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D Torumkuney, M Nica, I Nistor, R Vatcheva-Dobrevska, V Petrovic, A Stoica, B Hanicar, Dj Antic, I Morrissey
Objectives: To determine antibiotic susceptibility of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 573) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 345) collected in 2014-16 from Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Croatia. Methods: MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. Results: Among S. pneumoniae, susceptibility was generally lowest in Romania and Serbia and highest in Bulgaria...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
David W Eyre, Kerrie A Davies, Georgina Davis, Warren N Fawley, Kate E Dingle, Nicola De Maio, Andreas Karas, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background: Rates of Clostridium difficile infection vary widely across Europe, as do prevalent ribotypes. The extent of Europe-wide diversity within each ribotype is however unknown. Methods: Inpatient diarrhoeal faecal samples submitted on one day in summer and winter (2012-2013) to laboratories in 482 European hospitals were cultured for C. difficile, and isolates ribotyped; those from the 10 most prevalent ribotypes were Illumina whole-genome sequenced. Pairwise single nucleotide differences (SNPs) were obtained from recombination-corrected maximum-likelihood phylogenies...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Andrei-Emil Briciu, Dumitru Mihăilă, Dinu Iulian Oprea, Petruț-Ionel Bistricean, Liliana Gina Lazurca
An orthotidal signal is a tidal component found in a streamwater parameter when there is no oceanic tidal input, i.e. when the streamwater monitoring point is located far inland and at high elevation. This study analyses various parameters of Cib River in Carpathian Mountains, Romania. This river receives water from a rich karst aquifer when crossing Cib Gorge. Streamwater level, temperature and electrical conductivity were measured in 270 days grouped in three time intervals of consecutive days. The measurements were done every 15 minutes in order to capture any significant periodic variation...
April 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Liliana Zaharia, Gabriela Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela-Adina Moroşanu, Andreea-Cristina Gălie, Marinela Moldoveanu, Ivan Čanjevac, Philippe Belleudy, Mladen Plantak, Nenad Buzjak, Neven Bočić, Cédric Legout, Sylvain Bigot, Nicu Ciobotaru
Conducting hydromorphological assessments for evaluating the ecological status of rivers is a key requirement of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive - WFD) within European Union (EU) Member States. This paper aims at understanding how this requirement was implemented, through an original comparative review of methodologies for rivers' hydromorphological assessment in three EU Member States, which joined the EU at different times, and with many differences in terms of hydrographic features, socio-economic and water management systems: France, Romania, and Croatia...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Valerio D'Alicandro, Paolo Romania, Ombretta Melaiu, Doriana Fruci
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes constantly monitor peptide-MHC class I complexes on the cell surface to eliminate transformed and virally infected cells expressing peptides derived from abnormal proteins. The generation of antigenic peptides and their loading on MHC class I molecules is a multistep process involving different molecules that constitute the so-called antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM). To avoid immune-mediated elimination, human tumors and pathogens have adopted different strategies including loss of MHC class I expression and dysregulation of APM genes and proteins...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
A Melintescu, S D Chambers, J Crawford, A G Williams, B Zorila, D Galeriu
Ambient gamma dose, radon, and rainfall have been monitored in southern Bucharest, Romania, from 2010 to 2016. The seasonal cycle of background ambient gamma dose peaked between July and October (100-105 nSv h-1 ), with minimum values in February (75-80 nSv h-1 ), the time of maximum snow cover. Based on 10 m a.g.l. radon concentrations, the ambient gamma dose increased by around 1 nSv h-1 for every 5 Bq m-3 increase in radon. Radon variability attributable to diurnal changes in atmospheric mixing contributed less than 15 nSv h-1 to the overall variability in ambient gamma dose, a factor of 4 more than synoptic timescale changes in air mass fetch...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Virginie Van Leeuw, Charlotte Leroy, Yvon Englert, Wei-Hong Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of maternal origin on the association between maternal height and the risk of preterm birth (PTB). DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Two of the three Belgian regions, including Brussels-Capital and Walloon regions. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 245 204 women spontaneously delivered live singletons between 2009 and 2013. Maternal nationality at the time of birth included Belgium, Congo, French, Italy, Morocco, Poland, Romania and Turkey...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Siân George, Katy Daniels, Evridiki Fioratou
BACKGROUND: Minority vulnerable communities, such as the European Roma, often face numerous barriers to accessing healthcare services, resulting in negative health outcomes. Both these barriers and outcomes have been reported extensively in the literature. However, reports on barriers faced by European non-Roma native communities are limited. The "Health Care Access Barriers" (HCAB) model identifies pertinent financial, structural and cognitive barriers that can be measured and potentially modified...
