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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141341/-spatial-temporal-distribution-of-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-liangshan-yi-autonomous-prefecture-sichuan-province-2011-2016
#1
T Li, C H Yang, J G He, Y K Li, Y Xiao, J Li, D X Wang, C Chen, J L Wu
Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture in Sichuan province from 2011 to 2016. Methods: The registration data of PTB in 618 townships of Liangshan from 2011 to 2016 were collected from "Tuberculosis Management Information System of National Disease Prevention and Control Information System" . Software ArcGIS 10.2 was used to establish the geographic information database and realize the visualization of the analysis results...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137648/lesr-is-a-novel-upstream-regulator-that-controls-downstream-clp-expression-to-modulate-antibiotic-hsaf-biosynthesis-and-cell-aggregation-in-lysobacter-enzymogenes-oh11
#2
Huiyong Xu, Ruping Wang, Yangyang Zhao, Zheng Qing Fu, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
BACKGROUND: Heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) is a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam secondary metabolite that exhibits broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against filamentous fungal pathogens. The native yield of this chemical is low. It is also a great challenge to synthesize HSAF artificially, due to its complex structure. Understanding the regulatory mechanism underlying HSAF biosynthesis could provide genetic basis for engineering high HSAF-producing strain. The transcription factor Clp is a global regulator that controls bacterial pathogenicity and the expression of one hundred related genes in the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv...
November 14, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136039/exposure-time-running-and-skill-related-performance-in-international-u20-rugby-union-players-during-an-intensified-tournament
#3
Christopher J Carling, Mathieu Lacome, Eamon Flanagan, Pearse O'Doherty, Julien Piscione
PURPOSE: This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship. METHOD: Both teams played 5 matches in 19 days. Analyses were conducted using global positioning system (GPS) tracking (Viper 2™, Statsports Technologies Ltd) and event coding (Opta Pro®). RESULTS: Of the 62 players monitored, 36 (57.1%) participated in 4 matches and 23 (36...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134196/environmental-controls-on-modern-scleractinian-coral-and-reef-scale-calcification
#4
Travis A Courtney, Mario Lebrato, Nicholas R Bates, Andrew Collins, Samantha J de Putron, Rebecca Garley, Rod Johnson, Juan-Carlos Molinero, Timothy J Noyes, Christopher L Sabine, Andreas J Andersson
Modern reef-building corals sustain a wide range of ecosystem services because of their ability to build calcium carbonate reef systems. The influence of environmental variables on coral calcification rates has been extensively studied, but our understanding of their relative importance is limited by the absence of in situ observations and the ability to decouple the interactions between different properties. We show that temperature is the primary driver of coral colony (Porites astreoides and Diploria labyrinthiformis) and reef-scale calcification rates over a 2-year monitoring period from the Bermuda coral reef...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134149/the-response-of-soil-microbial-communities-to-variation-in-annual-precipitation-depends-on-soil-nutritional-status-in-an-oligotrophic-desert
#5
Cristina Montiel-González, Yunuen Tapia-Torres, Valeria Souza, Felipe García-Oliva
Background: Soil microbial communities (SMC) play a central role in the structure and function of desert ecosystems. However, the high variability of annual precipitation could results in the alteration of SMC and related biological processes depending on soil water potential. The nature of the physiological adjustments made by SMC in order to obtain energy and nutrients remains unclear under different soil resource availabilities in desert ecosystems. In order to examine this dynamic, the present study examined the effects of variation in annual precipitation on physiological adjustments by the SMC across two vegetation-soil systems of different soil organic matter input in an oligotrophic desert ecosystem...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133902/a-test-of-the-hierarchical-model-of-litter-decomposition
#6
Mark A Bradford, G F Ciska Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M Bradford, Aimee T Classen, J Hans C Cornelissen, Thomas W Crowther, Jonathan R De Long, Gregoire T Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S Maynard, Gregory S Newman, Richard S P Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A Wardle, William R Wieder, Stephen A Wood, Wim H van der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of decomposition at regional to global scales is climate (temperature and moisture), with the controlling effects of decomposers negligible at such broad spatial scales...
