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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#1
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202615/il-13-mediated-regulation-of-learning-and-memory
#2
Tiroyaone M Brombacher, Justin K Nono, Keisha S De Gouveia, Nokuthula Makena, Matthew Darby, Jacqueline Womersley, Ousman Tamgue, Frank Brombacher
The role of proinflammatory cytokines in cognitive function has been investigated with both beneficial and possible detrimental effects, depending on the cytokine. More recently, the type 2 IL-4 has been demonstrated to play a role in cognition. In this study, using the Morris water maze task, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are significantly impaired in working memory as well as attenuated reference memory, both functions essential for effective complex learning. During the learning process, wild-type mice increased the number of CD4(+) T cells in the meninges and production of IL-13, whereas neither Morris water maze-trained IL-4 nor trained IL-13-deficient mice were able to increase CD4(+) T cells in the meninges...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194587/developing-a-safer-conception-intervention-for-men-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#3
Hazar Khidir, Christina Psaros, Letitia Greener, Kasey O'Neil, Mxolisi Mathenjwa, F N Mosery, Lizzie Moore, Abigail Harrison, David R Bangsberg, Jennifer A Smit, Steven A Safren, Lynn T Matthews
Within sexual partnerships, men make many decisions about sexual behavior, reproductive goals, and HIV prevention. There are increasing calls to involve men in reproductive health and HIV prevention. This paper describes the process of creating and evaluating the acceptability of a safer conception intervention for men living with HIV who want to have children with partners at risk for acquiring HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Based on formative work conducted with men and women living with HIV, their partners, and providers, we developed an intervention based on principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy to support men in the adoption of HIV risk-reduction behaviors such as HIV-serostatus disclosure and uptake of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy...
February 13, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183300/an-investigation-of-stigmatizing-attitudes-towards-people-living-with-hiv-aids-by-doctors-and-nurses-in-vientiane-lao-pdr
#4
Savina Vorasane, Masamine Jimba, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Junko Yasuoka, Keiko Nanishi, Jo Durham, Vanphanom Sychareun
BACKGROUND: Despite global efforts, HIV-related stigma continues to negatively impact the health and well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS. Even in healthcare settings, people with HIV/AIDS experience discrimination. Anecdotal evidence suggests that healthcare professionals in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, a lower-middle income country situated in Southeast Asia, stigmatize HIV/AID patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV stigmatizing attitudes within Laotian healthcare service providers and examine some of the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related stigma among doctors and nurses...
February 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164027/developmental-delay-and-behavioral-disorders-in-59-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#5
Véronique Reliquet, Cécile Brunet-Cartier, Elise Launay, François Raffi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV pregnant women has led to a dramatic decrease in the rate of HIV mother-to-child transmission but this benefit is counterbalanced with adverse effects related to in utero and neonatal exposure to ART. In 2013, some parents described neurodevelopmental disorders in their children. METHODS: A standardized letter was sent to the 133 women who delivered in Nantes hospital from 01/01/2003 to 31/12/2012 (167 births). RESULTS: Response rate was 33%...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160772/renal-safety-of-lithium-in-hiv-infected-patients-established-on-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-containing-antiretroviral-therapy-analysis-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Eric H Decloedt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of bipolar disorder in HIV-infected patients is higher than the general population. Lithium is the most effective mood stabiliser, while tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is frequently used as part of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both TDF and lithium are associated with renal tubular toxicity, which could be additive, or a pharmacokinetic interaction may occur at renal transporters with a decrease in TDF elimination. OBJECTIVE: We report on the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the modification of diet in renal disease formula in participants who received ART including TDF and were enrolled in a 24 week randomised trial of lithium versus placebo in patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment...
February 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160181/determinants-of-employment-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-netherlands
#7
Marlies N Wagener, Lennert van den Dries, Job Van Exel, Harald S Miedema, Eric C M van Gorp, Pepijn D D M Roelofs
Objectives Since HIV has become a manageable chronic disease, employment is of increasing importance for people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate the level of work participation among PLWH in the Netherlands, and the associated determinants of employment. Methods For this study the baseline measurements of a longitudinal cohort study with a 2-year follow-up, the TREVI project, were used. The TREVI project aims to study cognitive function disorders among PLWH in relation to their employment, productivity, and social functioning...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149649/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Lydia Yarlott, Eleanor Heald, Daniel Forton
An association between hepatitis C virus infection and neuropsychiatric symptoms has been proposed for some years. A variety of studies have been undertaken to assess the nature and severity of these symptoms, which range from fatigue and depression to defects in attention and verbal reasoning. There is evidence of mild neurocognitive impairment in some patients with HCV infection, which is not fully attributable to liver dysfunction or psychosocial factors. Further evidence of a biological cerebral effect has arisen from studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy; metabolic abnormalities correlate with cognitive dysfunction and resemble the patterns of neuroinflammation that have been described in HIV infection...
