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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135566/management-of-hypertonia-in-cerebral-palsy
#1
Nickolas J Nahm, H Kerr Graham, Mark E Gormley, Andrew G Georgiadis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review provides an update on the treatment of hypertonia in cerebral palsy, including physical management, pharmacotherapy, neurosurgical, and orthopedic procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Serial casting potentiates the effect of Botulinum neurotoxin A injections for spasticity. Deep brain stimulation, intraventricular baclofen, and ventral and dorsal rhizotomy are emerging tools for the treatment of dystonia and/or mixed tone. The long-term results of selective dorsal rhizotomy and the timing of orthopedic surgery represent recent advances in the surgical management of hypertonia...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135487/update-on-endocrine-aspects-of-childhood-obesity
#2
Charumathi Baskaran, Nurgun Kandemir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although childhood obesity has leveled off in the last decade, 'severe obesity' continues to be on the rise. Various genetic, environmental and hormonal factors contribute to obesity. This article reviews the most current understanding of obesity's multifactorial origin and recent recommendations for its management in childhood and adolescence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetics plays a key role in transmitting obesity risk to offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms at genetic loci for adipokines and their receptors are associated with obesity...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132230/combination-therapy-for-obesity
#3
John Ph Wilding
Obesity is a chronic disease with serious consequences and although lifestyle modification is considered first line treatment, it is often ineffective, especially in the long term. Relatively few people with obesity will undergo the most effective currently available treatment of bariatric surgery. Pharmacotherapy can bridge the gap between lifestyle modification and surgery, but many monotherapies have only modest efficacy or require high doses with unacceptable side effects. As with many other areas of medicine, combination therapy is now becoming accepted as a way of optimising efficacy for weight management, whilst minimising adverse effects...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130805/rehabilitative-success-after-brain-trauma-by-augmenting-a-subtherapeutic-dose-of-environmental-enrichment-with-galantamine
#4
Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Jody L Wellcome, Benjamin Wells de Witt, Jeffrey P Cheng, Elizabeth R Skidmore, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
BACKGROUND: Environmental enrichment (EE) confers benefits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when provided daily for > 6 hours, but not 2 or 4 hours, which more accurately reflects the daily amount of clinical rehabilitation. The lack of benefit with sub-therapeutic EE suggests that augmentation with galantamine (GAL), which enhances cognition after TBI, may be indicated to confer benefits. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that 2 and 4 hours of EE paired with GAL will provide benefits comparable to 24 hours of EE alone...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128055/current-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#5
REVIEW
Chun Kit Hung, Henry C Bodenheimer
Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is focused on patients with NASH because they are at highest risk for progressive liver disease. Current first-line treatment consists of lifestyle modifications. Patients should lose at least 7% to 10% of body weight via a combination of physical exercise and calorie restriction dieting. Surgical or endoscopic surgery for weight loss can be considered in obese patients, depending on degree of excess body weight and comorbidities...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100648/erythropoietin-s-beta-common-receptor-mediates-neuroprotection-in-spinal-cord-neurons
#6
Lisa S Foley, David A Fullerton, Joshua Mares, Mitchell Sungelo, Michael J Weyant, Joseph C Cleveland, T Brett Reece
BACKGROUND: Paraplegia from spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (SCIR) remains an elusive and devastating complication of complex aortic operations. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates this injury in models of SCIR. Upregulation of the EPO beta common receptor (βcR) is associated with reduced damage in models of neural injury. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EPO-mediated neuroprotection was dependent on βcR expression. We hypothesized that spinal cord neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation would mimic SCIR injury in aortic surgery and EPO treatment attenuates this injury in a βcR-dependent fashion...
October 31, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052153/food-for-thought-reward-mechanisms-and-hedonic-overeating-in-obesity
#7
REVIEW
Phong Ching Lee, John B Dixon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the food addiction model and the role of food hedonic pathways in the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The hedonic pathway interacts with the obesogenic environment to override homeostatic mechanisms to cause increase in body weight. Weight gain sustained over time leads to "upward setting" of defended level of body-fat mass. There are neurobiological and phenotypic similarities and differences between hedonic pathways triggered by food compared with other addictive substances, and the entity of food addiction remains controversial...
