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Life style change, behavior change

Benjamin Geffroy, Bastien Sadoul, Amine Bouchareb, Sylvain Prigent, Jean-Paul Bourdineaud, Maria Gonzalez-Rey, Rosana N Morais, Maritana Mela, Lucélia Nobre Carvalho, Eduardo Bessa
Nature-based tourism is gaining extensive popularity, increasing the intensity and frequency of human-wildlife contacts. As a consequence, behavioral and physiological alterations were observed in most exposed animals. However, while the majority of these studies investigated the effects of punctual exposure to tourists, the consequences of constant exposition to humans in the wild remains overlooked. This is an important gap considering the exponential interest for recreational outdoor activities. To infer long-term effects of intensive tourism, we capitalized on Odontostilbe pequira , a short-lived sedentary Tetra fish who spends its life close to humans, on which it feeds on dead skin...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Namsoo Kim, Hyun-Jun Nam, Juhwan Noh, Eun-Cheol Park
Most of the behavior change models regard perceived health status as a motivation for healthy behaviors or chronic disease self-management. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the number of chronic diseases and the difference between global and age-comparative self-rated health scores (GSRH and ASRH). We used national representative survey data pertaining to the elderly in 2011 from the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. In total, 10,003 participants (≥60 years old) were selected from those who had completed the survey in 2008...
January 3, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
John S Y Chan, Jin H Yan
Human aging is a dynamic life-long process and an inevitable experience. As the average age of the world's population rises, demands for effective geriatric rehabilitation dramatically increase. An important consideration for enhancing geriatric behavioral interventions is to better understand aging characteristics in perceptual, cognitive, and motor performances. A general shift in cognitive style from field independence to field dependence has been consistently observed during human aging, as older adults show a greater tendency to rely on environmental information, presumably reflecting a neuro-compensatory mechanism of reducing top-down control and relying instead on bottom-up processing...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Madhuri Kanitkar
Children of Armed Forces personnel constitute 33% of the clientele dependant on our healthcare. Various child health indicators and immunization coverage of Indian Armed Forces children is better than the national figures. With improved patient care, it has been observed that the morbidity and mortality pattern of diseases affecting the children of Armed Forces personnel has shown a change from infectious diseases in the past to more of chronic complex disorders at present. Hospital admissions of children in military hospitals due to nutritional and infectious diseases have reduced and constitute only around 21% of all paediatric hospital admissions...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Kyo-Man Koo, Chae-Hee Park, Chun-Jong Kim
The purpose of this study was to develop strategies for promoting physical activity for the disabled older adults who were in the transtheoretical model of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages about participating physical activities for promoting healthy life-styles. In order to achieve this goal, we developed a preliminary strategy for promoting physical activity for the elderly with disabilities based on the data gathered through the ground-work studies and the results of the research on the changes of the exercise behavior directly investigated from the elderly with disabilities...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Alice Harding, Ulrike Gonder, Sarita J Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Susan E Collins, Victoria E Orfaly, Teresa Wu, Sunny Chang, Robert V Hardy, Amia Nash, Matthew B Jones, Leslie Mares, Emily M Taylor, Lonnie A Nelson, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is 5 times more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Homeless smokers report interest in changing their smoking behavior; however, established smoking cessation interventions are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. The aim of this study was to document homeless smokers' perceptions of established smoking interventions as well as self-generated, alternative smoking interventions to elucidate points for intervention enhancement...
November 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Nasrin Rezaee, Alireza Salar, Fereshteh Ghaljaei, Naimeh Seyedfatem, Neda Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Contextual factors impact health the same way social and cultural conditions do. Women's health, with its varying dimensions, is also under the influence of biological, societal, and cultural contexts. This typical condition has been developed along the continuum of their life cycle, bearing close correlation with their lif style. Therefore, identifying those marices within which women's health behaviors are formed is important.This study aims at exploring the contextual factors affecting women's health in Sistan and Baluchestan in Iran...
October 2017: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
Aseel Menwer Alanazi, Nagah Mohamed Abo El-Fetoh, Hanan Khalid Alotaibi, Khalid Ayed Alanazi, Banan Khalid Alotaibi, Sultan Majed Alshammari, Saud Rteamy Alanazi, Meshari Dalaf Alhazmi, Yousef Talal Alshammari, Zaid Qati Alshammari
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases in Saudi Arabia. Health education is considered an essential component to improve knowledge and change behavior. People affected by diabetes often have inadequate knowledge about the nature of diabetes, its risk factors and associated complication. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of the Arar population with various aspects of diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Arar city, the capital of the Northern Province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
Tahere Hashemifard, Ali Akbar Vaezi, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy, Tahere Kamalikhah, Mehdi Khankolabi, Abbas Andishmand, Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the world's leading cause of mortality. These diseases are rooted in an unhealthy lifestyle. In order to confront this subject, it is essential to identify several risk factors that contribute to heart disease (HD) in people with different attitudes, values, beliefs, expectations and motivations. This study was therefore an attempt to explain the adaptive experiences of children whose parents were involved in myocardial infarction since they were more likely subjected to get the so-called disease...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
Michael Spaeth, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher
Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients Alcohol-dependent patients do not need to be motivated from the outside. They are mostly ambivalent, and the inner voice, which already speaks for change (change talk), is heard through motivational interviewing, carefully strengthened and developed together with the patient. The practitioner has to deal with the human spirit of motivational interviewing and should be able to communicate with empathy, respect, congruence, and openness. The patient's autonomy should always be maintained...
