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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338921/the-relationship-between-objectively-measured-walking-and-risk-of-pedestrian-motor-vehicle-collision
#1
D Alex Quistberg, Eric J Howard, Philip M Hurvitz, Anne V Moudon, Beth E Ebel, Frederick P Rivara, Brian E Saelens
Safe urban walking environments may improve health by encouraging physical activity, but the relationship between an individual's location and walking pattern and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collision is unknown. We examined associations between individuals' walking bouts and walking risk, measured as mean exposure to the risk of pedestrian-vehicle collision. Walking bouts were ascertained through integrated accelerometry and global positioning system data and from individual travel-diary data obtained from adults in the Travel Assessment and Community Study (King County, Washington) in 2008-2009...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331950/how-do-elevated-co2-and-nitrogen-addition-affect-functional-microbial-community-involved-in-greenhouse-gas-flux-in-salt-marsh-system
#2
Seung-Hoon Lee, Patrick J Megonigal, Hojeong Kang
Salt marshes are unique ecosystem of which a microbial community is expected to be affected by global climate change. In this study, by using T-RFLP analysis, quantitative PCR, and pyrosequencing, we comprehensively analyzed the microbial community structure responding to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and N addition in a salt marsh ecosystem subjected to CO2 manipulation and N addition for about 3 years. We focused on the genes of microbes relevant to N-cycling (denitrification and nitrification), CH4-flux (methanogens and methanotrophs), and S-cycling (sulfate reduction) considering that they are key functional groups involved in the nutrient cycle of salt marsh system...
March 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329939/-spatial-and-temporal-characteristics-of-hiv-aids-in-hubei-province-2010-2013
#3
M T Gao, T Wang, K K Wang, S Y Li, H Yan
Objective: To understand the spatial and temporal distribution of HIV/AIDS in Hubei province, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIDS. Methods: GeoDa software was used for autocorrelation analysis, SatScan 9.2 software was used for statistical analysis of spatial scanning, and finally geographic information system was used for visualization. Results: A total of 6 952 HIV/AIDS cases were reported during 2010-2013 in Hubei, and the spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that Global Moran's I index was 0...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326088/temperature-effects-on-biomass-and-regeneration-of-vegetation-in-a-geothermal-area
#4
Abdul Nishar, Martin K-F Bader, Eoin J O'Gorman, Jieyu Deng, Barbara Breen, Sebastian Leuzinger
Understanding the effects of increasing temperature is central in explaining the effects of climate change on vegetation. Here, we investigate how warming affects vegetation regeneration and root biomass and if there is an interactive effect of warming with other environmental variables. We also examine if geothermal warming effects on vegetation regeneration and root biomass can be used in climate change experiments. Monitoring plots were arranged in a grid across the study area to cover a range of soil temperatures...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326044/geographical-variations-in-the-interaction-of-relative-age-effects-in-youth-and-adult-elite-soccer
#5
Christina Steingröver, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker, Werner F Helsen, Jörg Schorer
Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes' birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players' age position within the age band with regard to players' birth year and birth month...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325751/smartphone-based-geofencing-to-ascertain-hospitalizations
#6
Kaylin T Nguyen, Jeffrey E Olgin, Mark J Pletcher, Madelena Ng, Leanne Kaye, Sai Moturu, Rachel A Gladstone, Chaitanya Malladi, Amy H Fann, Carol Maguire, Laura Bettencourt, Matthew A Christensen, Gregory M Marcus
BACKGROUND: Ascertainment of hospitalizations is critical to assess quality of care and the effectiveness and adverse effects of various therapies. Smartphones, mobile geolocators that are ubiquitous, have not been leveraged to ascertain hospitalizations. Therefore, we evaluated the use of smartphone-based geofencing to track hospitalizations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants aged ≥18 years installed a mobile application programmed to geofence all hospitals using global positioning systems and cell phone tower triangulation and to trigger a smartphone-based questionnaire when located in a hospital for ≥4 hours...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325203/developing-and-evaluating-an-automated-all-cause-harm-trigger-system
#7
Christine Sammer, Susanne Miller, Cason Jones, Antoinette Nelson, Paul Garrett, David Classen, David Stockwell
BACKGROUND: From 2009 through 2012, the Adventist Health System Patient Safety Organization (AHS PSO) used the Global Trigger Tool method for harm identification and demonstrated harm reduction. Although the awareness of harm demonstrated opportunities for improvement across the system, leaders determined that the human and fiscal resources required to continue with a retrospective manual harm identification process were unsustainable. In addition, there was growing concern that the identification of harm after the patient's discharge did not allow for intervention during the hospital stay...
