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Blood restriction training

Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Vanessa Di Cataldo, Alain Géloën, Jean-Baptiste Langlois, Fabien Chauveau, Benoît Thézé, Violaine Hubert, Marlène Wiart, Erica N Chirico, Jennifer Rieusset, Hubert Vidal, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE(-/-) mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE(-/-) mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
David J Tennent, Christina M Hylden, Anthony E Johnson, Travis C Burns, Jason M Wilken, Johnny G Owens
INTRODUCTION: Quadriceps strength after arthroscopic knee procedures is frequently diminished several years postoperation. Blood flow restriction (BFR) training uses partial venous occlusion while performing submaximal exercise to induce muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BFR as a postoperative therapeutic intervention after knee arthroscopy. METHODS: A randomized controlled pilot study comparing physical therapy with and without BFR after knee arthroscopy was conducted...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Eve Normandin, Elizabeth Chmelo, Mary F Lyles, Anthony P Marsh, Barbara J Nicklas
PURPOSE: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is greatest in older obese adults and effective evidence-based treatment strategies are lacking. This study determined the efficacy of adding caloric restriction (CR) for weight loss to resistance training (RT) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in older overweight and obese adults. METHODS: We performed a 5-month randomized controlled trial in 126 older (65-79 yrs) overweight and obese (Body Mass Index: 27-35 kg/m) men and women who were assigned to progressive 3-d/wk, moderate-intensity RT with (RT+CR) or without caloric restriction (RT)...
October 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Brittany R Counts, Lindy M Rossow, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Jeremy P Loenneke
Low-load resistance exercise with the blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to increase muscle size similar to that of traditional high-load resistance training. Throughout the BFR literature, there is a vast difference between the quantity of young females included in the literature compared to young males, older males and older females. Therefore, the purpose of this minireview is to discuss the underrepresentation of young females in the BFR literature and review the potential physiologic reasons as to why they may have been excluded...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Michael J Redd, Jay R Hoffman, Yftach Gepner, Jeffrey R Stout, Mattan W Hoffman, Daniel Ben-Dov, Shany Funk, David D Church, Guy Avital, Yacov Chen, Hagai Frankel, Ishay Ostfeld
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a metabolic and anabolic biomarker that has been proposed to reflect physiological adaptations resulting from multistressor environments. The bioactivity of IGF-I is regulated by seven different insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) which act not only as carriers of IGF-1, but also function as a modulator of IGF-I availability and activity. Supplementing with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to enhance physiological outcomes associated with intense training, and has been reported to augment the IGF-1 response...
October 5, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
K T Cumming, S Ellefsen, B R Rønnestad, I Ugelstad, T Raastad
Blood flow restricted exercise (BFRE) with low loads has been demonstrated to induce considerable stress to exercising muscles. Muscle cells have developed a series of defensive systems against exercise-induced stress. However, little is known about acute and long-term effects of BFRE training on these systems. Nine previously untrained females trained low-load BFRE and heavy load strength training (HLS) on separate legs and on separate days to investigate acute and long-term effects on heat shock proteins (HSP) and endogenous antioxidant systems in skeletal muscles...
October 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
David O Akeju, Marianne Vidler, J O Sotunsa, M O Osiberu, E O Orenuga, Olufemi T Oladapo, A A Adepoju, Rahat Qureshi, Diane Sawchuck, Olalekan O Adetoro, Peter von Dadelszen, Olukayode A Dada
BACKGROUND: The dearth of health personnel in low income countries has attracted global attention. Ways as to how health care services can be delivered in a more efficient and effective way using available health personnel are being explored. Task-sharing expands the responsibilities of low-cadre health workers and allows them to share these responsibilities with highly qualified health care providers in an effort to best utilize available human resources. This is appropriate in a country like Nigeria where there is a shortage of qualified health professionals and a huge burden of maternal mortality resulting from obstetric complications like pre-eclampsia...
September 30, 2016: Reproductive Health
Kyle J Hackney, Meghan E Downs, Lori Ploutz-Snyder
BACKGROUND: Bed rest studies have shown that high load (HL) resistance training can mitigate the loss of muscle size and strength during musculoskeletal unloading; however, not all individuals are able to perform HL resistance exercise. Blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise may be a novel way to prevent maladaptation to unloading without requiring HL exercise equipment. This study evaluated the muscular training adaptations to HL and BFR resistance training during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS), a human limb unloading model...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Savani Bartholdy, Jiumu Cheng, Ulrike Schmidt, Iain C Campbell, Owen G O'Daly
Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Shouyu Xu, Xueyun Liu, Zhenhuang Chen, Gaoquan Li, Qin Chen, Guoqing Zhou, Ruijie Ma, Xinmiao Yao, Xiao Huang
Blood flow restriction (BFR) under low-intensity resistance training (LIRT) can produce similar effects upon muscles to that of high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) while overcoming many of the restrictions to HIRT that occurs in a clinical setting. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of BFR induced muscle hypertrophy remain largely unknown. Here, using a BFR rat model, we aim to better elucidate the mechanisms regulating muscle hypertrophy as induced by BFR and reveal possible clinical therapeutic targets for atrophy cases...
December 15, 2016: Gene
Renato Barroso, Emerson Teixeira, Carla Silva-Batista, Gilberto Laurentino, Hamilton Roschel, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Valmor Tricoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Norio Hotta, Hisayoshi Ogata, Takaharu Kondo, Koji Ishida, Michael R Kushnick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Joke Bradt, Cheryl Dileo, Lucanne Magill, Aaron Teague
BACKGROUND: Having cancer may result in extensive emotional, physical and social suffering. Music interventions have been used to alleviate symptoms and treatment side effects in cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effects of music therapy and music medicine interventions for psychological and physical outcomes in people with cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, Science Citation Index, CancerLit, CAIRSS, Proquest Digital Dissertations, ClinicalTrials...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Edward P Weiss, Stewart G Albert, Dominic N Reeds, Kathleen S Kress, Jennifer L McDaniel, Samuel Klein, Dennis T Villareal
BACKGROUND: Weight loss from calorie restriction (CR) and/or endurance exercise training (EX) is cardioprotective. However CR and EX also have weight loss-independent benefits. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that weight loss from calorie restriction and exercise combined (CREX) improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more so than similar weight loss from CR or EX alone. DESIGN: Overweight, sedentary men and women (n = 52; aged 45-65 y) were randomly assigned to undergo 6-8% weight loss by using CR, EX, or CREX...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Gilberto C Laurentino, J Grant Mouser, Samuel L Buckner, Brittany R Counts, Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Jeremy P Loenneke, Valmor Tricoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David A Ross, Kirsten M Mitcheltree, Charity Cavazos, Daeyeol Kim, Benjamin Friedlander, Rebecca Larson, Debra A Bemben, Michael G Bemben
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hamilton Roschel, Reynaldo Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ferraz, Lissiane Guedes, Ceci Kurimori, Ana Lúcia Sá-Pinto, Fernanda Lima, Bruno Gualano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Guillermo E Perez, Murat Karabulut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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