April 3, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
George Kassianos, Ernest Kuchar, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Jan Kyncl, Andrey Galev, Isme Humolli, Oana Falup-Pecurariu, Angus Thomson, Christina Klein, Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau
BACKGROUND: Annual vaccination is the most effective way to prevent and control the health and economic burden caused by seasonal influenza. Healthcare workers (HCWs) play a crucial role in vaccine acceptance and advocacy for their patients. This study explored the drivers of HCWs' vaccine acceptance and advocacy in six European countries. METHODS: Healthcare workers (mainly general practitioners, specialist physicians, and nurses) voluntarily completed a questionnaire in Bulgaria (N = 485), Czech Republic (N = 518), Kosovo (N = 466), Poland (N = 772), Romania (N = 155), and the United Kingdom (N = 80)...
March 28, 2018: Vaccine
Erika Rizzo, Lisa Pizzol, Alex Zabeo, Elisa Giubilato, Andrea Critto, Luca Cosmo, Antonio Marcomini
In the EU brownfield presence is still considered a widespread problem. Even though, in the last decades, many research projects and initiatives developed a wealth of methods, guidelines, tools and technologies aimed at supporting brownfield regeneration. However, this variety of products had and still has a limited practical impact on brownfield revitalisation success, because they are not used in their entire potential due to their scarce visibility. Also, another problem that stakeholders face is finding customised information...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Alberto Martín-Sanz, Sandra Rueda, Ana B García-Carneros, Sara González-Fernández, Pedro Miranda-Fuentes, Sandra Castuera-Santacruz, Leire Molinero-Ruiz
Verticillium wilt and leaf mottle of sunflower, caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae ( Vd ) has become a major constraint to sunflower oil production in temperate European countries. Information about Vd from sunflower is very scarce despite genetics, molecular traits and pathogenic abilities of fungal strains affecting many other crops being widely known. Understanding and characterizing the diversity of Vd populations in those countries where sunflowers are frequent and severely affected by the fungus are essential for efficient breeding for resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fulvia Ursoiu, Lavinia Moleriu, Diana Lungeanu, Maria Puschită
HIV disease continues to be a serious health issue all over the world. By the end of 2016, 36.7 million people were living with HIV, 1.8 million people became newly infected and 1 million died of HIV-related causes/diseases. In order to develop effective treatment strategies, is important to assess the risk factors that affect negatively the HIV-positive patients. HIV-infected patients are at high risk of developing psychiatric disorders in every stage of the illness. Psychiatric disorders can negatively influence the treatment adherence, induce risk behavior and influence the quality of life...
March 28, 2018: AIDS Care
Martin O Andersson, Georgeta Marga, Teofilia Banu, Gerhard Dobler, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler
Romania has a highly diverse tick fauna. Consequently, a high diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens might be a potential threat to humans. However, only a limited number of tick species regularly infest humans, and pathogens present in such species are therefore of particular interest from a medical perspective. In this study, 297 ticks were collected from humans during 2013 and 2014. Ixodes ricinus was the predominant tick species, accounting for 272 specimens or 91.6% of the ticks in the study. Nevertheless, other tick species were also found to infest humans: Dermacentor marginatus constituted 7% of the ticks found on humans (21/297), Haemaphysalis punctata 1% (3/297), and Haemaphysalis concinna 0...
