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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433429/immunological-function-of-langerhans-cells-in-hiv-infection
#1
Takamitsu Matsuzawa, Youichi Ogawa, Kohji Moriishi, Shinji Shimada, Tatsuyoshi Kawamura
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cells (LCs) are one of the initial target cells for HIV following sexual exposure and they are productively infected by HIV. HIV-infected LCs migrate to the draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and transmit the virus to CD4(+) T cells, leading to the dissemination of HIV. In contrast with the role of LCs in initial HIV acquisition, little is known about the modulation of immune responses by HIV-infected LCs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate the induction of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), both of which play important roles in regulating the progression of HIV infection...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432326/a-novel-mechanism-linking-memory-stem-cells-with-innate-immunity-in-protection-against-hiv-1-infection
#2
Yufei Wang, Trevor Whittall, Stuart Neil, Gary Britton, Mukesh Mistry, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Xuesong Yu, Alicia Sato, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Jerome H Kim, Thomas Lehner
HIV infection affects 37 million people and about 1.7 million are infected annually. Among the phase III clinical trials only the RV144 vaccine trial elicited significant protection against HIV-1 acquisition, but the efficacy and immune memory were inadequate. To boost these vaccine functions we studied T stem cell memory (TSCM) and innate immunity. TSCM cells were identified by phenotypic markers of CD4(+) T cells and they were further characterised into 4 subsets. These expressed the common IL-2/IL-15 receptors and another subset of APOBEC3G anti-viral restriction factors, both of which were upregulated...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431135/reconstitution-of-a-functional-7sk-snrnp
#3
John E Brogie, David H Price
The 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) plays a central role in RNA polymerase II elongation control by regulating the availability of active P-TEFb. We optimized conditions for analyzing 7SK RNA by SHAPE and demonstrated a hysteretic effect of magnesium on 7SK folding dynamics including a 7SK GAUC motif switch. We also found evidence that the 5΄ end pairs alternatively with two different regions of 7SK giving rise to open and closed forms that dictate the state of the 7SK motif. We then used recombinant P-TEFb, HEXIM1, LARP7 and MEPCE to reconstruct a functional 7SK snRNP in vitro...
April 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429755/opossum-apobec1-is-a-dna-mutator-with-retrovirus-and-retroelement-restriction-activity
#4
Terumasa Ikeda, Mayuko Shimoda, Diako Ebrahimi, John L VandeBerg, Reuben S Harris, Atsushi Koito, Kazuhiko Maeda
APOBEC3s (A3s) are single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases that provide innate immune defences against retroviruses and mobile elements. A3s are specific to eutherian mammals because no direct homologs exist at the syntenic genomic locus in metatherian (marsupial) or prototherian (monotreme) mammals. However, the A3s in these species have the likely evolutionary precursors, the antibody gene deaminase AID and the RNA/DNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 (A1). Here, we used cell culture-based assays to determine whether opossum A1 restricts the infectivity of retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the mobility of LTR/non-LTR retrotransposons...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429290/association-of-long-term-patterns-of-depressive-symptoms-and-attention-executive-function-among-older-men-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#5
Nicole M Armstrong, Pamela J Surkan, Glenn J Treisman, Ned C Sacktor, Michael R Irwin, Linda A Teplin, Ron Stall, Eileen M Martin, James T Becker, Cynthia Munro, Andrew J Levine, Lisa P Jacobson, Alison G Abraham
Older HIV-infected men are at higher risk for both depression and cognitive impairments, compared to HIV-uninfected men. We evaluated the association between longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men aged 50+ years to understand whether HIV infection influenced the long-term effect of depression on attention/executive function. Responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale and attention/executive function tests (Trail Making Test Part B and Symbol Digit Modalities Test) were collected semiannually from May 1986 to April 2015 in 1611 men...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429289/the-nature-and-consequences-of-cognitive-deficits-among-tobacco-smokers-with-hiv-a-comparison-to-tobacco-smokers-without-hiv
#6
Joseph D Harrison, Jessica A Dochney, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank Leone, David Metzger, Ian Frank, Robert Gross, Anita Hole, Karam Mounzer, Steven Siegel, Robert A Schnoll, Rebecca L Ashare
HIV-infected smokers lose more years of life to tobacco-related disease than HIV. Since neurocognitive deficits are common among those with HIV and are associated with smoking persistence, these deficits may be a unique barrier to smoking cessation among HIV-infected smokers. Documenting unique differences in and correlates of cognition among HIV-infected smokers is a critical step towards developing a population-specific tobacco cessation treatment. We compared neurocognitive function between HIV-infected (n = 103) and HIV-uninfected smokers (n = 70), accounting for demographic and smoking-related variables...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427948/comprehensive-characterization-of-humoral-correlates-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-superinfection-acquisition-in-high-risk-kenyan-women
#7
Keshet Ronen, Adam S Dingens, Susan M Graham, Walter Jaoko, Kishor Mandaliya, R Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh
HIV-1 superinfection, in which an infected individual acquires a second HIV-1 infection from a different partner, is one of the only settings in which HIV acquisition occurs in the context of a pre-existing immune response to natural HIV infection. There is evidence that initial infection provides some protection from superinfection, particularly after 6months of initial infection, when development of broad immunity occurs. Comparison of the immune response of superinfected individuals at the time of superinfection acquisition to that of individuals who remain singly infected despite continued exposure can shed light on immune correlates of HIV acquisition to inform prophylactic vaccine design...
