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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105346/human-papillomavirus-is-a-favourable-prognostic-factor-in-cancer-of-unknown-primary-in-the-head-and-neck-region-and-in-hypopharyngeal-cancer
#1
Lars Sivars, Cinzia Bersani, Nathalie Grün, Torbjörn Ramqvist, Eva Munck-Wikland, Christian Von Buchwald, Tina Dalianis
Human papillomavirus (HPV), in addition to smoking and alcohol, is a cause of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), particularly of the tonsils and base of the tongue (TSCC and BOTSCC, respectively). Moreover, HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC are associated with a better outcome compared with their HPV-negative counterparts (80 vs. 40% 3-year disease-free survival rate, respectively) and their incidence has increased in several countries. Recently, accumulating evidence of HPV in a considerable proportion of cancers of unknown primary (CUP) in the head and neck region and in a small proportion of hypopharyngeal SCCs has been reported...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105180/screening-specific-polypeptides-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells-from-a-phage-display-random-peptide-library
#2
Fei Liu, Chun-Ling Qi, Mian Kong, Ting-Ting Liu, Lei Li, Bao-Jiang Li
The present study aimed to identify polypeptides that specifically bond to breast cancer stem cells from a phage display random 12 peptide library, in addition to the affinity and specificity of polypeptides. A phage display random 12 peptide library was screened using breast cancer stem cells as targets isolated from the MDA-MB-231 cell line using the serum-free culture technique with hs578bst and MDA-MB-231 cells as subtract-screening cells. Positive and specific binding clones were amplified and sent for sequencing...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104621/high-prevalence-of-mutant-kras-in-circulating-exosome-derived-dna-from-early-stage-pancreatic-cancer-patients
#3
K Allenson, J Castillo, F A San Lucas, G Scelo, D U Kim, V Bernard, G Davis, T Kumar, M Katz, M J Overman, L Foretova, E Fabianova, I Holcatova, V Janout, F Meric-Bernstam, P Gascoyne, I Wistuba, G Varadhachary, P Brennan, S Hanash, D Li, A Maitra, H Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Exosomes arise from viable cancer cells and may reflect a different biology than circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shed from dying tissues. We compare exosome-derived DNA (exoDNA) to cfDNA in liquid biopsies of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patient samples were obtained between 2003 and 2010, with clinically annotated follow up to 2015. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was performed on exoDNA and cfDNA for sensitive detection of KRAS mutants at codons 12/13...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104619/osimertinib-benefit-in-egfr-mutant-nsclc-patients-with-t790m-mutation-detected-by-circulating-tumour-dna
#4
J Remon, C Caramella, C Jovelet, L Lacroix, A Lawson, S Smalley, K Howarth, D Gale, E Green, V Plagnol, N Rosenfeld, D Planchard, M V Bluthgen, A Gazzah, C Pannet, C Nicotra, E Auclin, J C Soria, B Besse
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) will acquire resistance by the T790M mutation. Osimertinib is the standard of care in this situation. The present study assesses the efficacy of osimertinib when T790M status is determined in circulating cell-free tumour DNA (ctDNA) from blood samples in progressing advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ctDNA T790M mutational status was assessed by Inivata InVision(TM) (eTAm-Seq(TM)) assay in 48 EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients with acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs without a tissue biopsy between April 2015 and April 2016...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104311/comprehensive-profiling-of-the-androgen-receptor-in-liquid-biopsies-from-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-reveals-novel-intra-ar-structural-variation-and-splice-variant-expression-patterns
#5
Bram De Laere, Pieter-Jan van Dam, Tom Whitington, Markus Mayrhofer, Emanuela Henao Diaz, Gert Van den Eynden, Jean Vandebroek, Jurgen Del-Favero, Steven Van Laere, Luc Dirix, Henrik Grönberg, Johan Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Expression of the androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is associated with poor response to second-line endocrine therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, a large fraction of nonresponding patients are AR-V7-negative. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if a comprehensive liquid biopsy-based AR profile may improve patient stratification in the context of second-line endocrine therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Peripheral blood was collected from patients with CRPC (n=30) before initiation of a new line of systemic therapy...
January 16, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102676/novel-antitumor-platinum-ii-conjugates-containing-the-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-agent-diclofenac-synthesis-and-dual-mechanisms-of-antiproliferative-effects
#6
Francesco Paolo Intini, Juraj Zajac, Vojtech Novohradsky, Teresa Saltarella, Concetta Pacifico, Viktor Brabec, Giovanni Natile, Jana Kasparkova
One concept how to improve anticancer effects of conventional metallodrugs consists in conjugation of these compounds with other biologically (antitumor) active agents, acting by a different mechanism. Here, we present synthesis, biological effects, and mechanisms of action of new Pt(II) derivatives containing one or two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) ligands also known for their antitumor effects. The antiproliferative properties of these metallic conjugates show that these compounds are potent and cancer cell selective cytotoxic agents exhibiting activity in cisplatin resistant and the COX-2 positive tumor cell lines...