October 19, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042804/weight-loss-medications-in-canada-a-new-frontier-or-a-repeat-of-past-mistakes
#8
Sean Wharton, Jasmine Lee, Rebecca Ag Christensen
Current methods for the treatment of excess weight can involve healthy behavior changes, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions. Many individuals are able to lose some degree of weight through behavioral changes; however, they are often unable to maintain their weight loss long-term. This is in part due to physiological processes that cannot be addressed through behavioral changes alone. Bariatric surgery, which is the most successful treatment for excess weight to date, does result in physiological changes that can help with weight loss and weight maintenance...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027993/current-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Gitanjali Srivastava, Caroline M Apovian
More than one-third of adults in the USA have obesity, which causes, exacerbates or adversely impacts numerous medical comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Despite intensive lifestyle modifications, the disease severity warrants further aggressive intervention, including pharmacotherapy, medical devices and bariatric surgery. Noninvasive anti-obesity drugs have thus now resurfaced as targeted adjunctive therapeutic approaches to intensive lifestyle intervention, bridging the gap between lifestyle and bariatric surgery...
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020674/obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-two-diseases-with-a-need-for-combined-treatment-strategies-easo-can-lead-the-way
#10
Deborah R Leitner, Gema Frühbeck, Volkan Yumuk, Karin Schindler, Dragan Micic, Euan Woodward, Hermann Toplak
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease affecting adults and children worldwide. It has become one of the leading causes of death, as obesity is known to be the main risk factor for a number of non-communicable diseases, in particular type 2 diabetes. This close relationship led to the connotation 'diabesity', highlighting the fact that the majority of individuals with diabetes are overweight or obese. Until today the BMI is still used to classify overweight and obesity. Since reduced muscle mass is highly prevalent throughout the BMI range, the measurement of body composition is strongly recommended...
October 12, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993354/endoscopic-shaving-of-hair-in-a-gastric-bypass-patient-with-a-large-bezoar
#11
Waseem Amjad, Gautham Upadhya, Abu Hurairah, Shahzad Iqbal
Trichotillomania can be associated with the formation of trichobezoars (hair ball) usually located in the stomach. Trichobezoars may lead to complications including bowel obstruction, and perforation. Patients with a history of diabetes, certain psychiatric disorders, prior gastric surgery and poor mastication ability are at an increased risk of developing bezoars. We are presenting a case of patient who suffered from a large, recurrent trichobezoar, who had a history of gastric bypass surgery as well as trichotillophagia...
October 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987810/chronic-rhinosinusitis-in-asia
#12
Yuan Zhang, Elien Gevaert, Hongfei Lou, Xiangdong Wang, Luo Zhang, Claus Bachert, Nan Zhang
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), although possibly overdiagnosed, is associated with a high burden of disease and is often difficult to treat in those truly affected. Recent research has demonstrated that inflammatory signatures of CRS vary around the world, with less eosinophilic and more neutrophilic inflammation found in Asia compared with Europe and North America. Although in the Western world about 80% of nasal polyps carry a type 2 signature, this might be between 20% and 60% in China and Korea or Thailand, respectively...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974331/major-publications-in-the-critical-care-pharmacotherapy-literature-january-december-2016
#13
REVIEW
Deanna Horner, Diana Altshuler, Chris Droege, Joel Feih, Kevin Ferguson, Mallory Fiorenza, Kasey Greathouse, Leslie Hamilton, Caitlin Pfaff, Lauren Roller, Joanna Stollings, Adrian Wong
PURPOSE: To summarize select critical care pharmacotherapy guidelines and studies published in 2016. SUMMARY: The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) Group screened 31 journals monthly for relevant pharmacotherapy articles and selected 107 articles for review over the course of 2016. Of those included in the monthly CCPLU, three guidelines and seven primary literature studies are reviewed here. The guideline updates included are as follows: hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia management, sustained neuromuscular blocking agent use, and reversal of antithrombotics in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968346/adjunctive-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-healing-of-chronic-diabetic-foot-ulcers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Chen-Yu Chen, Re-Wen Wu, Mei-Chi Hsu, Ching-Jung Hsieh, Man-Chun Chou
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of standard wound care with adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) to standard wound care alone on wound healing, markers of inflammation, glycemic control, amputation rate, survival rate of tissue, and health-related quality of life in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample comprised 38 patients with nonhealing DFUs who were deemed poor candidates for vascular surgery...
