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Life style change, behavior change

Suellen M Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Pain
Jaroslava Kopcakova, Zuzana Dankulincova Veselska, Andrea Madarasova Geckova, Jens Bucksch, Hanna Nalecz, Dagmar Sigmundova, Jitse P van Dijk, Sijmen A Reijneveld
Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys). We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., "There are other children nearby home to go out and play with") with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Antonin J J Crumière, M Emilia Santos, Marie Sémon, David Armisén, Felipe F F Moreira, Abderrahman Khila
Acquisition of new ecological opportunities is a major driver of adaptation and species diversification [1-4]. However, how groups of organisms expand their habitat range is often unclear [3]. We study the Gerromorpha, a monophyletic group of heteropteran insects that occupy a large variety of water surface-associated niches, from small puddles to open oceans [5, 6]. Due to constraints related to fluid dynamics [7-9] and exposure to predation [5, 10], we hypothesize that selection will favor high speed of locomotion in the Gerromorpha that occupy water-air interface niches relative to the ancestral terrestrial life style...
December 19, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Christoph Schnelle, David C Whiteman, Sandro V Porceddu, Benedict J Panizza, Annika Antonsson
The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) is increasing and is believed to reflect changing sexual practices in recent decades. For this case-case comparative study, we collected medical and life-style information and data on sexual behavior from 478 patients treated at the head and neck clinic of a tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Patients were grouped as (i) oropharyngeal SCC (n = 96), (ii) oral cavity, larynx and hypopharynx SCC ("other HNSCCs," n = 96), (iii) other SCCs (n = 141), and (iv) other diagnoses (n = 145)...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Rebecca L Pearl, Christina H Hopkins, Robert I Berkowitz, Thomas A Wadden
OBJECTIVE: This study tested a novel group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to reduce internalized weight stigma among individuals with obesity. METHODS: A total of eight men and women with obesity who had experienced weight stigma and reported high levels of internalized weight stigma attended the Weight Bias Internalization and Stigma (BIAS) Program. The program provided eight weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment to cope with weight stigma...
October 27, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Eric Smart, Adeeta Aulakh, Carolyn McDougall, Patty Rigby, Gillian King
PURPOSE: Identify strategies youth perceive will optimize their engagement in goal pursuit in life skills and transition programs using an engagement framework involving affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven youth. The first was informed by a prior observation session, and the second occurred after the program ended and explored youths' perceptions of whether and how their engagement changed...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Jeong Bae Park
Blood pressure fluctuates beat to beat, minute to minute, day and night, day by day and even over longer period. However, changes in blood pressure (BP) itself reflect body's ability to adapt. These fluctuation or variability makes it difficult to diagnose and treat hypertension. And therefore, even though the clinic BP was the standard of BP for more than 100 years, there were many attempts to find other BP effects which influence on prognosis independent from clinical BP since there was the breakout of white coat effect and masked effect in clinic BP...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Sara Zenoni, Marianna Fasoli, Flavia Guzzo, Silvia Dal Santo, Alessandra Amato, Andrea Anesi, Mauro Commisso, Markus Herderich, Stefania Ceoldo, Linda Avesani, Mario Pezzotti, Giovanni Battista Tornielli
The molecular events that characterize postripening grapevine berries have rarely been investigated and are poorly defined. In particular, a detailed definition of changes occurring during the postharvest dehydration, a process undertaken to make some particularly special wine styles, would be of great interest for both winemakers and plant biologists. We report an exhaustive survey of transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in berries representing six grapevine genotypes subjected to postharvest dehydration under identical controlled conditions...
November 2016: Plant Physiology
Jeong Bae Park
Blood pressure fluctuates beat to beat, minute to minute, day and night, day by day and even over longer period. However, changes in blood pressure (BP) itself reflect body's ability to adapt. These fluctuation or variability makes it difficult to diagnose and treat hypertension. And therefore, even though the clinic BP was the standard of BP for more than 100 years, there were many attempts to find other BP effects which influence on prognosis independent from clinical BP since there was the breakout of white coat effect and masked effect in clinic BP...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Marzena Tambor, Milena Pavlova, Stanisława Golinowska, Jelena Arsenijevic, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: To motivate people to lead a healthier life and to engage in disease prevention, explicit financial incentives, such as monetary rewards for attaining health-related targets (e.g. smoking cessation, weight loss or increased physical activity) or disincentives for reverting to unhealthy habits, are applied. A review focused on financial incentives for health promotion among older people is lacking. Attention to this group is necessary because older people may respond differently to financial incentives, e...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Renata S Mendonça, Tomoko Kanamori, Noko Kuze, Misato Hayashi, Henry Bernard, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
Orangutans have a long period of immaturity and the longest inter-birth interval (IBI) of all mammals, which can explained by their solitary life style, preventing the mother from rearing two offspring simultaneously (solitary life hypothesis). We collected data on mother-offspring dyads living in a primary lowland forest in Danum Valley, East Borneo in an effort to examine the developmental and behavioral patterns of the subspecies Pongo pygmaeus morio. We analyzed developmental changes in mother-offspring distance, contact, and activity budgets in orangutans ranging from 1 to 7 years of age...
