genetic factors predisposing to HAND, the early establishment of the virus in the CNS and its persistence under HAART; thus, the CNS is an important reservoir for HIV. Microglial cells are permissive to HIV-1, and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated genes were found expressed in brains of HIV-1-infected persons, contributing to brain disease...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861242/higher-cystatin-c-levels-are-associated-with-neurocognitive-impairment-in-older-hiv-adults
#19
Marissa E Sakoda, Pariya L Fazeli, Ronald J Ellis, Dilip V Jeste, Igor Grant, Scott L Letendre, David J Moore
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to determine whether cystatin C is associated with HIV disease and HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI). METHODS: Participants included 124 (HIV+ n = 77; HIV- n = 47) older adults (age ≥ 50 years) examined at the UCSD HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program. Cystatin C, a biomarker of kidney functioning that has been linked to poor health outcomes, was measured in blood. Participants completed a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment that was used to define both global and domain NCI...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856673/associations-of-memory-and-executive-functioning-with-academic-and-adaptive-functioning-among-youth-with-perinatal-hiv-exposure-and-or-infection
#20
Patricia A Sirois, Miriam C Chernoff, Kathleen M Malee, Patricia A Garvie, Lynnette L Harris, Paige L Williams, Steven P Woods, Molly L Nozyce, Betsy L Kammerer, Cenk Yildirim, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) confers risk for neurocognitive impairment, which potentially affects school performance and functional independence of infected children. In this study, we examined the associations of 2 key neurocognitive domains, memory and executive function (EF), with academic and adaptive skills among youth with PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. METHODS: Participants ages 9 to <19 years enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study's Memory and Executive Functioning Study completed standardized measures of reading and math...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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