March 28, 2018: Parasitology Research
E Arredondo, M López-Fraga, E Chatzixiros, B Senemaud, P Brezovsky, C Carella, C Ballesté, A Aydin Mehmet, G Tomadze, I Codreanu, A A Sarkissian, M Simeonova, A Nikonenko, V Zota, M P Gómez, M Manyalich, C Bolotinha, A Franca, A N Costa, M-O Ott, K-H Buchheit
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare of the Council of Europe launched a 3-year collaborative project to address the organ shortage and improve access to transplant health services in Council of Europe member states in the Black Sea area (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation) through the development of safe and ethical donation and transplantation programs. OBJECTIVE: Support the development of donation and transplantation programs through close interstate cooperation between national health organizations and relevant stakeholders...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Massimo Fusconi, Antonio Greco, Carlo Guglielmo Cattaneo, Andrea Ciofalo, Massimo Ralli, Marco de Vincentiis
Rhinoscleroma is a progressive chronic granulomatous disease of the upper respiratory tract that may extend to the tracheobronchial tract. It is common belief that the pathology is determined by Klebsiella Rhinoscleromatis. In the authors' opinion, the infection with Klebsiella Rhinoscleromatis may not represent the only etiopathogenic factor of the disease. Rhinoscleroma is reported in many countries, but has a peculiar social and geographic distribution, in that it assumes an endemic character only in some regions of the Middle East, West Russia, North Africa, Indonesia, Central and South America...
March 22, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Gabriele Ricco, Delia Codruta Popa, Daniela Cavallone, Speranta Iacob, Antonio Salvati, Daniela Tabacelia, Filippo Oliveri, Giovanni Mascolo, Ferruccio Bonino, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia, Liana Gheorghe, Maurizia Rossana Brunetto
The interplay between hepatitis B (HBV) and Delta (HDV) viruses is complex and not always characterized during chronic HDV infection. We assessed the clinical usefulness of new quantitative assays for HBV and HDV serum markers in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Sera obtained from 122 HDV-genotype-1 and HBV-genotype-D co-infected, anti-HIV-negative patients [71 males; median age 49.8 (21.7-66.9) years], recruited consecutively in two geographic areas (Italy 69 patients, Romania 53) with different HBV and HDV epidemiology, were tested for HBsAg, HBV-DNA, HBcrAg, total anti-HBc, HDV-RNA, IgM and total anti-HDV using quantitative assays...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Emma Weiss, Cristina Japie, Ana Maria Balahura, Daniela Bartos, Elisabeta Badila
BACKGROUND: The Roma population has a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, higher mortality, and shorter life expectancy. It is found in largest numbers in Romania, but published data are still scarce here. We studied cardiovascular risk factors and disease along with target organ damage on a population of Roma inhabitants from Bucharest, Romania. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled, in a community-based participatory research manner, 806 Roma subjects (18-83 years)...
March 19, 2018: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
Ioana Adriana Matei, Gianluca D'Amico, Angela Monica Ionică, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Alexandra Corduneanu, Attila D Sándor, Nicodim Fiţ, Liviu Bogdan, Călin M Gherman, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases pose a major threat in public health. The epidemiological dynamics of these diseases depends on the tick vector species and their hosts, as well as the geographical distribution and ecology of both. Among many possible hosts for ticks, small mammals have a major role in the development of immature stages of several tick species. Small mammals are also important reservoir hosts for several pathogenic agents and possible reservoirs for Anaplasma phagocytophilum...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Bogdan I Voinescu
PURPOSE: A wide range of health problems was investigated, aiming to identify the presence and severity of a set of self-reported and common sleep, psychiatric, and somatic health problems among working professionals in four different shift schedules (morning, evening, rotating, and day) in several cities in Romania. METHODS: A heterogeneous sample of 488 workers of different professions completed online a battery of tests, namely the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, the Parasomnia Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire, designed to identity symptoms of insomnia, sleepiness, snoring, parasomnia, as well as of depression, anxiety, eating, somatoform, and alcohol use disorders, respectively...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Martin O Andersson, Conny Tolf, Paula Tamba, Mircea Stefanache, Gabriel Radbea, Dimitrios Frangoulidis, Herbert Tomaso, Jonas Waldenström, Gerhard Dobler, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler
BACKGROUND: Ticks are transmitting a wide range of bacterial pathogens that cause substantial morbidity and mortality in domestic animals. The full pathogen burden transmitted by tick vectors is incompletely studied in many geographical areas, and extensive studies are required to fully understand the diversity and distribution of pathogens transmitted by ticks. RESULTS: We sampled 824 ticks of 11 species collected in 19 counties in Romania. Ticks were collected mainly from dogs, but also from other domestic and wild animals, and were subjected to molecular screening for pathogens...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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