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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776953/the-landscape-of-actionable-genomic-alterations-in-cell-free-circulating-tumor-dna-from-21-807-advanced-cancer-patients
#1
Oliver A Zill, Kimberly C Banks, Stephen R Fairclough, Stefanie Mortimer, James V Vowles, Reza Mokhtari, David R Gandara, Philip C Mack, Justin I Odegaard, Rebecca J Nagy, Arthur M Baca, Helmy Eltoukhy, Darya I Chudova, Richard B Lanman, AmirAli Talasaz
PURPOSE: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing provides a non-invasive method for obtaining actionable genomic information to guide personalized cancer treatment, but the presence of multiple alterations in circulation related to treatment and tumor heterogeneity complicate the interpretation of the observed variants. Experimental Design: We describe the somatic mutation landscape of 70 cancer genes from cfDNA deep-sequencing analysis of 21,807 patients with treated, late-stage cancers across >50 cancer types...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776633/molecular-diagnostics-in-colorectal-carcinoma-advances-and-applications-for-2018
#2
REVIEW
Amarpreet Bhalla, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth
The molecular pathogenesis and classification of colorectal carcinoma are based on the traditional adenomaecarcinoma sequence, serrated polyp pathway, and microsatellite instability (MSI). The genetic basis for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is the detection of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM genes. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome includes MSI testing, methylator phenotype testing, BRAF mutation testing, and molecular testing for germline mutations in MMR genes. Molecular makers with predictive and prognostic implications include quantitative multigene reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and KRAS and BRAF mutation analysis...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775621/methylation-of-nbpf1-as-a-novel-marker-for-the-detection-of-plasma-cell-free-dna-of-breast-cancer-patients
#3
REVIEW
Dandan Li, Pengchang Li, Jie Yi, Yaling Dou, Xiuzhi Guo, Yicong Yin, Danchen Wang, Chaochao Ma, Jie Wu, Ling Qiu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies revealed that tumor-specific gene methylation can be detected in the circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of cancer patients; therefore, methylated cfDNA is considered a promising biomarker. Human neuroblastoma breakpoint family member 1 (NBPF1) was originally identified in a neuroblastoma (NB) patient. The present study is the first to evaluate the presence of NBPF1 gene methylation in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma of breast cancer patients. METHODS: Differentially methylated cfDNA was screened using bisulfite sequencing with a next-generation sequencer (BS-seq) among 25 breast cancer patients, 25 patients with a benign breast disease and 25 healthy female volunteers...
May 15, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774111/ceragenin-csa-13-as-free-molecules-and-attached-to-magnetic-nanoparticle-surfaces-induce-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-via-disruption-of-cell-oxidative-balance
#4
Ewelina Piktel, Izabela Prokop, Urszula Wnorowska, Grzegorz Król, Mateusz Cieśluk, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
Natural antimicrobial peptides and ceragenins, as non-peptide amphipathic mimics, have been proposed as anti-cancer agents. To date, it has been confirmed that cathelicidin LL-37 and ceragenin CSA-13, both in free form and immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP@LL-37, MNP@CSA-13) induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Nevertheless, the question remains whether ceragenins, as synthetic analogs of LL-37 peptide and mimicking a number of its properties, act as antineoplastic agents in breast cancer cells, where LL-37 peptide stimulates oncogenesis...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770585/exploring-the-effect-of-vitamin-e-in-cancer-chemotherapy-a-biochemical-and-biophysical-insight
#5
Mustansir Bhori, Kanchanlata Singh, Thankamani Marar, C MuraliKrishna
