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epilepsy; seizures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230619/population-pharmacokinetics-of-topiramate-in-japanese-pediatric-and-adult-patients-with-epilepsy-using-routinely-monitored-data
#1
Masato Takeuchi, Ikuko Yano, Satoko Ito, Mitsuhiro Sugimoto, Shota Yamamoto, Atsushi Yonezawa, Akio Ikeda, Kazuo Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a second-generation antiepileptic drug used as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in adults and children with partial seizures. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to improve the topiramate dosage adjustment for individualized treatment. METHODS: Patients whose steady-state serum concentration of topiramate was routinely monitored at Kyoto University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2013 were included in the model-building data...
February 20, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230254/resistance-to-valproic-acid-as-predictor-of-treatment-resistance-in-genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#2
Joanna Gesche, Marina Khanevski, Carl Solberg, Christoph Patrick Beier
This study aimed at defining clinical predictors of drug resistance in adults with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) who were treated with a broad spectrum of antiepileptic drugs. Of a cohort of 137 unselected adult GGE patients with long-term follow up, clinical and demographic data, putative prognostic factors (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, electroencephalography [EEG]), treatment response, and data indicative of social status were collected. Fifty-eight patients had seizures within the past year. Thirty-three patients met the definition of "drug-resistant epilepsy" according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229464/modified-atkins-diet-is-an-effective-treatment-for-children-with-doose-syndrome
#3
Adelheid Wiemer-Kruel, Edda Haberlandt, Hans Hartmann, Gabriele Wohlrab, Thomas Bast
OBJECTIVE: Children with myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE; Doose syndrome) whose seizures do not respond immediately to standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at high risk of developing an epileptic encephalopathy with cognitive decline. A classic ketogenic diet (KD) is a highly effective alternative to AEDs. To date, there are only limited data on the effectiveness of the modified Atkins diet (MAD), which is less restrictive and more compatible with daily life. We report findings from a retrospective study on 30 MAE patients treated with MAD...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229394/epileptic-encephalopathies-clinical-syndromes-and-pathophysiological-concepts
#4
REVIEW
Markus von Deimling, Ingo Helbig, Eric D Marsh
Epileptic encephalopathies account for a large proportion of the intractable early-onset epilepsies and are characterized by frequent seizures and poor developmental outcome. The epileptic encephalopathies can be loosely divided into two related groups of named syndromes. The first comprises epilepsies where continuous EEG changes directly result in cognitive and developmental dysfunction. The second includes patients where cognitive impairment is present at seizure onset and is due to the underlying etiology but the epileptic activity may then worsen the cognitive abilities over time...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229379/a-novel-frameshift-mutation-in-the-sterol-27-hydroxylase-gene-in-an-egyptian-family-with-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-without-cataract
#5
Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud Y Issa, Ghada A Otaify, Maha S Zaki
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme encoded by CYP27A1 gene. CTX is characterized by tendon xanthomas, juvenile cataracts and multiple progressive neurological symptoms. Here we report on the clinical and molecular findings of a 35-years old Egyptian patient with CTX without cataract. Parents were first cousins with family history of two deceased sibs with mild impaired cognitive functions and epilepsy without appearance of tendon xanthomas...