April 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321772/paragangliomas-of-the-head-and-neck-an-overview-from-diagnosis-to-genetics
#8
Michelle D Williams
Paragangliomas (PGL) develop from the parasympathetic system in the head and neck (HN) and arise primarily in four distinct areas: Carotid body, vagal, middle ear, and larynx. Globally, the diagnosis and morphologic features are the same regardless of anatomic site, however the incidence, frequency of genetic alterations/syndromes and differential diagnosis vary. It is now recognized that nearly 40% of all HN PGLs are hereditary, including a significant subset without a known family history. Now pathologists are central to the evaluation for diagnosis and further management of patients with HNPGLs...
March 20, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320837/the-suf-iron-sulfur-cluster-biosynthetic-system-is-essential-in-staphylococcus-aureus-and-decreased-suf-function-results-in-global-metabolic-defects-and-reduced-survival-in-human-neutrophils
#9
Christina A Roberts, Hassan M Al-Tameemi, Ameya A Mashruwala, Zuelay Rosario-Cruz, Unnati Chauhan, William E Sause, Victor J Torres, William J Belden, Jeffrey M Boyd
Staphylococcus aureus remains a causative agent for morbidity and mortality worldwide. This is, in part, a result of antimicrobial resistance highlighting the need to uncover novel antibiotic targets and discover new therapeutic agents. In the present study we explored the possibility that iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster synthesis is a viable antimicrobial target. RNA interference studies established that Suf (sulfur mobilization) dependent Fe-S cluster synthesis is essential in S. aureus We found that sufCDSUB were cotranscribed and suf transcription was positively influenced by sigma factor B...
March 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320394/el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation-as-an-early-warning-tool-for-malaria-outbreaks-in-india
#10
Ramesh C Dhiman, Soma Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Risks of malaria epidemics in relation to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been mapped and studied at global level. In India, where malaria is a major public health problem, no such effort has been undertaken that inter-relates El Niño, Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) and malaria. The present study has been undertaken to find out the relationship between ENSO events, ISMR and intra-annual variability in malaria cases in India, which in turn could help mitigate the malaria outbreaks...
March 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#11
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317857/enhanced-biennial-variability-in-the-pacific-due-to-atlantic-capacitor-effect
#12
Lei Wang, Jin-Yi Yu, Houk Paek
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the Atlantic is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The 'charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and 'discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316881/occurrence-of-concurrent-infections-with-multiple-serotypes-of-dengue-viruses-during-2013-2015-in-northern-kerala-india
#13
Manchala Nageswar Reddy, Ranjeet Dungdung, Lathika Valliyott, Rajendra Pilankatta
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a global human public health threat, causing severe morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of sequential infection by more than one serotype of dengue virus (DENV) is a major contributing factor for the induction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS), two major medical conditions caused by DENV infection. However, there is no specific drug or vaccine available against dengue infection. There are reports indicating the increased incidence of concurrent infection of dengue in several tropical and subtropical regions...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314816/characterization-of-a-human-point-mutation-of-vglut3-p-a211v-in-the-rodent-brain-suggests-a-non-uniform-distribution-of-the-transporter-in-synaptic-vesicles
#14
Lauriane Ramet, Johannes Zimmermann, Tiphaine Bersot, Odile Poirel, Stéphanie De Gois, Katlin Silm, Diana Yae Sakae, Nina Mansouri-Guilani, Marie-Josée Bourque, Louis-Eric Trudeau, Nicolas Pietrancosta, Stéphanie Daumas, Véronique Bernard, Christian Rosenmund, Salah El Mestikawy
The atypical vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by sub-populations of neurons using acetylcholine, GABA or serotonin as neurotransmitters. In addition, VGLUT3 is expressed in the inner hair cells of the auditory system. A mutation (p.A211V) in the gene that encodes VGLUT3 is responsible for progressive deafness in two unrelated families. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the p.A211V mutation in cell cultures and in the central nervous system (CNS) of a mutant mouse...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303752/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-dickkopf-1-in-ankylosing-spondylitis