November 2017: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951664/use-of-the-guidelines-directed-medical-therapy-after-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-in-saudi-arabia
#15
Khalid A Alburikan, Rakan I Nazer
Background: incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Saudi Arabia is growing and more patients are expected to have cardiac revascularization surgery. Optimal pharmacotherapy management with Guideline Directed Medical Therapy (GDMT) post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) plays an important role in the prevention of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the utilization of GDMT for secondary prevention in CABG patients and determine whether specific patients' characteristics can influence GDMT utilization...
September 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935287/past-present-and-future-of-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#16
David Benaiges, Juan Pedro-Botet, Juana A Flores-Le Roux, Elisenda Climent, Albert Goday
Conventional treatment for obesity with diet, exercise and bariatric surgery has limitations; thus, it is necessary to have pharmacological tools. In the past, different drugs were marketed that were withdrawn due to safety problems. There are currently 3 drugs approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for obesity therapy (orlistat, combination of bupropion and delayed-release naltrexone and liraglutide) and two more only authorized by FDA (lorcaserin and the combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate)...
September 18, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929907/management-of-obesity-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#17
M H Shojaei, S M Alaviniaa, B C Craven
CONTEXT: Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals. METHODS: This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901524/synergistic-protection-of-bone-vasculature-and-bone-mass-by-desferrioxamine-in-osteoporotic-mice
#18
Liang Wang, Peng Jia, Yu Shan, Yanming Hao, Xiao Wang, Yu Jiang, Ye Yuan, Qiaoqiao Du, Hui Zhang, Fan Yang, Wen Zhang, Mao Sheng, Youjia Xu
It has previously been demonstrated that impaired angiogenesis is associated with metabolic abnormalities in bone in addition to osteoporosis (including postmenopausal osteoporosis). Enhancing vessel formation in bone is therefore a potential clinical therapy for osteoporosis. The present study conducted an in‑depth investigation using desferrioxamine (DFO) in an ovariectomy (OVX)‑induced osteoporotic mouse model in order to determine the time frame of alteration of bone characteristics and the therapeutic effect of DFO...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898880/personalized-management-of-cardiovascular-disorders
#19
Kewal K Jain
Personalized management of cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), also referred to as personalized or precision cardiology in accordance with general principles of personalized medicine, is the selection of best treatment for an individual patient. It involves the integration of various 'omics' technologies such as genomics and proteomics as well as other new technologies such as nanobiotechnology. Molecular diagnostics and biomarkers are important for linking diagnosis with therapy and monitoring of therapy. Because CVDs involve perturbations of large complex biological networks, a systems biology approach to CVD risk stratification may be used for improving risk-estimating algorithms and modeling of personalized benefit-of-treatment may be helpful for guiding choice of intervention...
September 11, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873104/management-of-trauma-and-burn-scars-the-dermatologist-s-role-in-expanding-patient-access-to-care
#20
Nathanial R Miletta, Matthias B Donelan, Chad M Hivnor
Recent advances in laser surgery and our understanding of wound healing have ushered in a new era of trauma and burn scar management. Traditional therapy has centered around scar excision followed by primary closure or tissue replacement with flaps and grafts. This approach represents a perpetuation of the common fallacy that extensive scar improvement requires extensive surgical intervention. Laser surgery in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and minor tissue-conserving surgery produces well-healed and remodeled existing tissue that provides the most natural appearance and function of the skin...
July 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
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