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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912368/neurodevelopment-of-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-unexposed-uninfected-children-at-24-months
#1
Sumona Chaudhury, Paige L Williams, Gloria K Mayondi, Jean Leidner, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Sharon Nichols, Jane Magetse, Maureen Sakoi, Kebaiphe Moabi, Joseph Makhema, Charlotte Mdluli, Haruna Jibril, George R Seage, Betsy Kammerer, Shahin Lockman
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine if HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children had worse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months compared with HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children in Botswana. METHODS: HIV-infected and uninfected mothers enrolled in a prospective observational study ("Tshipidi") in Botswana from May 2010 to July 2012. Child neurodevelopment was assessed at 24 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III: cognitive, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, and receptive language domains) and the Development Milestones Checklist (DMC), a caregiver-completed questionnaire (locomotor, fine motor, language and personal-social domains)...
September 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904090/hiv-related-cognitive-decline-despite-viral-suppression-and-complex-confounds-in-american-women
#2
EDITORIAL
Lucette A Cysique, James T Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904086/cognitive-trajectories-over-4-years-among-hiv-infected-women-with-optimal-viral-suppression
#3
Leah H Rubin, Pauline M Maki, Gayle Springer, Lorie Benning, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Maria C Villacres, Xiong Jiang, Adaora A Adimora, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, David E Vance, Hector Bolivar, Christine Alden, Eileen M Martin, Victor G Valcour
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persistent viral suppression alters cognitive trajectories among HIV-infected (HIV+) women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) by investigating performance longitudinally in uninfected (HIV-) and 3 groups of HIV+ women: those with consistent viral suppression after continuous cART use (VS), those without consistent virologic suppression despite continuous cART use (NVS), and those without consistent virologic suppression after intermittent cART use (Int NVS)...
September 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903129/improving-detection-of-hiv-associated-cognitive-impairment-comparison-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-and-a-brief-screening-battery-erratum
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902679/brief-report-peripheral-monocyte-macrophage-phenotypes-associated-with-the-evolution-of-cognitive-performance-in-hiv-infected-patients
#5
Massimiliano Fabbiani, Antonio Muscatello, Paolo Perseghin, Marco Bani, Arianna Incontri, Nicola Squillace, Giuseppe Lapadula, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera
BACKGROUND: The contribution of monocyte activation in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders is not completely understood. This study aimed to explore the predictive value of peripheral monocyte/macrophage (M/M) phenotypes on the evolution of cognitive performance in a population of virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. SETTING: Prospective, observational, longitudinal study. METHODS: HIV-1-infected patients with HIV-RNA <50copies/mL for >12 months underwent neuropsychological examination at baseline and after 1 year...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895090/effort-and-neuropsychological-performance-in-hiv-infected-individuals-on-stable-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Robert Paul, Gina Rhee, Laurie M Baker, Florin Vaida, Sarah A Cooley, Beau M Ances
The expression of cognitive symptoms associated with HIV varies over time and across individuals. This pattern may reflect transient contextual factors, including the degree of effort exerted by individuals undergoing cognitive testing. The present study examined whether effort corresponds to the expression of persistent HIV-related cognitive impairment among individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV+ individuals (n = 111) averaged 48.2 (14.9) years of age and 13.0 (2.7) years of education and HIV- individuals (n = 92) averaged 34...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895064/a-mouse-model-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-brain-behavior-approach-to-discover-disease-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#7
REVIEW
William R Tyor, Heather Bimonte-Nelson
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain highly prevalent despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although the most common forms of HAND are mild and identified through neuropsychological testing, there is evidence that with aging these mild forms become more prevalent and may advance to the most severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia. Therefore, novel therapies must be developed that can be used adjunctively with cART to prevent deterioration or restore normal cognitive function...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895059/central-nervous-system-penetrating-antiretrovirals-impair-energetic-reserve-in-striatal-nerve-terminals
#8
Kelly L Stauch, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox
The use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs with central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) may be useful in the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) as well as targeting a CNS reservoir in strategies to achieve a functional cure for HIV. However, increased cognitive deficits are linked to at least one of these drugs (efavirenz). As mitochondrial dysfunction has been found with a number of ARVs, and as such can affect neuronal function, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of ARV with high CPE for toxicological profiles on presynaptic nerve terminal energy metabolism...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893794/effects-of-hiv-1-tat-and-methamphetamine-on-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-function-in-vitro