April 7, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426042/antibodies-to-h2a-and-h2b-histones-from-the-sera-of-hiv-infected-patients-catalyze-site-specific-degradation-of-these-histones
#8
Svetlana V Baranova, Pavel S Dmitrienok, Nikita V Ivanisenko, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Histones and their post-translational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies with enzymatic activities (abzymes) are distinctive features of some autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical enzymes were isolated from the sera of HIV-infected patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents including anti-histone Sepharose...
April 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424591/bcl11b-a-critical-neurodevelopmental-transcription-factor-roles-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Matthew J Lennon, Simon P Jones, Michael D Lovelace, Gilles J Guillemin, Bruce J Brew
B cell leukemia 11b (Bcl11b) is a zinc finger protein transcription factor with a multiplicity of functions. It works as both a genetic suppressor and activator, acting directly, attaching to promoter regions, as well as indirectly, attaching to promoter-bound transcription factors. Bcl11b is a fundamental transcription factor in fetal development, with important roles for the differentiation and development of various neuronal subtypes in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been used as a specific marker of layer V subcerebral projection neurons as well as striatal interneurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424455/flow-virometry-analysis-of-envelope-glycoprotein-conformations-on-individual-hiv-virions
#10
Anush Arakelyan, Wendy Fitzgerald, Deborah F King, Paul Rogers, Hannah M Cheeseman, Jean-Charles Grivel, Robin J Shattock, Leonid Margolis
HIV-1 envelope proteins (Envs) play a critical role in HIV infection. In a correct trimeric conformation, Env mediates virus-cell binding and fusion. Malfunctioning of this machinery renders virions incapable of infecting cells. Each HIV-1 virion carries 10-14 Envs, and therefore a defective Env may not necessarily render a HIV virion non-infectious, since other Env on the same virion may still be functional. Alternatively, it is possible that on a given virion either all the spikes are defective or all are functional...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424288/virion-associated-vpr-alleviates-a-post-integration-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-dendritic-cells
#11
Caitlin M Miller, Hisashi Akiyama, Luis M Agosto, Ann Emery, Chelsea R Ettinger, Ronald I Swamstrom, Andrew J Henderson, Suryaram Gummuluru
Viral protein R (Vpr) is an HIV-1 accessory protein whose function remains poorly understood. In this report, we sought to determine the requirement of Vpr in facilitating HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), one of the first cells to encounter virus in the peripheral mucosal tissues. We characterize in this report a significant restriction to Vpr-deficient virus replication and spread in MDDCs alone and in cell-to-cell spread in MDDC - CD4(+) T cell co-cultures. This restriction to HIV-1 replication in MDDCs was observed in a single round of virus replication and was rescued by expression of Vpr in trans in the incoming virion...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422791/intrastructural-help-improving-the-hiv-1-envelope-antibody-response-induced-by-virus-like-particle-vaccines
#12
Vladimir Temchura, Klaus Überla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of IgG Fc-effector functions for the efficacy of HIV vaccines is increasingly recognized. Although different types of vaccines were shown to induce antibodies with different Fc-activities, there is no clear strategy how to raise antibody responses with a desired pattern of Fc-effector functions. Given the central role of T-helper cells in regulating the germinal center reaction and the differentiation of B cells in an antigen-specific manner, the review will discuss whether T-helper cells directed against non-HIV envelope (Env) antigens could be harnessed to improve the HIV-Env antibody response...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422785/role-of-nonneutralizing-antibodies-in-vaccines-and-or-hiv-infected-individuals
#13
Luzia Mayr, Bin Su, Christiane Moog
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased body of evidence gathered over time indicate that antibodies are capable of many inhibitory mechanisms, virus neutralization being just one of them. Nonneutralizing antibodyactivities interfering with HIV replication can also lead to a decrease in viral load and even in-vivo protection. RECENT FINDINGS: It was previously believed that neutralizing antibodies can achieve sterilizing protection mainly by using their neutralization capacities against the infecting virus directly at the portal of virus entry...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422315/regulation-of-the-alternative-splicing-and-function-of-cyclin-t1-by-the-serine-arginine-rich-protein-asf-sf2
#14
Jieqiong Zhou, Guozhen Gao, Panpan Hou, Chun-Mei Li, Deyin Guo
Positive transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb) is required for the release of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) from its pause near the gene promoters and thus for efficient proceeding to the transcription elongation. It consists of two core subunits - CDK9 and one of T-typed or K-typed cyclin, of which, cyclin T1/CDK9 is the major and most studied combination. We have previously identified a novel splice variant of cyclin T1, cyclin T1b, which negatively regulates the transcription elongation of HIV-1 genes as well as several host genes...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418988/hiv-specific-cd8-t-cells-producing-ccl-4-are-associated-with-worse-immune-reconstitution-during-chronic-infection