February 22, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229367/inhibition-of-mtor-pathway-by-rapamycin-decreases-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-spontaneous-seizures-in-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#6
Xiaosa Chi, Cheng Huang, Rui Li, Wei Wang, Mengqian Wu, Jinmei Li, Dong Zhou
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been demonstrated to mediate multidrug resistance in various tumors by inducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. Here, we investigated the correlation between the mTOR pathway and P-gp expression in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Temporal cortex specimens were obtained from patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and age-matched controls who underwent surgeries at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between June 2014 and May 2015. We established a rat model of epilepsy kindled by coriaria lactone (CL) and screened pharmacoresistant rats (non-responders) using phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227964/cross-entropy-optimization-for-neuromodulation
#7
Harleen K Brar, Yunpeng Pan, Babak Mahmoudi, Evangelos A Theodorou, Harleen K Brar, Yunpeng Pan, Babak Mahmoudi, Evangelos A Theodorou, Yunpeng Pan, Harleen K Brar, Babak Mahmoudi, Evangelos A Theodorou
This study presents a reinforcement learning approach for the optimization of the proportional-integral gains of the feedback controller represented in a computational model of epilepsy. The chaotic oscillator model provides a feedback control systems view of the dynamics of an epileptic brain with an internal feedback controller representative of the natural seizure suppression mechanism within the brain circuitry. Normal and pathological brain activity is simulated in this model by adjusting the feedback gain values of the internal controller...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227963/predicting-seizures-from-local-field-potentials-recorded-via-intracortical-microelectrode-arrays
#8
Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo, Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo, Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg
The need for new therapeutic interventions to treat pharmacologically resistant focal epileptic seizures has led recently to the development of closed-loop systems for seizure control. Once a seizure is predicted/detected by the system, electrical stimulation is delivered to prevent seizure initiation or spread. So far, seizure prediction/detection has been limited to tracking non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) signals. Here, we examine seizure prediction based on local field potentials (LFPs) from a small neocortical patch recorded via a 10×10 microelectrode array implanted in a patient with focal seizures...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227962/personalization-of-noneeg-based-seizure-detection-systems
#9
D Cogan, M Heydarzadeh, M Nourani, D Cogan, M Heydarzadeh, M Nourani, M Heydarzadeh, D Cogan, M Nourani
Seizures affect each patient differently, so personalization is a vital part of developing a reliable nonEEG based seizure detection system. This personalization must be done while the patient is undergoing video EEG monitoring in an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) because seizure detection by EEG is considered to be the ground truth. We propose the use of confidence interval analysis for determining how many seizures must be captured from a patient before we can reliably personalize such a seizure detection system for him/her...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227959/localizing-seizure-onset-zone-by-convolutional-transfer-entropy-from-ieeg
#10
Kang Lin, Yueming Wang, Kedi Xu, Junming Zhu, Jianmin Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Kang Lin, Yueming Wang, Kedi Xu, Junming Zhu, Jianmin Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Junming Zhu, Yueming Wang, Kedi Xu, Kang Lin, Jianmin Zhang
Automatic localization of the seizure onset zone (SOZ) is able to output an objective result and help clinical doctors greatly in epilepsy therapy. Transfer entropy is one of the most frequently used measures based on information theory to localize the SOZ. However, if only using transfer entropy to localize the SOZ, different results can be obtained during different periods, thus humans still need to identify which one is most reasonable. This paper proposes a new method to output only a few (e.g. 1 or 2) results along a long time slot...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227392/structural-and-functional-changes-during-epileptogenesis-in-the-mouse-model-of-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Yvan Dietrich, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Gabriel Dieuset, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Charles Pineau, Fabrice Wendling, Benoit Martin, Yvan Dietrich, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Gabriel Dieuset, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Charles Pineau, Fabrice Wendling, Benoit Martin, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Charles Pineau, Benoit Martin, Gabriel Dieuset, Yvan Dietrich, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Fabrice Wendling
