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HIV cognitive

Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Anna B Cope, Catalina Ramirez, Robert F DeVellis, Robert Agans, Victor J Schoenbach, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: Concurrent sexual partnerships (partnerships that overlap in time) may contribute to higher rates of HIV transmission in African Americans. Attitudes toward a behavior constitute an important component of most models of health-related behavior and behavioral change. We have developed a scale, employing realistic vignettes that appear to reliably measure attitudes about concurrency in young African American adults. METHODS: Vignette-based items to assess attitudes about concurrency were developed following focus groups and cognitive testing of items adapted from existing scales assessing psychosocial constructs surrounding related sexual behaviors...
2016: PloS One
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
Linda Chang, Gro C Løhaugen, Tamara Andres, Caroline S Jiang, Vanessa Douet, Naomi Tanizaki, Christina Walker, Deborrah Castillo, Ahnate Lim, Jon Skranes, Chad Otoshi, Eric N Miller, Thomas M Ernst
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adaptive-working memory training (WMT) program, the corresponding neural correlates, and LMX1A-rs4657412 polymorphism on the adaptive-WMT, in HIV-participants compared to seronegative controls (SN). METHODS: 201/206 qualified participants completed baseline assessments before randomization to 25-sessions of adaptive-WMT or non-adaptive-WMT. 74/76 (34HIV, 42SN) completed adaptive-WMT and all 40 completed non-adaptive-WMT (20HIV, 20SN) and were assessed after 1-month, and 55 adaptive-WMT-participants were also assessed after 6-months...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Marloes A M Janssen, Peter P Koopmans, Roy P C Kessels
The objectives of the current study were to examine cognitive decline in relation to psychological wellbeing, HIV disease and treatment characteristics and baseline variables over a one-year period of time in a group of HIV-infected patients on long term cART with undetectable viral load in comparison to a HIV-negative control group. Eighty-two of 95 patients and 43 of 55 controls who completed a baseline assessment for the Art-NeCo study underwent a follow-up neuropsychological assessment. A repeated-measure general linear model analysis was performed to compare the performance at follow-up in comparison to baseline between the patients and controls...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Alan Winston, Wolfgang Stöhr, Andrea Antinori, Helene Amieva, Philippe Perré, Stephane De Wit, Jacques Reynes, Mark Gompels, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Jose-Maria Gatell, Jesper Grarup, Anton Pozniak, Abdel Babiker, François Raffi, Laura Richert
BACKGROUND: Improvements in cognitive function are described after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with sparse data on differences between cART strategies. METHODS: We assessed changes in cognition, over 96 weeks, in therapy naïve HIV-positive adults randomised to darunavir/ritonavir (800/100mg once daily) with either raltegravir (400mg twice daily, Arm1) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (245/200mg once daily, Arm2). Seven cognitive tests were administered at baseline and week 96...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Bokai Cao, Xiangnan Kong, Jingyuan Zhang, Philip S Yu, Ann B Ragin
Investigating brain connectivity networks for neurological disorder identification has attracted great interest in recent years, most of which focus on the graph representation alone. However, in addition to brain networks derived from the neuroimaging data, hundreds of clinical, immunologic, serologic, and cognitive measures may also be documented for each subject. These measures compose multiple side views encoding a tremendous amount of supplemental information for diagnostic purposes, yet are often ignored...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Jeremy Sugarman, Damon M Seils, J Kemp Watson-Ormond, Kevin P Weinfurt
BACKGROUND: We describe our use of cognitive interviews in developing a measure of "preventive misconception" to demonstrate the importance of this approach to researchers developing surveys in empirical bioethics. The preventive misconception involves research participants' false beliefs about a prevention trial, including beliefs that the interventions being tested will certainly be effective. METHODS: We developed and refined a measure of the preventive misconception using qualitative interviews that focused on cognitive testing of proposed survey items with HIV prevention trial participants...
2016: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
Marloes A M Janssen, Max Hinne, Ronald J Janssen, Marcel A van Gerven, Stefan C Steens, Bozena Góraj, Peter P Koopmans, Roy P C Kessels
Despite long-term successful treatment with cART, impairments in cognitive functioning are still being reported in HIV-infected patients. Since changes in cognitive function may be preceded by subtle changes in brain function, neuroimaging techniques, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have become useful tools in assessing HIV-associated abnormalities in the brain. The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which HIV infection in virologically suppressed patients is associated with disruptions in subcortical regions of the brain in comparison to a matched HIV-negative control group...