#15
Rita Casetti, Carmela Pinnetti, Alessandra Sacchi, Gabriele De Simone, Veronica Bordoni, Eleonora Cimini, Nicola Tumino, Francesca Besi, Domenico Viola, Federica Turchi, Valentina Mazzotta, Andrea Antinori, Federico Martini, Adriana Ammassari, Chiara Agrati
BACKGROUND: Immunological non response represents the Achilles heel in the combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) effectiveness, and increases risk of clinical events and death. CD8 T cells play a crucial role in controlling HIV replication and polyfunctional HIV-specific CD8 T cells have been associated with non-progressive HIV infection. However, the possible role of polyfunctional CD8 T cells in predicting post-treatment immune reconstitution has not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to identify functional markers predictive of immunological response to cART in chronic HIV-infected patients...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418987/the-roles-of-behavioral-and-social-science-research-in-the-fight-against-hiv-aids-a-functional-framework
#16
Paul Gaist, Michael J Stirratt
Landmark advances have been made in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. These include proof-of-concept and public health implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and "treatment as prevention" (TasP) to reduce HIV transmission as well as definitive evidence of the clinical gain from early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Significant progress has been made in understanding and addressing the social contexts and behavioral factors that impact HIV prevention, care, and treatment interventions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418984/anger-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-a-cross-sectional-study-anrs-co13-hepavih
#17
Fabienne Marcellin, Camelia Protopopescu, Laure Esterle, Linda Wittkop, Lionel Piroth, Hugues Aumaitre, Olivier Bouchaud, Cécile Goujard, Daniel Vittecoq, François Dabis, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Perrine Roux, Maria P Carrieri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to document the relationship between anger dimensions (state, trait, expression, and control) and quality of life (QoL) in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study nested in the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH French national cohort. Anger and QoL were assessed using self-administered questionnaires in 536 HIV-HCV-co-infected patients. Correlations between anger scores (STAXI-2 scale) and QoL scores (WHOQOL-HIV BREF scale) were assessed using Spearman's coefficients...
April 17, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418268/the-folding-competence-of-hiv-1-tat-mediated-by-interaction-with-tar-rna
#18
Jung Min Kim, Hee Sun Choi, Baik Lin Seong
The trans-activator Tat protein of HIV-1 belongs to the large family of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and is known to recruit various host proteins for the transactivation of viral RNA synthesis. Tat protein interacts with the transactivator response RNA (TAR RNA), exhibiting RNA chaperone activities for structural rearrangement of interacting RNAs. Here, considering that Tat-TAR RNA interaction is mutually cooperative, we examined the potential role of TAR RNA as Chaperna - RNA that provides chaperone function to proteins - for the folding of HIV-1 Tat...
April 18, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416550/identification-and-optimization-of-thienopyridine-carboxamides-as-inhibitors-of-hiv-regulatory-complexes
#19
Robert L Nakamura, Mark A Burlingame, Shumin Yang, David C Crosby, Dale J Talbot, Kitty Chui, Alan D Frankel, Adam R Renslo
Viral regulatory complexes perform critical functions during virus replication and are important targets for therapeutic intervention. In HIV, the Tat and Rev proteins form complexes with multiple viral and cellular factors to direct transcription and export of the viral RNA. These complexes are composed of many proteins and are dynamic, making them difficult to fully recapitulate in vitro Therefore we developed a cell-based reporter assay to monitor the assembly of viral complexes for inhibitor screening. We screened a small molecule library and identified multiple hits that inhibit the activity of the viral complexes...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416219/displacement-of-sexual-partnerships-in-trials-of-sexual-behavior-interventions-a-model-based-assessment-of-consequences
#20
Alethea W McCormick, Nadia N Abuelezam, Thomas Fussell, George R Seage, Marc Lipsitch
We investigated the impact of the displacement of sexual activity from adherent recipients of an intervention to others within or outside a trial population on the results from hypothetical trials of different sexual behavior interventions. A short-term model of HIV-prevention interventions that lead to female rejection of male partnership requests showed the impact of displacement expected at the start of a trial. An agent-based model, with sexual mixing and other South African specific demographics, evaluated consequences of displacement for sexual behavior interventions targeting young females in South Africa...
April 2, 2017: Epidemics
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