An important issue in epilepsy research is to understand the structural and functional modifications leading to chronic epilepsy, characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, after initial brain insult. To address this issue, we recorded and analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data during epileptogenesis in the in vivo mouse model of Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (MTLE, kainate). Besides, this model of epilepsy is a particular form of drug-resistant epilepsy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227106/epileptic-seizure-onset-correlates-with-long-term-eeg-functional-brain-network-properties
#12
Maria Anastasiadou, Avgis Hadjipapas, Manolis Christodoulakis, Eleftherios S Papathanasiou, Savvas S Papacostas, Georgios D Mitsis, Maria Anastasiadou, Avgis Hadjipapas, Manolis Christodoulakis, Eleftherios S Papathanasiou, Savvas S Papacostas, Georgios D Mitsis, Maria Anastasiadou, Avgis Hadjipapas, Manolis Christodoulakis, Savvas S Papacostas, Eleftherios S Papathanasiou, Georgios D Mitsis
We investigated the correlation of epileptic seizure onset times with long term EEG functional brain network properties. To do so, we constructed binary functional brain networks from long-term, multichannel electroencephalographic data recorded from nine patients with epilepsy. The corresponding network properties were quantified using the average network degree. It was found that the network degree (as well as other network properties such as the network efficiency and clustering coefficient) exhibited large fluctuations over time; however, it also exhibited specific periodic temporal structure over different time scales (1...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227104/source-and-sink-nodes-in-absence-seizures
#13
Abner C Rodrigues, Birajara S Machado, Luis Otavio S F Caboclo, Andre Fujita, Luiz A Baccaia, Koichi Sameshima, Abner C Rodrigues, Birajara S Machado, Luis Otavio S F Caboclo, Andre Fujita, Luiz A Baccala, Koichi Sameshima, Luiz A Baccala, Biraiara S Machado, Luis Otavio S F Caboclo
As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226989/a-novel-portable-low-cost-kinect-based-system-for-motion-analysis-in-neurological-diseases
#14
Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Ana Patricia Rocha, Hugo Miguel Pereira Choupina, Jose Maria Fernandes, Maria Jose Rosas, Rui Vaz, Felix Achilles, Anna Mira Loesch, Christian Vollmar, Elisabeth Hartl, Soheyl Noachtar, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Ana Patricia Rocha, Hugo Miguel Pereira Choupina, Jose Maria Fernandes, Maria Jose Rosas, Rui Vaz, Felix Achilles, Anna Mira Loesch, Christian Vollmar, Elisabeth Hartl, Soheyl Noachtar, Christian Vollmar, Ana Patricia Rocha, Elisabeth Hartl, Rui Vaz, Hugo Miguel Pereira Choupina, Soheyl Noachtar, Felix Achilles, Anna Mira Loesch, Jose Maria Fernandes, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Maria Jose Rosas
Many neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy, can significantly impair the motor function of the patients, often leading to a dramatic loss of their quality of life. Human motion analysis is regarded as fundamental towards an early diagnosis and enhanced follow-up in this type of diseases. In this contribution, we present NeuroKinect, a novel system designed for motion analysis in neurological diseases. This system includes an RGB-D camera (Microsoft Kinect) and two integrated software applications, KiT (KinecTracker) and KiMA (Kinect Motion Analyzer)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226868/hardware-friendly-seizure-detection-with-a-boosted-ensemble-of-shallow-decision-trees
#15
Mahsa Shoaran, Masoud Farivar, Azita Emami, Mahsa Shoaran, Masoud Farivar, Azita Emami, Masoud Farivar, Azita Emami, Mahsa Shoaran