November 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132720/intensify-production-transform-biomass-to-energy-and-novel-goods-and-protect-soils-in-europe-a-vision-how-to-mobilize-marginal-lands
#7
REVIEW
P Schröder, B Beckers, S Daniels, F Gnädinger, E Maestri, N Marmiroli, M Mench, R Millan, M M Obermeier, N Oustriere, T Persson, C Poschenrieder, F Rineau, B Rutkowska, T Schmid, W Szulc, N Witters, A Sæbø
The rapid increase of the world population constantly demands more food production from agricultural soils. This causes conflicts, since at the same time strong interest arises on novel bio-based products from agriculture, and new perspectives for rural landscapes with their valuable ecosystem services. Agriculture is in transition to fulfill these demands. In many countries, conventional farming, influenced by post-war food requirements, has largely been transformed into integrated and sustainable farming...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130765/microbiological-profile-of-three-commercial-poultry-processing-plants-in-colombia
#8
Alejandra Ramírez-Hernández, Andrea Varón-García, Marcos X Sánchez-Plata
Poultry meat production in Colombia has significant growth potential to fulfill national demands and to become an important global exporter. Entering export markets requires compliance with international food safety standards and the support of a rigorous national inspection system. To support the development of national standards, information about the microbiological profiles of poultry operations is needed, and no official microbiological baseline is currently available. A total of 480 chicken carcass rinses and 64 fecal samples were collected at different process sites from three commercial poultry processing establishments located in different regions of Colombia...
December 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129441/health-related-quality-of-life-results-for-pembrolizumab-versus-chemotherapy-in-advanced-pd-l1-positive-nsclc-keynote-024-a-multicentre-international-randomised-open-label-phase-3-trial
#9
Julie R Brahmer, Delvys Rodríguez-Abreu, Andrew G Robinson, Rina Hui, Tibor Csőszi, Andrea Fülöp, Maya Gottfried, Nir Peled, Ali Tafreshi, Sinead Cuffe, Mary O'Brien, Suman Rao, Katsuyuki Hotta, Jin Zhang, Gregory M Lubiniecki, Anne C Deitz, Reshma Rangwala, Martin Reck
BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 KEYNOTE-024 trial, treatment with pembrolizumab conferred longer progression-free survival than did platinum-based therapy in patients with treatment-naive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumour proportion score of 50% or greater (PD-L1-positive). Here we report the prespecified exploratory endpoint of pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS: In this multicentre, international, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients with treatment-naive, stage IV NSCLC in 102 sites in 16 countries...
November 9, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128703/new-results-on-global-exponential-dissipativity-analysis-of-memristive-inertial-neural-networks-with-distributed-time-varying-delays
#10
Guodong Zhang, Zhigang Zeng, Junhao Hu
This paper is concerned with the global exponential dissipativity of memristive inertial neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, some new sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential dissipativity of memristive inertial neural networks are derived. Moreover, the globally exponential attractive sets and positive invariant sets are also presented here. In addition, the new proposed results here complement and extend the earlier publications on conventional or memristive neural network dynamical systems...
November 9, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128215/meta-analysis-to-predict-the-effects-of-metabolizable-amino-acids-on-dairy-cattle-performance
#11
I J Lean, M B de Ondarza, C J Sniffen, J E P Santos, K E Griswold
Meta-analytic methods were used to determine statistical relationships between metabolizable AA supplies and milk protein yield, milk protein percentage, and milk yield in lactating dairy cows. Sixty-three research publications (258 treatment means) were identified through a search of published literature using 3 search engines and met the criteria for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) version 6.5 was used to determine dietary nutrient parameters including metabolizable AA...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127587/copanlisib-first-global-approval
#12
Anthony Markham
Bayer are developing copanlisib (Aliqopa™)-a pan-class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor-as a treatment for various haematological and solid malignancies. The US FDA has granted copanlisib accelerated approval for the treatment of adults with relapsed follicular lymphoma who have received at least two prior systemic therapies based on the results of a phase II trial. Phase III trials are underway evaluating copanlisib as treatment for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and in combination with rituximab or rituximab-based chemotherapy or standard immunochemotherapy in patients with relapsed indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...
