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Influenza H1n1

Kazuhiro Uda, Kensuke Shoji, Chitose Koyama-Wakai, Munehiro Furuichi, Noriyasu Iwase, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Shinji Watanabe, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections often manifest severe respiratory symptoms, particularly in patients with a past history of allergic disease. Most of these findings were reported during the 2009 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to detail the clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection (LRI) during the A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant 2015-2016 season. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of influenza-induced LRI cases in children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Christopher S Anderson, Patrick R McCall, Harry A Stern, Hongmei Yang, David J Topham
BACKGROUND: The ease at which influenza virus sequence data can be used to estimate antigenic relationships between strains and the existence of databases containing sequence data for hundreds of thousands influenza strains make sequence-based antigenic distance estimates an attractive approach to researchers. Antigenic mismatch between circulating strains and vaccine strains results in significantly decreased vaccine effectiveness. Furthermore, antigenic relatedness between the vaccine strain and the strains an individual was originally primed with can affect the cross-reactivity of the antibody response...
February 12, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Mi Qi, Xian-En Zhang, Xianxun Sun, Xiaowei Zhang, Yanfeng Yao, Siling Liu, Ze Chen, Wei Li, Zhiping Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Zongqiang Cui
Cross-protective and non-invasively administered vaccines are attractive and highly desired for the control of influenza. Self-assembling nanotechnology provides an opportunity for the development of vaccines with superior performance. In this study, an intranasal nanovaccine is developed targeting the conserved ectodomain of influenza matrix protein 2(M2e). 3-sequential repeats of M2e (3M2e) is presented on the self-assembling recombinant human heavy chain ferritin (rHF) cage to form the 3M2e-rHF nanoparticle...
February 12, 2018: Small
Ane Marie Anderson, Marta Baranowska-Hustad, Ranveig Braathen, Gunnveig Grodeland, Bjarne Bogen
There is a need for vaccines that can confer broad immunity against highly diverse pathogens, such as influenza. The efficacy of conventional influenza vaccines is dependent on accurate matching of vaccines to circulating strains, but slow and limited production capacities increase the probability of vaccine mismatches. In contrast, DNA vaccination allows for rapid production of vaccines encoding novel influenza Ags. The efficacy of DNA vaccination is greatly improved if the DNA-encoded vaccine proteins target APCs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
David Welch, Manuela Buonanno, Veljko Grilj, Igor Shuryak, Connor Crickmore, Alan W Bigelow, Gerhard Randers-Pehrson, Gary W Johnson, David J Brenner
Airborne-mediated microbial diseases such as influenza and tuberculosis represent major public health challenges. A direct approach to prevent airborne transmission is inactivation of airborne pathogens, and the airborne antimicrobial potential of UVC ultraviolet light has long been established; however, its widespread use in public settings is limited because conventional UVC light sources are both carcinogenic and cataractogenic. By contrast, we have previously shown that far-UVC light (207-222 nm) efficiently inactivates bacteria without harm to exposed mammalian skin...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Irena Živković, Raisa Petrović, Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Vladimir Petrušić, Rajna Minić, Biljana Bufan, Olga Popović, Gordana Leposavić
The study explored influence of biological sex on development of humoral immune response to seasonal trivalent whole inactivated virus (WIV) and split virus (SV) influenza vaccines in outbred Swiss mouse model. To this end, mice of both sexes were immunized with WIV (WIV mice) and SV vaccines (SV mice) and examined for specific antibody response. Irrespective of sex, total IgG and neutralizing antibody responses to distinct virus strains were weaker in SV than in WIV mice. In WIV mice of both sexes, irrespective of strain specificity, IgG isotype response was dominated by IgG2a antibodies, while in SV mice nearly equal representation of IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies was found...
February 6, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Peninah Munyua, Clayton Onyango, Lydia Mwasi, Lilian W Waiboci, Geoffrey Arunga, Barry Fields, Joshua A Mott, Carol J Cardona, Philip Kitala, Philip N Nyaga, M Kariuki Njenga
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus subtypes in non-human hosts have not been characterized in Kenya. We carried out influenza surveillance in selected domestic animals and compared the virus isolates with isolates obtained in humans during the same period. METHODS: We collected nasal swabs from pigs, dogs and cats; oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from poultry; and blood samples from all animals between 2010 and 2012. A standardized questionnaire was administered to farmers and traders...