Efficient on-chip learning is becoming an essential element of implantable biomedical devices. Despite a substantial literature on automated seizure detection algorithms, hardware-friendly implementation of such techniques is not sufficiently addressed. In this paper, we propose to employ a gradientboosted ensemble of decision trees to achieve a reasonable trade-off between detection accuracy and implementation cost. Combined with the proposed feature extraction model, we show that these classifiers quickly become competitive with more complex learning models previously proposed for hardware implementation, with only a small number of low-depth (d <; 4) "shallow" trees...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226829/a-sparse-laguerre-volterra-autoregressive-model-for-seizure-prediction-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Pen-Ning Yu, Shokofeh A Naiini, Christi N Heck, Charles Y Liu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Pen-Ning Yu, Shokofeh A Naiini, Christi N Heck, Charles Y Liu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Shokofeh A Naiini, Charles Y Liu, Pen-Ning Yu, Theodore W Berger, Christi N Heck, Dong Song
A sparse Laguerre-Volterra autoregressive model has been developed as feature extraction from subdural human EEG data for seizure prediction in temporal lobe epilepsy. The use of Laguerre-Volterra kernel can compactly yield an autoregressive model of longer system memory without increasing the number of the coefficients. In 6 sets of seizure, we used a sparse Laguerre-Volterra autoregressive model with 6 coefficients and the decay parameter of 0.2 and obtained the 10-fold cross-validation prediction results of high Matthews correlation coefficients (0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226825/effect-of-temperature-on-sleep-regulation-in-an-animal-epilepsy-model
#17
Asmaa Ajwad, Farid Yaghouby, Dillon Huffman, Bruce O'Hara, Sridhar Sunderam, Asmaa Ajwad, Farid Yaghouby, Dillon Huffman, Bruce O'Hara, Sridhar Sunderam, Dillon Huffman, Farid Yaghouby, Asmaa Ajwad, Bruce O'Hara, Sridhar Sunderam
Besides recurring seizures, disordered sleep is common in individuals with epilepsy and may present as reduced sleep depth, altered proportions of different stages of sleep, intermittent arousal, and other phenomena. Sleep loss can in turn precipitate seizures, thus sustaining a vicious cycle. It is well known that changes in ambient temperature elicit thermoregulatory responses that alter the dynamics of sleep. As a first step toward therapeutic sleep modulation for epilepsy, we assessed the effect of elevated ambient temperature on sleep dynamics and seizure yield in the chronic pilocarpine mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226672/phase-amplitude-coupling-analysis-for-seizure-evolvement-using-hilbert-huang-transform
#18
Hanyue Zhou, Ying Li, Yue-Loong Hsin, Wentai Liu, Hanyue Zhou, Ying Li, Yue-Loong Hsin, Wentai Liu, Wentai Liu, Hanyue Zhou, Ying Li, Yue-Loong Hsin
Recent studies show that the phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) may play a functional role in information processing and cognition. The conventional method for PAC analysis is implemented by using Fourier-based filters, which assumes the signal is stationary and linear. However, as biological signals are nonstationary and nonlinear, this method introduces inaccuracy. To solve this problem, a new method based on Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) is proposed in this paper, and is applied to analyze intracranial signals from two epilepsy patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226671/connectivity-maps-of-different-types-of-epileptogenic-patterns
#19
Hoda Rajaei, Mercedes Cabrerizo, Panuwat Janwattanapong, Alberto Pinzon-Ardila, Sergio Gonzalez-Arias, Malek Adjouadi, Hoda Rajaei, Mercedes Cabrerizo, Panuwat Janwattanapong, Alberto Pinzon-Ardila, Sergio Gonzalez-Arias, Malek Adjouadi, Sergio Gonzalez-Arias, Malek Adjouadi, Hoda Rajaei, Panuwat Janwattanapong, Mercedes Cabrerizo, Alberto Pinzon-Ardila
EEG functional connectivity maps, showing the interactions between brain areas in context to the placement of electrodes, were used for the investigation and comparison of three different types of epileptiform activity defined as single spike, spike followed by slow wave and repetitive spike. A nonlinear data-driven method was used to extract connectivity matrices that helped to identify network synchronization based on the number of connections for all brain regions, as represented by the 10-20 EEG system...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226667/automatic-seizure-detection-using-correlation-integral-with-nonlinear-adaptive-denoising-and-kalman-filter
#20
Hongda Wang, Chiu-Sing Choy, Hongda Wang, Chiu-Sing Choy, Hongda Wang, Chiu-Sing Choy
The ability of correlation integral for automatic seizure detection using scalp EEG data has been re-examined in this paper. To facilitate the detection performance and overcome the shortcoming of correlation integral, nonlinear adaptive denoising and Kalman filter have been adopted for pre-processing and post-processing. The three-stage algorithm has achieved 84.6% sensitivity and 0.087/h false detection rate, which are comparable to many machine learning based methods, but at much lower computational cost...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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