March 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144792/multicenter-european-prevalence-study-of-neurocognitive-impairment-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-positive-patients
#9
Lewis J Haddow, Rosanna Laverick, Marina Daskalopoulou, Jeffrey McDonnell, Fiona C Lampe, Richard Gilson, Andrew Speakman, Andrea Antinori, Pietro Balestra, Tina Bruun, Jan Gerstoft, Lars Nielsen, Anna Vassilenko, Simon Collins, Alison J Rodger
We conducted a cross-sectional study in 448 HIV positive patients attending five European outpatient clinics to determine prevalence of and factors associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) using computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests. NCI was defined as a normalized Z score ≤-1 in at least 2 out of 5 cognitive domains. Participants' mean age was 45.8 years; 84% male; 87% white; 56% university educated; median CD4 count 550 cells/mm(3); 89% on antiretroviral therapy. 156 (35%) participants had NCI, among whom 26 (17%; 5...
January 31, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141781/low-dose-hydrocortisone-has-acute-enhancing-effects-on-verbal-learning-in-hiv-infected-men
#10
Leah H Rubin, K Luan Phan, Sheila M Keating, Kathleen M Weber, Pauline M Maki
OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoids are released in response to stress and alter cognition and brain function through both rapid, nongenomic and slow, genomic mechanisms. Administration of glucocorticoids in the form of hydrocortisone enhances aspects of learning and memory in individuals with PTSD, but impairs these abilities in healthy individuals. We examine the time-dependent effects of glucocorticoids on cognition in HIV-infected men. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we examined the time-dependent effects of a single low dose of hydrocortisone (10mg; LDH) on cognition in 45 HIV-infected men...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130744/effects-of-social-adversity-and-hiv-on-subcortical-shape-and-neurocognitive-function
#11
April D Thames, Taylor P Kuhn, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Robert M Bilder, Timothy J Williamson, Elyse J Singer, Alyssa Arentoft
The purpose of the current study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of social adversity (SA) and HIV infection on subcortical shape alterations and cognitive functions. Participants included HIV+ (n = 70) and HIV- (n = 23) individuals who underwent MRI, neurocognitive and clinical assessment, in addition to completing questionnaires from which responses were used to create an SA score. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were extracted from T1-weighted images. Parametric statistical analyses were used to compare the radial distance of the structure surface to a median curve to determine the presence of localized shape differences as a function of HIV, SA and their interaction...
January 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129756/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol-of-an-adapted-intervention-for-alcohol-use-disorders-in-people-living-with-hiv-and-aids-impact-on-alcohol-use-general-functional-ability-quality-of-life-and-adherence-to-haart
#12
Munyaradzi Madhombiro, Bazondlile Dube-Marimbe, Michelle Dube, Dixon Chibanda, Moleen Zunza, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, David Stewart, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: Interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in HIV infected individuals have been primarily targeted at HIV risk reduction and improved antiretroviral treatment adherence. However, reduction in alcohol use is an important goal. Alcohol use affects other key factors that may influence treatment course and outcome. In this study the authors aim to administer an adapted intervention for AUDs to reduce alcohol use in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). METHODS: This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial at 16 HIV care clinics...
January 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129254/regionally-specific-brain-volumetric-and-cortical-thickness-changes-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-haart-era
#13
Ryan Sanford, Ana Lucia Fernandez Cruz, Susan C Scott, Nancy E Mayo, Lesley K Fellows, BeauM Ances, D Louis Collins
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment still occurs in a substantial subset of HIV-infected patients, despite effective viral suppression with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Structural brain changes may provide clues about the underlying pathophysiology. This study provides a detailed spatial characterization of the pattern and extent of brain volume changes associated with HIV, and relates these brain measures to cognitive ability and clinical variables. METHODS: Multiple novel neuroimaging techniques (deformation-based morphometry, voxel-based morphometry and cortical modeling) were used to assess regional brain volumes in 125 HIV-infected patients and 62 HIV-uninfected individuals...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128418/p2x7-receptor-in-the-hippocampus-is-involved-in-gp120-induced-cognitive-dysfunction
#14
Y Liu, G Q Chen, B Y Liu, Q Chen, Y M Qian, S S Qin, C L Liu, C S Xu
To investigate the role of the P2X7 receptor in learning and memory dysfunction induced by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 (gp120), we established HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) animal models by intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of gp120 in rats. We observed gp120-induced cognitive dysfunction in the radial arm water maze test. Results showed that rats in the gp120 groups had longer escape latencies and more errors compared to those in the control group. For example, the average trial time in the 50-ng/day-gp120 group on day eight (16...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127989/psychiatric-symptom-burden-in-older-people-living-with-hiv-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment-the-ucsf-hiv-over-60-cohort-study
#15
Benedetta Milanini, Stephanie Catella, Brandon Perkovich, Pardis Esmaeili-Firidouni, Lauren Wendelken, Robert Paul, Meredith Greene, Robin Ketelle, Victor Valcour
Psychiatric comorbidities are common in people living with HIV (PLWH) and adversely affect life satisfaction, treatment adherence and disease progression. There are few data to inform the burden of psychiatric symptoms in older PLWH, a rapidly growing demographic in the U.S. We performed a cross-sectional analysis to understand the degree to which symptom burden was associated with cognitive disorders in PLWH over age 60. Participants completed a standardized neuropsychological battery and were assigned cognitive diagnoses using Frascati criteria...