#9
Sulay Patel, Crystal R Leibrand, Preetha Palasuberniam, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Babette Weksler, Fay M Jahr, Joseph L McClay, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
Human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection results in neurocognitive deficits in about one half of infected individuals. Despite systemic effectiveness, restricted antiretroviral penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major limitation in fighting CNS-localized infection. Drug abuse exacerbates HIV-induced cognitive and pathologic CNS changes. This study's purpose was to investigate the effects of the HIV-1 protein, Tat, and methamphetamine on factors affecting drug penetration across an in vitro BBB model...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891655/longitudinal-intra-individual-variability-in-neuropsychological-performance-relates-to-white-matter-changes-in-hiv
#10
Jacob D Jones, Taylor Kuhn, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Elyse J Singer, Charles H Hinkin, April D Thames
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that intraindividual variability (IIV) of neuropsychological performance may be sensitive to HIV-associated neurologic compromise. IIV may be particularly dependent upon the integrity of frontal-subcortical systems, and therefore may be a meaningful phenotype in HIV. We examined the relationship between change in IIV and white matter integrity among HIV seropositive (HIV+) and HIV seronegative (HIV-) individuals. METHOD: The sample consisted of 38 HIV+ participants and 26 HIV- control participants who underwent neuroimaging and a neuropsychological evaluation at baseline and at 2-year follow-up evaluation...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886715/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-potential-molecular-therapeutic-target-for-hiv-1-associated-brain-inflammation
#11
Amila Omeragic, Md Tozammel Hoque, U-Yeong Choi, Reina Bendayan
BACKGROUND: Despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, cognitive impairments remain prevalent due to persistent viral replication and associated brain inflammation. Primary cellular targets of HIV-1 in the brain are macrophages, microglia, and to a certain extent astrocytes which in response to infection release inflammatory markers, viral proteins [i.e., glycoprotein 120 (gp120)] and exhibit impaired glutamate uptake. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886128/psychological-distress-health-protection-and-sexual-practices-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-using-social-action-theory-to-guide-hiv-prevention-efforts
#12
Ian W Holloway, Dorian E Traube, Sheree M Schrager, Diane Tan, Shannon Dunlap, Michele D Kipke
The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875332/the-population-education-transition-curve-education-gradients-across-population-exposure-to-new-health-risks
#13
David P Baker, William C Smith, Ismael G Muñoz, Haram Jeon, Tian Fu, Juan Leon, Daniel Salinas, Renata Horvatek
The salutary effect of formal education on health-risk behaviors and mortality is extensively documented: ceteris paribus, greater educational attainment leads to healthier lives and longevity. Even though the epidemiological evidence has strongly indicated formal education as a leading "social vaccine," there is intermittent reporting of counter-education gradients for health-risk behavior and associated outcomes for certain populations during specific periods. How can education have both beneficial and harmful effects on health, and under which contexts do particular effects emerge? It is useful to conceptualize the influence of education as a process sensitive to the nature, timing of entry, and uniqueness of a new pleasurable and desirable lifestyle and/or product (such as smoking) with initially unclear health risks for populations...
September 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871125/hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17-misfolding-forms-toxic-amyloidogenic-assemblies-that-induce-neurocognitive-disorders
#14
Yasmin Zeinolabediny, Francesca Caccuri, Laura Colombo, Federica Morelli, Margherita Romeo, Alessandro Rossi, Silvia Schiarea, Carlotta Ciaramelli, Cristina Airoldi, Ria Weston, Liu Donghui, Jerzy Krupinski, Rubén Corpas, Elisa García-Lara, Sara Sarroca, Coral Sanfeliu, Mark Slevin, Arnaldo Caruso, Mario Salmona, Luisa Diomede
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains an important neurological manifestation that adversely affects a patient's quality of life. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 (p17) has been detected in autoptic brain tissue of HAND individuals who presented early with severe AIDS encephalopathy. We hypothesised that the ability of p17 to misfold may result in the generation of toxic assemblies in the brain and may be relevant for HAND pathogenesis. A multidisciplinary integrated approach has been applied to determine the ability of p17 to form soluble amyloidogenic assemblies in vitro...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868903/toward-90-90-90-identifying-those-who-have-never-been-tested-for-hiv-and-differences-by-sex-in-lesotho
#15
Maria Augusta Carrasco, Paul Fleming, Jocelyn Wagman, Vincent Wong
To reach HIV epidemic control it is important to ensure that those who have never been tested access HIV testing and counseling (HTC) particularly in the context of a generalized HIV epidemic. Using data from the 2014 Lesotho Demographic Health Survey bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine the associations between never tested for HIV and key socio-cognitive characteristics by sex. Marginal probabilities at the means were calculated for the socio-cognitive variables for men and women to ascertain the magnitude of the differences in the likelihood of never being tested by sex...