January 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Julie B Leclerc, Kieron P O'Connor, Gabrielle J-Nolin, Philippe Valois, Marc E Lavoie
Tourette disorder (TD) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, and children with TD tend to present a lower quality of life than neurotypical children. This study applied a manualized treatment for childhood tics disorder, Facotik, to a consecutive case series of children aged 8-12 years. The Facotik therapy was adapted from the adult cognitive and psychophysiological program validated on a range of subtypes of tics. This approach aims to modify the cognitive-behavioral and physiological processes against which the tic occurs, rather than only addressing the tic behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Stefan K Lhachimi, Wilma J Nusselder, Henriette A Smit, Paolo Baili, Kathleen Bennett, Esteve Fernández, Margarete C Kulik, Tim Lobstein, Joceline Pomerleau, Hendriek C Boshuizen, Johan P Mackenbach
BACKGROUND: Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify without dynamic population health models. METHODS: For eleven countries-approx. 80 % of the EU-27 population-we used evidence from the publicly available DYNAMO-HIA data-set...
2016: BMC Public Health
Sandra Aparecida Benite-Ribeiro, David A Putt, Júlia Matzenbacher Santos
Over the past decades, life-styles changing have led to exacerbated food and caloric intake and a reduction in energy expenditure. Obesity, main outcome of these changes, increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, the leading cause of death in adult and middle age population. Body weight and energy homeostasis are maintained via complex interactions between orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides that take place predominantly in the hypothalamus. Overeating may disrupt the mechanisms of feeding control, by decreasing the expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and increasing orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which leads to a disturbance in appetite control and energy balance...
August 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Ashley E Moncrieft, Maria M Llabre, Judith Rey McCalla, Miriam Gutt, Armando J Mendez, Marc D Gellman, Ronald B Goldberg, Neil Schneiderman
OBJECTIVE: Few interventions have combined life-style and psychosocial approaches in the context of Type 2 diabetes management. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a multicomponent behavioral intervention on weight, glycemic control, renal function, and depressive symptoms in a sample of overweight/obese adults with Type 2 diabetes and marked depressive symptoms. METHODS: A sample of 111 adults with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a 1-year intervention (n = 57) or usual care (n = 54) in a parallel groups design...
September 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Fatima Maqoud, Eligio Vacca, Mila Tommaseo-Ponzetta
The body structure and nutritional status of Moroccan women who have immigrated to Italy are examined here in relation to changes in their alimentary behaviors and life-styles, and compared with those of women living in Morocco, who still retain a traditional rural life-style. It is known that the choice to migrate to a foreign country may not only lead to conflicting situations, when the people involved encounter socio-cultural contexts which are very different from those of their original countries, but such choices may also involve severe consequences for health and nutritional status, following changes in alimentary behaviors and life-styles...
April 2016: Collegium Antropologicum
Klaudia Szklarczyk, Michal Korostynski, Slawomir Golda, Marcin Piechota, Joanna Ficek, Ryszard Przewlocki
Coping skills are essential in determining the outcomes of aversive life events. Our research was aimed to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of different coping styles in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and SWR/J. We compared the influence of a preceding stressor (0.5h of restraint) on behavioral and gene expression profiles between these two strains. The C57BL/6J strain exhibited increased conditioned fear and high immobility (passive coping). Oppositely, the SWR/J mice demonstrated low freezing and immobility, low post-restraint anxiety and considerable struggling during the forced swim test (active coping)...
August 25, 2016: Neuroscience
Aviva Berkovich-Ohana, Michal Harel, Avital Hahamy, Amos Arieli, Rafael Malach
Recently we proposed that the information contained in spontaneously emerging (resting-state) fluctuations may reflect individually unique neuro-cognitive traits. One prediction of this conjecture, termed the "spontaneous trait reactivation" (STR) hypothesis, is that resting-state activity patterns could be diagnostic of unique personalities, talents and life-styles of individuals. Long-term meditators could provide a unique experimental group to test this hypothesis. Using fMRI we found that, during resting-state, the amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations in long-term mindfulness meditation (MM) practitioners was enhanced in the visual cortex and significantly reduced in the DMN compared to naïve controls...
July 15, 2016: NeuroImage
William B Malarkey, Prabu David, Jean-Philippe Gouin, Michael C Edwards, Maryanna Klatt, Alex J Zautra
PURPOSE: Patients with symptoms but without an identified disease are a challenge to primary care providers. A 22-item measure is introduced and evaluated to offer medical care providers with an instrument to assess and discuss possible deficiencies in resilience resources that may contribute to symptoms without identifiable pathology. This instrument highlights psychosocial and lifestyle resources that serve as buffers to life's stressors rather than focusing on stress and its related symptoms...
December 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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