#15
H-T Liao, Y-F Lin, C-Y Tsai, T-C Chou
OBJECTIVES: To determine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Dickkopf homologue-1 (Dkk-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHOD: Serum BMPs and Dkk-1 were measured in 72 AS patients and 30 healthy controls. For AS patients, we recorded the demographic data, disease activity, functional index, and global assessment with questionnaires, and image changes with roentgenography. We also measured human leucocyte antigen-B27 and systemic inflammatory reactants...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300787/the-impact-of-satellite-time-group-delay-and-inter-frequency-differential-code-bias-corrections-on-multi-gnss-combined-positioning
#16
Yulong Ge, Feng Zhou, Baoqi Sun, Shengli Wang, Bo Shi
We present quad-constellation (namely, GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo) time group delay (TGD) and differential code bias (DCB) correction models to fully exploit the code observations of all the four global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) for navigation and positioning. The relationship between TGDs and DCBs for multi-GNSS is clearly figured out, and the equivalence of TGD and DCB correction models combining theory with practice is demonstrated. Meanwhile, the TGD/DCB correction models have been extended to various standard point positioning (SPP) and precise point positioning (PPP) scenarios in a multi-GNSS and multi-frequency context...
March 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300232/the-phase-and-interfacial-properties-of-azeotropic-refrigerants-the-prediction-of-aneotropes-from-molecular-theory
#17
Wael A Fouad, Lourdes F Vega
The use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as alternative non-ozone depleting refrigerants for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) has grown during the last couple of decades. Owing to their considerable global warming potential, a global deal has been reached recently to limit the production and consumption of HFCs. For rational design of new refrigerants that are environmentally friendlier, the thermodynamics of current ones need to be well understood first. In this work, we examine the phase behavior of azeotropic refrigerants obtained by mixing HFCs with normal alkanes...
March 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297982/configurational-and-energy-landscape-in-one-dimensional-coulomb-systems
#18
Lucas Varela, Gabriel Téllez, Emmanuel Trizac
We study a one-dimensional Coulomb system, where two charged colloids are neutralized by a collection of point counterions, with global neutrality. With temperature being given, two situations are addressed: Either the colloids are kept at fixed positions (canonical ensemble) or the force acting on the colloids is fixed (isobaric-isothermal ensemble). The corresponding partition functions are worked out exactly, in view of determining which arrangement of counterions is optimal. How many counterions should be in the confined segment between the colloids? For the remaining ions outside, is there a left-right symmetry breakdown? We evidence a cascade of transitions as system size is varied in the canonical treatment or as pressure is increased in the isobaric formulation...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297454/evaluation-of-cassette-based-digital-radiography-detectors-using-standardized-image-quality-metrics-aapm-tg-150-draft-image-detector-tests
#19
Guang Li, Travis C Greene, Thomas K Nishino, Charles E Willis
The purpose of this study was to evaluate several of the standardized image quality metrics proposed by the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 150. The task group suggested region-of-interest (ROI)-based techniques to measure nonuniformity, minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), number of anomalous pixels, and modulation transfer function (MTF). This study evaluated the effects of ROI size and layout on the image metrics by using four different ROI sets, assessed result uncertainty by repeating measurements, and compared results with two commercially available quality control tools, namely the Carestream DIRECTVIEW Total Quality Tool (TQT) and the GE Healthcare Quality Assurance Process (QAP)...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295834/an-expert-system-model-for-mapping-tropical-wetlands-and-peatlands-reveals-south-america-as-the-largest-contributor
#20
Thomas Gumbricht, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Louis Verchot, Martin Herold, Florian Wittmann, Ethan Householder, Nadine Herold, Daniel Murdiyarso
Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, inter-annual flood variability, and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: 1...
March 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
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