Many oncologists contend that patient undergoing chemotherapy must avoid antioxidant supplementation as it may interfere with the activity of the drug. In the present investigation, we have explored the influence of vitamin E, a well known antioxidant on Camptothecin (CPT), a potent anti-cancer drug induced cell apoptosis and death of cervical cancer cells. HeLa cells were treated with different concentrations of CPT in presence and absence of 100μm vitamin E. Treated cells were subjected to cytotoxicity studies, catalase assay, DNA fragmentation assay, clonogenic assay and flow cytometry based apoptosis detection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765514/wnt5a-induced-cell-migration-is-associated-with-the-aggressiveness-of-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#6
Yoshie Kobayashi, Takayuki Kadoya, Ai Amioka, Hideaki Hanaki, Shinsuke Sasada, Norio Masumoto, Hideki Yamamoto, Koji Arihiro, Akira Kikuchi, Morihito Okada
Elevated expression of Wnt5a is associated with malignancy, cell invasion, and metastasis. The role of Wnt5a expression in breast cancer remains elusive. We investigated the significance of Wnt5a expression in breast cancer. The relationship between Wnt5a expression and clinicopathologic factors was assessed in invasive breast cancer ( n = 178) resected at Hiroshima University Hospital between January 2011 and February 2014. Wnt5a was expressed in 69 of 178 cases (39%) of invasive breast cancer and correlated strongly with estrogen receptor (ER) expression ( P < 0...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764589/-influence-of-different-therapies-on-egfr-mutants-by-circulating-cell-free-dna-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-prognosis
#7
Fei Su, Ke Zheng, Yiyun Fu, Qian Wu, Yuan Tang, Weiya Wang, Lili Jiang
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation is closely related to the EGFR-TKI target treatment and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. The mutation status of EGFR is limited by tissue detection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of EGFR mutants in plasmacirculating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in three groups: pre-therapy, after traditional chemotherapy and targeted therapy...
May 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762619/isolation-and-genome-sequencing-of-individual-circulating-tumor-cells-using-hydrogel-encapsulation-and-laser-capture-microdissection
#8
Emily S Park, Justin P Yan, Richard A Ang, Jeong Hyun Lee, Xiaoyan Deng, Simon P Duffy, Kevin Beja, Matti Annala, Peter C Black, Kim N Chi, Alexander W Wyatt, Hongshen Ma
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are malignant cells released into the bloodstream with the potential to form metastases in secondary sites. These cells, acquired non-invasively, represent a sample of highly relevant tumor tissue that is an alternative to difficult and low-yield tumor biopsies. In recent years, there has been growing interest in genomic profiling of CTCs to enable longitudinal monitoring of the tumor's adaptive response to therapy. However, due to their extreme rarity, genotyping CTCs has proved challenging...
May 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762617/anticancer-potential-against-cervix-cancer-hela-cell-line-of-probiotic-lactobacillus-casei-and-lactobacillus-paracasei-strains-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#9
Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka, Haobin Zhao, Yao Lu, Ziyang Lian, Na Li, Nazim Hussain, Dongyan Shao, Mingliang Jin, Qi Li, Junling Shi
Lactic acid bacteria have been categorized as probiotics and play a crucial role in human health by stimulating the supply of nutrients, shaping the immune system, and preventing the colonization of pathogenic microbes. This study investigated the mechanisms for the action of three potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains: Lactobacillus casei SR1, Lactobacillus casei SR2, and Lactobacillus paracasei SR4 isolated from human breast milk. These Lactobacillus strains were identified via 16S DNA sequencing and characterized via biochemical assays including acid resistance, bile resistance, antioxidant activity, and antibiotic susceptibility...