September 3, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857823/perceived-and-post-traumatic-stress-are-associated-with-decreased-learning-memory-and-fluency-in-hiv-infected-women
#16
Leah H Rubin, Judith A Cook, Gayle Springer, Kathleen M Weber, Mardge H Cohen, Eileen M Martin, Victor G Valcour, Lorie Benning, Christine Alden, Joel Milam, Kathryn Anastos, Mary A Young, Deborah R Gustafson, Erin E Sundermann, Pauline M Maki
OBJECTIVE: Psychological risk factors (PRFs) are associated with impaired learning and memory in HIV-infected (HIV+) women. We determined the dynamic nature of the effects of PRFs and HIV serostatus on learning and memory over time. DESIGN: Multi-center, prospective cohort study METHODS:: Every two years between 2009 and 2013 (3 times), 646 HIV+ and 300 demographically-similar HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study completed neuropsychological (NP) testing and questionnaires measuring PRFs (perceived stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms)...
August 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854283/transdermal-rivastigmine-for-hiv-associated-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-pilot-study
#17
Jose A Muñoz-Moreno, Anna Prats, José Moltó, Maite Garolera, Núria Pérez-Álvarez, Crisanto Díez-Quevedo, Cristina Miranda, Carmina R Fumaz, Maria J Ferrer, Bonaventura Clotet
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of transdermal rivastigmine for the treatment of HIV-associated cognitive impairment. METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected patients with cognitive impairment on stable antiretroviral therapy in a randomized controlled pilot trial with a 48-week follow-up. An additional assessment was held at 12 weeks. Participants received transdermal rivastigmine (9.5 mg daily), lithium (400 mg twice daily, titrated progressively), or remained in a control group (no new medication)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852886/relationships-between-illness-perception-and-post-traumatic-growth-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#18
Joseph T F Lau, Xiaobing Wu, Anise M S Wu, Zixin Wang, Phoenix K H Mo
Newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men (NHMSM) are at high risk of mental health problems but may also develop post-traumatic growth (PTG). According to the Common Sense Model, illness perception (including both cognitive representation and emotional representation) affects coping and health-related outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the associations between illness perception and PTG among 225 NHMSM in Chengdu, China. Linear regression analyses indicated that the constructs of emotional representation subscale (β = -0...
August 29, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840088/mechanisms-of-cognitive-aging-in-the-hiv-positive-adult
#19
Asante Kamkwalala, Paul Newhouse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As of the year 2016, an estimated 50% of the United States' HIV-Positive population is aged 50 years or older. Due to a combination of increased rates of infection in older adults, and successful anti-retroviral (ART) regimens allowing HIV-positive adults to survive for decades with the disease, we are now faced with a steadily graying HIV-positive population, with only limited knowledge of how the cognitive and physiological effects of aging intersect with those of chronic HIV-infection...
September 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837678/clinical-utility-of-the-ucsd-performance-based-skills-assessment-brief-upsa-b-in-adults-living-with-hiv-associations-with-neuropsychological-impairment-and-patient-reported-everyday-functioning-difficulties
#20
Raeanne C Moore, Emily W Paolillo, Anne Heaton, Pariya L Fazeli, Dilip V Jeste, David J Moore
OBJECTIVE: Requiring only 10-15 minutes to complete, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) has high clinical utility as a brief measure of functional capacity. This study aimed to validate the UPSA-B in adults living with HIV/AIDS (HIV+), and identify whether the UPSA-B can be used as an indicator of functional dependence in this population. METHOD: One hundred and three HIV+ adults and 91 HIV- adults completed a comprehensive neuropsychological and neuromedical battery, including a self-report measure of functional status (IADL Dependence vs...
2017: PloS One
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