January 27, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125951/quality-of-life-improvement-in-hiv-1-patients-treated-with-raltegravir-in-a-real-life-observational-study-racing
#16
Bruno Spire, Lella Nait-Ighil, Pascal Pugliese, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Vincent Jullien, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Eric Billaud
BACKGROUND: Good efficacy and safety of raltegravir in person living with HIV was demonstrated in clinical trials over five years, but real-life data, particularly about quality of life (QoL), are lacking. QoL was evaluated over time in adult patients first treated or switched to regimens containing raltegravir in an observational cohort study. METHODS: Patient QoL was evaluated using the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and the HIV Symptom Index (HSI). Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months...
January 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125811/loneliness-in-older-black-adults-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-is-associated-with-poorer-cognition
#17
S Duke Han, Oluwatoyin Adeyemi, Robert S Wilson, Sue Leurgans, Antonio Jimenez, Lawrence Oullet, Raj Shah, Alan Landay, David A Bennett, Lisa L Barnes
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with cognitive impairment, and loneliness is associated with cognitive decline in old age. Older Black adults with HIV may be at particular risk of loneliness due to stigma and lack of social resources. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that (1) older Black adults with HIV would show greater loneliness than older White adults with HIV, and (2) greater loneliness among older Black adults with HIV would be associated with poorer cognitive function...
January 27, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122933/formula-feeding-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-african-children-is-associated-with-faster-growth-in-length-during-the-first-6-months-of-life-in-the-kesho-bora-study
#18
Kirsten A Bork, Cécile Cames, Marie-Louise Newell, Jennifer S Read, Kossiwavi Ayassou, Faith Musyoka, Grace Mbatia, Amandine Cournil
BACKGROUND: Early feeding patterns may affect the growth of HIV-exposed children and thus their subsequent health and cognition. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association of infant feeding (IF) mode with length-for-age z score (LAZ) and stunting from age 2 d to 18 mo in HIV-exposed African children within a controlled randomized trial, which evaluated triple antiretrovirals initiated during pregnancy and continued for 6 mo postpartum to prevent HIV transmission. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women with CD4(+) counts of 200-500 cells/mm(3) from Burkina Faso, Kenya, and South Africa were advised to exclusively breastfeed for up to 6 mo or to formula-feed from birth...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122624/hiv-induces-expression-of-complement-component-c3-in-astrocytes-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-activation-of-interleukin-6-synthesis
#19
Jadwiga Nitkiewicz, Alejandra Borjabad, Susan Morgello, Jacinta Murray, Wei Chao, Luni Emdad, Paul B Fisher, Mary Jane Potash, David J Volsky
BACKGROUND: Abnormal activation of the complement system contributes to some central nervous system diseases but the role of complement in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is unclear. METHODS: We used real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry to detect complement expression in postmortem brain tissue from HAND patients and controls. To further investigate the basis for viral induction of gene expression in the brain, we studied the effect of HIV on C3 expression by astrocytes, innate immune effector cells, and targets of HIV...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122474/screening-for-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-positive-adults-aged-50-years-and-older-montreal-cognitive-assessment-relates-to-self-reported-and-clinician-rated-everyday-functioning
#20
P L Fazeli, K B Casaletto, E Paolillo, R C Moore, D J Moore, The Hnrp Group
As the HIV+ population ages, the risk for and need to screen for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) increases. The aim of this study is to determine the utility and ecological validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) among older HIV+ adults. A total of 100 HIV+ older adults aged 50 years or over completed a comprehensive neuromedical and neurocognitive battery, including the MoCA and several everyday functioning measures. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicates ≤26 as the optimal cut-off balancing sensitivity (84...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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