November 10, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127358/effects-of-elevated-co2-on-fine-root-biomass-are-reduced-by-aridity-but-enhanced-by-soil-nitrogen-a-global-assessment
#13
Juan Piñeiro, Raúl Ochoa-Hueso, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Silvan Dobrick, Peter B Reich, Elise Pendall, Sally A Power
Plant roots play a crucial role in regulating key ecosystem processes such as carbon (C) sequestration and nutrient solubilisation. Elevated (e)CO2 is expected to alter the biomass of fine, coarse and total roots to meet increased demand for other resources such as water and nitrogen (N), however, the magnitude and direction of observed changes vary considerably between ecosystems. Here, we assessed how climate and soil properties mediate root responses to eCO2 by comparing 24 field-based CO2 experiments across the globe including a wide range of ecosystem types...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124548/development-of-an-experimental-and-digital-cardiovascular-arterial-model-for-transient-hemodynamic-and-postural-change-studies-a-preliminary-framework-analysis
#14
Rodward L Hewlin, John P Kizito
The ultimate goal of the present work is to aid in the development of tools to assist in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Gaining an understanding of hemodynamic parameters for medical implants allow clinicians to have some patient-specific proposals for intervention planning. In the present work an experimental and digital computational fluid dynamics (CFD) arterial model consisting of a number of major arteries (aorta, carotid bifurcation, cranial, femoral, jejunal, and subclavian arteries) were fabricated to study: (1) the effects of local hemodynamics (flow parameters) on global hemodynamics (2) the effects of transition from bedrest to upright position (postural change) on hemodynamics, and (3) diffusion of dye (medical drug diffusion simulation) in the arterial system via experimental and numerical techniques...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123212/influence-of-precipitation-and-crop-germination-on-resource-selection-by-mule-deer-odocoileus-hemionus-in-southwest-colorado
#15
Emily M Carrollo, Heather E Johnson, Justin W Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D Dorsey, Charles Anderson, Kurt C Vercauteren, W David Walter
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in the western United States provide many benefits to local economies but can also cause considerable damage to agriculture, particularly damage to lucrative crops. Limited information exists to understand resource selection of mule deer in response to annual variation in crop rotation and climatic conditions. We tested the hypothesis that mule deer select certain crops, and in particular sunflower, based on annual climatic variability. Our objective was to use movements, estimates of home range, and resource selection analysis to identify resources selected by mule deer...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122635/nosocomial-proton-pump-inhibitor-administration-and-the-impact-on-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-development-evidence-and-possible-mechanism
#16
REVIEW
Eric Wombwell, Megan E Chittum, Kayla R Leeser
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection continues to rise globally. Particularly concerning are hospital-acquired cases which attribute significant morbidity, mortality, and expenditures to the healthcare system. Proton pump inhibitors which are widely prescribed and generally considered to have minimal adverse effects, have recently come under scrutiny for positive associations with C. difficile infection development. This article will specifically review the current state of evidence demonstrating a positive association between nosocomial proton pump inhibitor administration and the incidence of hospital-acquired C...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122353/enteric-methane-emissions-and-their-response-to-agro-ecological-and-livestock-production-systems-dynamics-in-zimbabwe
#17
Walter Svinurai, Farai Mapanda, Dingane Sithole, Elisha N Moyo, Kudzai Ndidzano, Alois Tsiga, Washington Zhakata
Without disregarding its role as one of the key sources of sustainable livelihoods in Zimbabwe and other developing countries, livestock production contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through enteric fermentation. For the livestock sector to complement global efforts to mitigate climate change, accurate estimations of GHG emissions are required. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in Zimbabwe were quantified over 35years under four production systems and five agro-ecological regions...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122313/has-the-question-of-e-waste-opened-a-pandora-s-box-an-overview-of-unpredictable-issues-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Bouchra Bakhiyi, Sabrina Gravel, Diana Ceballos, Michael A Flynn, Joseph Zayed
Despite regulatory efforts and position papers, electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) remains ill-managed as evidenced by the extremely low rates of proper e-waste recycling (e-recycling) worldwide, ongoing illegal shipments to developing countries and constantly reported human health issues and environmental pollution. The objectives of this review are, first, to expose the complexity of e-waste problems, and then to suggest possible upstream and downstream solutions. Exploring e-waste issues is akin to opening a Pandora's box...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121943/managing-intra-eu-mobility-do-who-principles-of-ethical-recruitment-have-relevance
#19
Réka Kovács, Edmond Girasek, Eszter Kovács, Zoltán Aszalós, Edit Eke, Károly Ragány, Zoltán Cserháti, Miklós Szócska
BACKGROUND: The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel provides for guidance in health workforce management and cooperation in the international context. This article aims to examine whether the principles of the voluntary WHO Global Code of Practice can be applied to trigger health policy decisions within the EU zone of free movement of persons. METHODS: In the framework of the Joint Action on European Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting project (Grant Agreement: JA EUHWF 20122201 (see healthworkforce...
November 9, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121654/burden-of-tuberculosis-in-xinjiang-between-2011-and-2015-a-surveillance-data-based-study
#20
Xiangyan He, Mingqin Cao, Tanmay Mahapatra, Xiangpin Du, Sanchita Mahapatra, Qifeng Li, Lei Feng, Songyuan Tang, Zhen Zhao, Jinbao Liu, Weiming Tang
BACKGROUND: Despite the reduction in reported incidence of tuberculosis globally, the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) remains high in low- and middle- income countries, including China. The current study aims to evaluate the distribution and trend of PTB incidence in Xinjiang, the region with the highest PTB burden in China. METHODS: We identified all confirmed PTB case records reported to the Chinese TB Information Management System (TBIMS) between 2011 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
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