May 15, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761074/the-clinical-utility-of-cell-free-dna-measurement-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-a-systematic-review
#10
Jonathan M Fussey, Jennifer L Bryant, Nikolaos Batis, Rachael J Spruce, Andrew Hartley, James S Good, Christopher J McCabe, Kristien Boelaert, Neil Sharma, Hisham Mehanna
Background: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can be detected in the circulation of healthy individuals, but is found in higher concentrations in cancer patients. Furthermore, mutations in tumor cells can be identified in circulating DNA fragments. This has been the subject of significant interest in the field of cancer research, but little has been published in thyroid cancer. Objectives: To assess all available evidence on the use of circulating cfDNA in the diagnosis, management and surveillance of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, and collate it into a systematic review to guide future research...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760479/immunoprofiling-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-using-whole-proteome-microarrays-generated-by-on-chip-in-situ-expression
#11
Katrin Hufnagel, Smiths Lueong, Martina Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Beiping Miao, Andrea Bauer, Angelika Michel, Julia Butt, Michael Pawlita, Jörg D Hoheisel, Tim Waterboer
Using Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) as a complex model organism, we describe a method to generate bacterial whole-proteome microarrays using cell-free, on-chip protein expression. Expression constructs were generated by two successive PCRs directly from bacterial genomic DNA. Bacterial proteins expressed on microarrays display antigenic epitopes, thereby providing an efficient method for immunoprofiling of patients and allowing de novo identification of disease-related serum antibodies. Through comparison of antibody reactivity patterns, we newly identified antigens recognized by known Ct-seropositive samples, and antigens reacting only with samples from cervical cancer (CxCa) patients...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759553/the-role-of-heme-iron-molecules-derived-from-red-and-processed-meat-in-the-pathogenesis-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
S M K Gamage, Lakal Dissabandara, Alfred King-Yin Lam, Vinod Gopalan
Emerging evidence that heme iron in red meat is a risk factor for colorectal carcinogenesis is a topic that has received recent scrutiny. This review aims to summarise the mechanism of colorectal carcinogenesis by heme contained in red and processed meat. Heme iron can induce cytotoxicity by 'cytotoxic heme factor' and promote surface epithelial cell apoptosis and compensatory epithelial hyperplasia. Heme, induces peroxidation of lipids, leading to free radical formation and generation of DNA adducts in colorectal epithelial cells...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755665/increased-level-and-fragmentation-of-plasma-circulating-cell-free-dna-are-diagnostic-and-prognostic-markers-for-renal-cell-carcinoma
#13
Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, Motohide Uemura, Kosuke Nakano, Yujiro Hayashi, Cong Wang, Yu Ishizuya, Toshiro Kinouchi, Takuji Hayashi, Kyosuke Matsuzaki, Kentaro Jingushi, Taigo Kato, Atsunari Kawashima, Takeshi Ujike, Akira Nagahara, Kazutoshi Fujita, Ryoichi Imamura, Norio Nonomura
Background: Reliable biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have yet to be found. Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is an emerging resource for the diagnosis and prognosis of various cancers. This study aims to identify novel blood biomarkers for RCC. Materials And Methods: Plasma cfDNA was extracted from RCC patients ( n = 92) and healthy controls ( n = 41). Levels of cfDNA were determined using quantitative real-time PCR of ACTB as the target gene, and cfDNA fragment size was measured using a microfluidics-based platform...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755432/murine-endogenous-retroviruses-are-detectable-in-patient-derived-xenografts-but-not-in-patient-individual-cell-lines-of-human-colorectal-cancer
#14
Stephanie Bock, Christina S Mullins, Ernst Klar, Philippe Pérot, Claudia Maletzki, Michael Linnebacher
Endogenous retroviruses are remnants of retroviral infections. In contrast to their human counterparts, murine endogenous retroviruses (mERV) still can synthesize infectious particles and retrotranspose. Xenotransplanted human cells have occasionally been described to be mERV infected. With genetic engineered mice and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) on the rise as eminent research tools, we here systematically investigated, if different tumor models harbor mERV infections. Relevant mERV candidates were first preselected by next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of spontaneous lymphomas triggered by colorectal cancer (CRC) PDX tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754608/multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-combination-with-gel-electrophoresis-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-a-powerful-tool-for-the-determination-of-gene-copy-number-variations-and-gene-expression-changes
#15
A Fernández Asensio, T Iglesias, A Cotarelo, M Espina, E Blanco-González, L M Sierra, M Montes-Bayón
During the last few years multiplex real-time or quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR (qPCR) has become the method of choice for multiplex gene expression changes and gene copy number variations (CNVs) analysis. However, such determinations require the use of different fluorescent labels for the different amplified sequences, which increases significantly the costs of the analysis and limits the applicability of the technique for simultaneous amplification of many targets of interest in a single reaction...