2018: PloS One
Suresh Pallikkuth, Lesley R De Armas, Rajendra Pahwa, Stefano Rinaldi, Varghese K George, Celeste M Sanchez, Li Pan, Gordon Dickinson, Allan Rodriguez, Margaret Fischl, Maria Alcaide, Savita Pahwa
OBJECTIVE: To determine influence of age and HIV infection on influenza vaccine responses. DESIGN: Evaluate serologic response to seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) as the immunologic outcome in HIV-infected (HIV) and age-matched HIV negative (HIV) adults. METHODS: During 2013-2016, 151 virologically controlled HIV individuals on antiretroviral therapy and 164 HIV volunteers grouped by age as young (<40 years), middle aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were administered TIV and investigated for serum antibody response to vaccine antigens...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Soon-Hwan Kwon, Sujin Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Yujin Seo, Hee-Young Lim
In order to diagnose the infectious disease from clinical samples, the various protocols such as culturing microorganism, rapid diagnostic test using chromatographic method, ELISA, conventional PCR are developed. Since a novel strain of avian influenza can be cross-infected human as well as birds and livestock due to genetic reassortment, some strains of influenza such as H7N9 and H5N1 have emerged as a severe virus which can be threaten the health of poultry as well as human. Therefore we explored the development of simultaneously and rapid diagnostic tool for seasonal influenza (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1, A/H7N9)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Gilberto Gonzàlez-Parra, Filip De Ridder, Dymphy Huntjens, Dirk Roymans, Gabriela Ispas, Hana M Dobrovolny
Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause acute infections of the respiratory tract. Since the viruses both cause illnesses with similar symptoms, researchers often try to apply knowledge gleaned from study of one virus to the other virus. This can be an effective and efficient strategy for understanding viral dynamics or developing treatment strategies, but only if we have a full understanding of the similarities and differences between the two viruses. This study used mathematical modeling to quantitatively compare the viral kinetics of in vitro RSV and influenza virus infections...
2018: PloS One
Tzu-Lin Yeh, Pei-Ching Shih, Shu-Jung Liu, Chao-Hsu Lin, Jui-Ming Liu, Wei-Te Lei, Chien-Yu Lin
Background: Influenza infection is a common disease with a huge disease burden. Influenza vaccination has been widely used, but concerns regarding vaccine efficacy exist, especially in the elderly. Probiotics are live microorganisms with immunomodulatory effects and may enhance the immune responses to influenza vaccination. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the influence of prebiotics/probiotics/synbiotics supplementation on vaccine responses to influenza vaccination...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Dae Hee Kim, Jinsuk Woo, Jaeyoung Song, Sang Ho Jang, Joon Bae Kim, Kwang Myun Cheong, Jin Sik Oh, Jae Kyung Sohng
Two sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (SHMOs) 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) and 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) were accessed for their possible antiviral activity against six different subtypes of thirteen avian influenza (AI) viruses in vitro. 3'-SL exhibited promising antiviral activity against almost all subtypes of tested AI viruses in hemagglutination inhibition assay, whereas 6'-SL showed activity against few selected H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtype strains. 3'-SL has minimum inhibitory concentration values of 15...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fei Zhou, Hui Li, Li Gu, Meng Liu, Chun-Xue Xue, Bin Cao, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nosocomial infections following influenza are important causes of death, requiring early implementation of preventive measures, but predictors for nosocomial infection in the early stage remained undetermined. We aimed to determine risk factors that can help clinicians identify patients with high risk of nosocomial infection following influenza on admission. METHOD: Using a database prospectively collected through a Chinese national network for hospitalised severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 patients, we compared the characteristics on admission between patients with and without nosocomial infection...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Anu S Helin, Michelle Wille, Clara Atterby, Josef D Järhult, Jonas Waldenström, Joanne R Chapman