September 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Anna Z Komisarczuk, Sindre Grotmol, Frank Nilsen
A remarkable feature of many parasites is a high degree of host specificity but the mechanisms behind are poorly understood. A major challenge for parasites is to identify and infect a suitable host. Many species show a high degree of host specificity, being able to survive only on one or a few related host species. To facilitate transmission, parasite's behavior and reproduction has been fine tuned to maximize the likelihood of infection of a suitable host. For some species chemical cues that trigger or attract the parasite in question have been identified but how metazoan parasites themselves receive these signals remains unknown...
2017: PloS One
Pjanic, Roland Müller, Markus Laimer, Niels Hagenbuch, Kurt Laederach, Zeno Stanga
BACKGROUND: According to the current evidence, behavior modifications are an effective part of a non-surgical multiprofessional obesity treatment program (MOTP). The purpose of the present study was to report changes in weight as well in psychological variables during a one year MOTP. We aimed to identify the associations of emotional state and patients' emotion regulation skills with weight change. METHODS: Prospective interventional study. Data of participants attending the one year obesity treatment in either a group or individual structured MOTP were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
Jessica L Hambly, Kelly Francis, Sohil Khan, Kristen S Gibbons, William J Walsh, Brett Lambert, Chris Testa, Alison Haywood
OBJECTIVES: Pharmacotherapy for problematic aggressive and violent behavior disorders in male children and adolescents is associated with significant adverse events. Treatments with more acceptable risk-benefit ratios are critically needed. Micronutrient intervention will be investigated as an alternative to bridge the therapeutic gap in the management of these behaviors. METHODS: Males aged 4-14 who displayed ongoing violent and aggressive behaviors received micronutrient intervention containing alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), biotin, chromium, pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P), pyridoxine (vitamins B6), selenium, and zinc, in a 16-week open-label trial...
November 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Suellen M Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Pain
Jaroslava Kopcakova, Zuzana Dankulincova Veselska, Andrea Madarasova Geckova, Jens Bucksch, Hanna Nalecz, Dagmar Sigmundova, Jitse P van Dijk, Sijmen A Reijneveld
Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys). We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., "There are other children nearby home to go out and play with") with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Antonin J J Crumière, M Emilia Santos, Marie Sémon, David Armisén, Felipe F F Moreira, Abderrahman Khila
Acquisition of new ecological opportunities is a major driver of adaptation and species diversification [1-4]. However, how groups of organisms expand their habitat range is often unclear [3]. We study the Gerromorpha, a monophyletic group of heteropteran insects that occupy a large variety of water surface-associated niches, from small puddles to open oceans [5, 6]. Due to constraints related to fluid dynamics [7-9] and exposure to predation [5, 10], we hypothesize that selection will favor high speed of locomotion in the Gerromorpha that occupy water-air interface niches relative to the ancestral terrestrial life style...
December 19, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Christoph Schnelle, David C Whiteman, Sandro V Porceddu, Benedict J Panizza, Annika Antonsson
The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) is increasing and is believed to reflect changing sexual practices in recent decades. For this case-case comparative study, we collected medical and life-style information and data on sexual behavior from 478 patients treated at the head and neck clinic of a tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Patients were grouped as (i) oropharyngeal SCC (n = 96), (ii) oral cavity, larynx and hypopharynx SCC ("other HNSCCs," n = 96), (iii) other SCCs (n = 141), and (iv) other diagnoses (n = 145)...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Rebecca L Pearl, Christina H Hopkins, Robert I Berkowitz, Thomas A Wadden
OBJECTIVE: This study tested a novel group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to reduce internalized weight stigma among individuals with obesity. METHODS: A total of eight men and women with obesity who had experienced weight stigma and reported high levels of internalized weight stigma attended the Weight Bias Internalization and Stigma (BIAS) Program. The program provided eight weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment to cope with weight stigma...
October 27, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Eric Smart, Adeeta Aulakh, Carolyn McDougall, Patty Rigby, Gillian King
PURPOSE: Identify strategies youth perceive will optimize their engagement in goal pursuit in life skills and transition programs using an engagement framework involving affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven youth. The first was informed by a prior observation session, and the second occurred after the program ended and explored youths' perceptions of whether and how their engagement changed...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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