October 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Raymond L Ownby, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Deborah L Jones, Sunil Sharma, Ritu Nehra, Adarsh M Kumar, Sudesh Prabhakar, Amarilis Acevedo, Mahendra Kumar
An evaluation of the effects of HIV infection on neurocognition over time is important for understanding disease progression. Changes in cognitive function can be evaluated longitudinally by using neuropsychological testing at repeated intervals. The assessment of change over time, however, is complicated by the potentially confounding influence of learning on repeated test administrations, often referred to as practice effect. In this study, we present data on testing of persons with or without HIV infection on a battery administered at study baseline and repeated 1 year later...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Serena Marcelli, Elena Ficulle, Filomena Iannuzzi, Enikö Kövari, Robert Nisticò, Marco Feligioni
Synaptic dysfunction has been recognized as an early feature occurring at the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compromised neurotransmission leads over time to synaptic loss and these events correlate with the cognitive decline that progressively affects AD patients.Protein SUMOylation (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier) is a post-translational modification (PTM) involved in several cellular processes including synaptic transmission.We here demonstrate that cortical synaptosomes prepared from Tg2576 mice of 6 months of age show an increased SUMO-1ylation, which returns back to normal levels at 20 months although synaptic SUMOylation, at this age, resulted more sensible to KCl stimulus...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Adellah Sariah, Joan Rugemalila, Magreat Somba, Anna Minja, Margareth Makuchilo, Edith Tarimo, David Urassa, Helen Siril
BACKGROUND: The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children's cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel uncomfortable disclosing the HIV positive status to the infected child. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences in disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child...
October 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
R M Dorman, L M Yee, S H Sutton
In our perinatal HIV cohort, we have observed difficulty swallowing pills as a frequent and significant barrier to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. We refer to this problem as pill aversion and define it as difficulty swallowing pills with no persistent medical or structural cause as well as the anxiety and physical symptoms associated with pill swallowing. By applying cognitive behavioral theory to behavioral patterns within our pregnant HIV-infected population, we seek to better understand the development and reinforcement of pill aversion behavior...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
David E Vance, Leah H Rubin, Victor Valcour, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Pauline M Maki
HIV-infected women may be particularly vulnerable to certain types of neurocognitive impairments which may be exacerbated by aging and other predictors. Within the context of cognitive reserve, this article examines issues surrounding women as they age with HIV. For this, a review of 12 recent studies (2013-2016) using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), the largest cohort study comparing HIV-infected and demographically matched uninfected women, is presented that specifically examines neurocognition...
October 12, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Ramesh Reddy Allampati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Pavan Theja V, Thrilok Chander, Rushendra Kumari, Narasimhulu K, Manjula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
L Ene, T D Marcotte, A Umlauf, C Grancea, A Temereanca, A Bharti, C L Achim, S Letendre, S M Ruta
We evaluated the impact of latent toxoplasmosis (LT) on neurocognitive (NC) and neurobehavioural functioning in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection, using a standardised NC test battery, self-reported Beck Depression Inventory, Frontal System Behavior Scale, MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and risk-assessment battery. 194 young adults (median age 24years, 48.2% males) with chronic HIV infection (HIV+) since childhood and 51 HIV seronegative (HIV-) participants were included. HIV+ individuals had good current immunological status (median CD4: 479 cells/μl) despite a low CD4 nadir (median: 93 cells/μl)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kalpana J Kallianpur, Marissa Sakoda, Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Tracie Umaki, Dominic Chow, Suwarat Wongjittraporn, Cecilia M Shikuma
BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV disease is associated with neurocognitive impairment and age-related conditions such as frailty. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether regional brain volumetric changes correlate with frailty parameters in older (≥ 40 years) HIV+ patients on stable combination antiretroviral therapy. METHOD: Thirty-five HIV-infected participants in the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort - Cardiovascular Disease study underwent T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging, frailty assessment and neuropsychological testing...
2016: Open Medicine Journal
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