January 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101802/cold-pcr-technologies-in-the-area-of-personalized-medicine-methodology-and-applications
#7
REVIEW
Florence Mauger, Alexandre How-Kit, Jörg Tost
Somatic mutations bear great promise for use as biomarkers for personalized medicine, but are often present only in low abundance in biological material and are therefore difficult to detect. Many assays for mutation analysis in cancer-related genes (hotspots) have been developed to improve diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of drug resistance, and monitoring of the response to treatment. Two major approaches have been developed: mutation-specific amplification methods and methods that enrich and detect mutations without prior knowledge on the exact location and identity of the mutation...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099328/clinical-and-prognostic-significance-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-in-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Gun-Jik Kim, Jae-Ho Lee, Deok Heon Lee
Recently, an association between Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was reported. However, the underlying carcinogenic effects and the prognosis related to MCPyV are still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the incidence and prognosis related to MCPyV infections in NSCLC.Tissue samples from 167 NSCLC patients (92 with squamous cell carcinomas [SCCs] and 75 with adenocarcinomas) were analyzed for the presence of MCPyV and EGFR mutations...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096542/liquid-biopsy-in-2016-circulating-tumour-cells-and-cell-free-dna-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#9
Klaus Pantel, Catherine Alix-Panabières
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096270/mutation-enrichment-next-generation-sequencing-for-quantitative-detection-of-kras-mutations-in-urine-cell-free-dna-from-patients-with-advanced-cancers
#10
Takeo Fuji, Afsaneh Barzi, Andrea Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea Cassingena, Giulia Siravegna, Daniel Karp, Sarina Piha-Paul, Vivek Subbiah, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Helen Huang, Sillvio Veronese, Federica Di Nicolantonio, Sandeep C Pingle, Cecile Rose T Vibat, Saege Hancock, David Berz, Vladislava O Melnikova, Mark G Erlander, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Scott Kopetz, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Salvatore Siena, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Alberto Bardelli, Filip Janku
PURPOSE: Tumor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from urine of patients with cancer offers non-invasive biologic material for detection of cancer-related molecular abnormalities such as mutations in Exon 2 of KRAS. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A quantitative, mutation-enrichment next-generation sequencing test for detecting KRASG12/G13 mutations in urine cfDNA was developed and results were compared to clinical testing of archival tumor tissue and plasma cfDNA from patients with advanced cancer...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093244/novel-mutations-on-egfr-leu792-potentially-correlate-to-acquired-resistance-to-osimertinib-in-advanced-nsclc
#11
Kai Chen, Fei Zhou, Wenxiang Shen, Tao Jiang, Xue Wu, Xiaoling Tong, Yang W Shao, Songbing Qin, Caicun Zhou
Osimertinib is an irreversible third generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and has shown outstanding performances in treating EGFR T790M-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but acquired resistance is inevitable. EGFR C797S is the most notable resistance mechanism to this drug, but other EGFR mutations may also exist. In three lung adenocarcinoma patients resistant to osimertinib, we identified recurrent novel mutations at EGFR Leu792 codon by targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of cell free DNA (cfDNA) from plasma or pleural effusion...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081343/the-combined-effects-of-proteasome-inhibitor-bortezomib-with-topoisomerase-i-and-ii-inhibitors-on-topoisomerase-enzymes
#12
Emine Öksüzoğlu, Çiydem Tırınoğlu, Barış Kerimoğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes that regulate conformational changes in DNA topology during essential cellular processes, and, for this reason, have been characterized as the cellular targets of a number of anticancer drugs. Bortezomib is a powerful proteasome inhibitor used in the treatment of hematological malignancies. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of bortezomib on human topoisomerase I and II enzymes both alone and in combination modes with camptothecin and etoposide...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081183/circulating-cell-free-dna-in-dogs-with-mammary-tumors-short-and-long-fragments-and-integrity-index
#13
Giorgia Beffagna, Alessandro Sammarco, Chiara Bedin, Chiara Romualdi, Marta Mainenti, Antonio Mollo, Laura Cavicchioli, Silvia Ferro, Davide Trez, Raffaella De Maria, Donato Nitti, Andrea Saccani, Michelangelo Campanella, Marco Agostini, Valentina Zappulli
Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been considered an interesting diagnostic/prognostic plasma biomarker in tumor-bearing subjects. In cancer patients, cfDNA can hypothetically derive from tumor necrosis/apoptosis, lysed circulating cells, and some yet unrevealed mechanisms of active release. This study aimed to preliminarily analyze cfDNA in dogs with canine mammary tumors (CMTs). Forty-four neoplastic, 17 non-neoplastic disease-bearing, and 15 healthy dogs were recruited. Necrosis and apoptosis were also assessed as potential source of cfDNA on 78 CMTs diagnosed from the 44 dogs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077981/dna-polymerase-kappa-protects-human-cells-against-mmc-induced-genotoxicity-through-error-free-translesion-dna-synthesis
#14
Yuki Kanemaru, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akira Sassa, Kyomu Matsumoto, Noritaka Adachi, Masamitsu Honma, Satoshi Numazawa, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072763/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-hpv-infection-in-squamous-cell-oropharyngeal-carcinomas-the-papillophar-study
#15
Marine Lefevre, Alexandra Rousseau, Thomas Rayon, Véronique Dalstein, Christine Clavel, Agnès Beby-Defaux, Jean-Luc Pretet, Patrick Soussan, Myriam Polette, Jean Lacau Saint Guily, Philippe Birembaut
BACKGROUND: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is recognised as aetiological factor of carcinogenesis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPC). HPV-related OPC respond better to treatments and have a significantly favourable outcome. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) implicated in tumour invasion, is a hallmark of a poor prognosis in carcinomas. METHODS: We have studied the relationship of EMT markers (E-cadherin, β-catenin and vimentin) with HPV infection (DNA and E6/E7 mRNA detection), p16(INK4a) expression and survival outcomes in a cohort of 296 patients with OPC...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069440/inter-and-intra-cellular-mechanism-of-nf-kb-dependent-survival-advantage-and-clonal-expansion-of-radio-resistant-cancer-cells
#16
Hui Yu, Natarajan Aravindan, Ji Xu, Mohan Natarajan
Understanding the underlying mechanism by which cancer cells acquire resistance to radiation and favorably selected for its clonal expansion will provide molecular insight into tumor recurrence at the treatment site. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms prompted in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in response to clinical radiation and the associated coordination of intra- and inter-cellular signaling that orchestrate radio-resistance and tumor relapse/recurrence. Our findings showed that 2 or 10Gy of (137)Cs γ-rays at a dose rate of 1...