September 6, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754146/transcriptional-e2f1-2-5-8-as-potential-targets-and-transcriptional-e2f3-6-7-as-new-biomarkers-for-the-prognosis-of-human-lung-carcinoma
#16
Cheng-Cao Sun, Qun Zhou, Wei Hu, Shu-Jun Li, Feng Zhang, Zhen-Long Chen, Guang Li, Zhuo-Yue Bi, Yong-Yi Bi, Feng-Yun Gong, Tao Bo, Zhan-Peng Yuan, Wei-Dong Hu, Bo-Tao Zhan, Qian Zhang, Qi-Zhu Tang, De-Jia Li
E2F is a group of genes that encode a family of transcription factors (TFs) in higher eukaryotes and participate in cell cycle regulation and DNA synthesis in mammalian cells. Evidence from cell lines, mouse models, and human tissues indicates that TFs are implicated in lung cancer (LC) tumorigenesis. However, the diverse expression patterns and prognostic values of eight E2Fs have yet to be elucidated. In the current study, we examined the transcriptional and survival data of E2Fs in patients with LC from ONCOMINE, GEPIA, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, and cBioPortal databases...
May 11, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754052/detection-of-parp-1-activity-based-on-hyperbranched-poly-adp-ribose-polymers-responsive-current-in-artificial-nanochannels
#17
Yong Liu, Jiahui Fan, Haitang Yang, Ensheng Xu, Wei Wei, Yuanjian Zhang, Songqin Liu
The cellular enzyme poly ADP (ADP: adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays key roles in DNA repair. Its activity is closely related to various cancer developments. Detection of PARP-1 activity is significant, however, it is relatively difficult since it lacks superiority property that can be used to detect conveniently. PARP-1 lead to the synthesis of hyperbranched poly (ADP-ribose) polymers (PAR) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) as substrate during DNA damage repairing. In this paper, we found that hyper-branched PAR increased the steric hindrance and reduced the flux of probe ions effectively in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanochannels...
May 4, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751135/brief-report-on-the-detection-of-the-egfr-t790m-mutation-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-from-lung-cancer-patients
#18
Robert J Smyth, Sinead M Toomey, Alexander Sartori, Emer O Hanrahan, Sinead D Cuffe, Oscar S Breathnach, Ross K Morgan, Bryan T Hennessy
The EGFR-T790M somatic mutation is the most common mechanism of resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer. Patients with advanced disease are not always amenable to repeat biopsy for further molecular analysis. Developing non-invasive methods to detect T790M in cell-free DNA (cfDNA), in the absence of tissue is being actively investigated. Unfortunately the low sensitivity of plasma for T790M detection has limited its clinical use. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is an easily collected sample, known to harbour cfDNA, including lung cancer mutations...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750778/correlations-between-mrna-levels-of-centrosomal-protein-55-cep55-and-clinical-features-of-patients-with-lung-cancer
#19
Xue-Ping Ma, Wenping Zhang, Bu-Qiang Wu, Jun Qin
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic relevance of CEP55 in lung cancer (LC). MATERIAL AND METHODS LC microarray profile GSE30219 was obtained from the GEO database. The 2-sample t test was performed to clarify the difference in CEP55 expression between LC and normal lung tissue. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were preformed to investigate the relationship between CEP55 expression and the clinical features of LC patients. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of LC patients...
May 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749584/droplet-digital-pcr-detects-high-rate-of-tp53-r249s-mutants-in-cell-free-dna-of-middle-african-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Agnès Marchio, Marie Amougou Atsama, Aubin Béré, Narcisse-Patrice Komas, Dominique Noah Noah, Paul Jean Adrien Atangana, Serge-Magloire Camengo-Police, Richard Njouom, Claudine Bekondi, Pascal Pineau
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still a major killing malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Lifelong intoxication with aflatoxin B1 is considered as one of the primary causes of this situation. The role of aflatoxin in HCC from a given population is commonly estimated through the prevalence of R249S mutation of TP53, a hallmark for previous exposure to the mycotoxin. However, the role of AFB1 is barely known in large part of Africa. We conducted a survey on circulating cell-free DNA from 149 patients with HCC and 213 control subjects with and without liver diseases from Cameroon and Central African Republic using droplet digital PCR technique...
May 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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