The vertebrate innate immune system provides hosts with a rapid, non-specific response to a wide range of invading pathogens. However, the speed and duration of innate responses will be influenced by the co-evolutionary dynamics of specific host-pathogen combinations. Here, we show that low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) subtype H1N1 elicits a strong but extremely transient innate immune response in its main wildlife reservoir, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Using a series of experimental and methodological improvements over previous studies, we followed the expression of retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) in mallards semi-naturally infected with low pathogenic H1N1...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Andrea Streng, Christiane Prifert, Benedikt Weissbrich, Andreas Sauerbrei, Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott, Johannes G Liese
BACKGROUND: Limited data on the influenza burden in pediatric outpatients are available, especially regarding direct comparison of the co-circulating (sub)types A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B. METHODS: Children 1-5 years of age, unvaccinated against influenza and presenting with febrile acute respiratory infections (ARI), were enrolled in 33 paediatric practices in Germany from 2013-2015 (January-May). Influenza was confirmed by multiplex PCR from pharyngeal swabs and (sub)typed...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Etsuhisa Takahashi, Irene L Indalao, Takako Sawabuchi, Keiko Mizuno, Satoko Sakai, Takashi Kimoto, Hyejin Kim, Hiroshi Kido
The influenza A virus (IAV)-cytokine-trypsin/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cycle is one of the important mechanisms of multiple organ failure in severe influenza. Clarithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We analyzed the effects of clarithromycin on the induction of chemokines, cytokines, MMP-9, trypsin, vascular hyper-permeability and inflammatory aggravation in mice with IAV infection. IAV/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) infection increased the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokines in serum, and MMP-9 and trypsin in serum and/or the lungs and heart...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Gerard Cortina, Christian Niederwanger, Uwe Klingkowski, Corinna Velik-Salchner, Nikolaus Neu
Most children with severe respiratory failure require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for 7-10 days. However, some may need prolonged duration ECMO (> 14 days). To date, no consensus exists on how long to wait for native lung recovery. Here we report the case of a 3-year-old boy who developed severe necrotizing pneumonia requiring venovenous (VV) ECMO after 19 days of mechanical ventilation. In the first 4 weeks of his ECMO run, he showed no lung aeration, requiring total extracorporeal support...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Julia Fitzner, Saba Qasmieh, Anthony Wayne Mounts, Burmaa Alexander, Terry Besselaar, Sylvie Briand, Caroline Brown, Seth Clark, Erica Dueger, Diane Gross, Siri Hauge, Siddhivinayak Hirve, Pernille Jorgensen, Mark A Katz, Ali Mafi, Mamunur Malik, Margaret McCarron, Tamara Meerhoff, Yuichiro Mori, Joshua Mott, Maria Teresa da Costa Olivera, Justin R Ortiz, Rakhee Palekar, Helena Rebelo-de-Andrade, Loes Soetens, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Wenqing Zhang, Katelijn Vandemaele
The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnostic testing. Optimal case definitions also need to have a balance of sensitivity and specificity that reflects their intended use. After the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a technical consultation on global influenza surveillance...
February 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Kate Russell, Jessie R Chung, Arnold S Monto, Emily T Martin, Edward A Belongia, Huong Q McLean, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Richard K Zimmerman, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael L Jackson, Lisa A Jackson, Brendan Flannery
BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistent reports of decreased vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza viruses among older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) compared with younger adults in the United States. A direct comparison of VE over multiple seasons is needed to assess the consistency of these observations. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of VE over 5 seasons among adults aged ≥ 18 years who were systematically enrolled in the U.S. Flu VE Network...
February 2, 2018: Vaccine
Myungguen Chung, Soo Young Cho, Young Seek Lee
We aimed to understand the molecular changes in host cells that accompany infection by the seasonal influenza A H1N1 virus because the initial response rapidly changes owing to the fact that the virus has a robust initial propagation phase. Human epithelial alveolar A549 cells were infected and total RNA was extracted at 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h post infection (h.p.i.). The differentially expressed host genes were clustered into two distinct sets of genes as the infection progressed over time...
February 5, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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