January 6, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067798/dark-and-photoinduced-cytotoxic-activity-of-the-new-chlorophyll-a-derivatives-with-oligoethylene-glycol-substituents-on-the-periphery-of-their-macrocycles
#17
Yana I Pylina, Dmitry M Shadrin, Oksana G Shevchenko, Olga M Startseva, Igor O Velegzhaninov, Dmitry V Belykh, Ilya O Velegzhaninov
In the present work, we investigated the dark and photoinduced cytotoxic activity of the new chlorophyll-a derivatives which contain the substituents of oligoethylene glycol on the periphery of their macrocycles. These compounds were tested using human cell lines to estimate their potential as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer. It was shown that all the tested compounds have expressed photoinduced cytotoxic activity in vitro. Detailed study of the biological activity of one of the most perspective compound in this series-pyropheophorbide-a 17-diethylene glycol ester (Compound 21) was performed...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064505/cisplatin-stitched-polysaccharide-vesicles-for-synergistic-cancer-therapy-of-triple-antagonistic-drugs
#18
Nilesh Umakant Deshpande, Manickam Jayakannan
New cisplatin-stitched polysaccharide vesicular nanocarrier is developed for combination therapy of three clinical important antagonistic drugs together to accomplish synergistic cancer therapy in breast cancer treatment. Carboxylic functionalized dextran was tailor-made for the chemical conjugation of cisplatin, and a renewable hydrophobic unit was anchored in the backbone to interdigitize the chains to self-assemble as cisplatin-stitched polysaccharide nanovesicles. Water-soluble DNA-intercalating drug doxorubicin·HCl (DOX) and water insoluble topoisomerase type I inhibitor drug camptothecin (CPT) were encapsulated in these vesicles to produce dual or triple drug-loaded vesicular nanocarrier...
January 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063964/impact-of-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-hbcab-seropositivity-on-the-outcome-of-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-multiple-myeloma
#19
Ankur Varma, Laura Biritxinaga, Rima M Saliba, Maximilian Stich, Sarah Francesca Jauch, Aimaz Afrough, Medhavi Honhar, Uday R Popat, Mehnaz A Shafi, Nina Shah, Qaiser Bashir, Yvonne Dinh, Chitra Hosing, Richard E Champlin, Muzaffar H Qazilbash
Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) seropositivity has been associated with a higher rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after chemotherapy, even in patients who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative. However, little is known about the risk of HBV reactivation after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT). We evaluated the incidence of HBV reactivation, liver toxicity and survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who received auto-HCT at our institution. We retrospectively identified 107 MM patients with resolved HBV infection (HBcAb positive, HBsAg negative) and 125 patients with negative HBV serology (controls) who were matched for age, timing of auto-HCT from diagnosis, cytogenetics, disease status at transplant, induction therapy, and preparative regimen...
January 4, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063379/oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-abnormalities-and-antioxidant-defense-in-ataxia-telangiectasia-bloom-syndrome-and-nijmegen-breakage-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Mateusz Maciejczyk, Bozena Mikoluc, Barbara Pietrucha, Edyta Heropolitanska-Pliszka, Malgorzata Pac, Radosław Motkowski, Halina Car
Rare pleiotropic genetic disorders, Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), Bloom syndrome (BS) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) are characterised by immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, higher cancer susceptibility, premature aging, neurodegeneration and insulin resistance. Some of these functional abnormalities can be explained by aberrant DNA damage response and chromosomal instability. It has been suggested that one possible common denominator of these conditions could be chronic oxidative stress caused by endogenous ROS overproduction and impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis...
December 28, 2016: Redox Biology
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