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Brain Cancer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333657/gelatin-methacryloyl-hydrogels-in-the-absence-of-a-crosslinker-as-3d-glioblastoma-multiforme-gbm-mimetic-microenvironment
#1
Pelin Erkoc, Fidan Seker, Tugba Bagci-Onder, Seda Kizilel
3D platforms are important for monitoring tumor progression and screening drug candidates to eradicate tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a malignant type of human brain tumor. Here, a new strategy is reported that exploits visible-light-induced crosslinking of gelatin where the reaction is carried out in the absence of an additional crosslinker. Visible light-induced crosslinking promotes the design of cancer microenvironment-mimetic system without compromising the cell viability during the process and absence of crosslinker facilitates the synthesis of the unique construct...
January 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333045/in-vitro-antiproliferative-effect-of-earthworm-coelomic-fluid-of-eudrilus-eugeniae-eisenia-foetida-and-perionyx-excavatus-on-squamous-cell-carcinoma-9-cell-line-a-pilot-study
#2
Dominic Augustine, Roopa S Rao, Jayaraman Anbu, K N Chidambara Murthy
Introduction: The earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) has shown proven antiproliferative effect against breast, liver, gastrointestinal, and brain cancer, but it is least explored in oral cancer. The present in vitro study is an attempt to investigate the antiproliferative activity of ECF on oral cancer cell line squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-9. Materials and Methods: ECF was collected from the species Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) stored at -80°C...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332928/optical-coherence-tomography-for-precision-brain-imaging-neurosurgical-guidance-and-minimally-invasive-theranostics
#3
Yingwei Fan, Yan Xia, Xinran Zhang, Yu Sun, Jie Tang, Liwei Zhang, Hongen Liao
This review focuses on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based neurosurgical application for imaging and treatment of brain tumors. OCT has emerged as one of the most innovative and successful translational biomedical-diagnostic techniques. It is a useful imaging tool for noninvasive, in vivo, in situ and real-time imaging in soft biological tissues, such as brain tumor imaging. OCT can detect the structure of biological tissue in a micrometer scale, and functional OCT has some clinical researches and applications, such as nerve fiber tracts and neurovascular imaging...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332042/protective-effects-of-indian-spice-curcumin-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
P Hemachandra Reddy, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Mary Catherine Grady, Andrew Mitchell, Sahil Tonk, Chandra Sekhar Kuruva, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Ramesh Kandimalla, Murali Vijayan, Subodh Kumar, Rui Wang, Jangampalli Adi Pradeepkiran, Gilbert Ogunmokun, Kavya Thamarai, Kandi Quesada, Annette Boles, Arubala P Reddy
The purpose of our article is to assess the current understanding of Indian spice, curcumin, against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Natural products, such as ginger, curcumin, and gingko biloba have been used as diets and dietary supplements to treat human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndromes, and neurological disorders. Products derived from plants are known to have protective effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-arthritis, pro-healing, and boosting memory cognitive functions...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311567/long-noncoding-rna-casc9-5-promotes-the-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#5
Jianlong Zhou, Haiping Xiao, Xinglong Yang, Hao Tian, Zhiyong Xu, Yu Zhong, Limin Ma, Weimin Zhang, Guibin Qiao, Jing Liang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulatory factors in tumor development and progression. The lncRNA CASC9.5 is located on chromosome 8 and has a total length of 1316 bp. CASC9.5 plays a tumor-promoting role in the development and progression of brain tumor and colon cancer; however, limited research has been conducted on the role of this lncRNA in lung adenocarcinoma. The present study analyzed 44 lung adenocarcinoma specimens and 2 lung cancer cell lines. It was found that CASC9.5 expression levels were significantly higher in lung cancer tissues and cells compared with normal lung tissues...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311472/advances-in-studies-of-p-glycoprotein-and-its-expression-regulators
#6
Kentaro Yano, Takumi Tomono, Takuo Ogihara
This review deals with recent advances in studies on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its expression regulators, focusing especially on our own research. Firstly, we describe findings demonstrating that the distribution of P-gp along the small intestine is heterogeneous, which explains why orally administered P-gp substrate drugs often show bimodal changes of plasma concentration. Secondly, we discuss the post-translational regulation of P-gp localization and function by the scaffold proteins ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM proteins), together with recent reports indicating that tissue-specific differences in regulation by ERM proteins in normal tissues might be retained in corresponding cancerous tissues...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303950/cns-drug-development-lessons-learned-part-4-the-role-of-brain-circuitry-and-genes-tasimelteon-as-an-example
#7
Sheldon H Preskorn
This is the fourth in a series of columns discussing the rational and targeted development of drugs to affect specific central nervous system (CNS) circuits in specific ways based on knowledge gained by molecular biology and the human genome project. The first column in this series described 6 CNS drugs with novel mechanisms of action developed over the last 25 years. The second column discussed differences between syndromic diagnoses as exemplified by the third through the fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III through DSM-5) and the new approach to psychiatric diagnoses championed by the National Institute of Mental Health in their Research Domain Criteria Initiative...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291164/nanotheranostics-emerging-strategies-for-early-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-brain-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Sonali, Matte Kasi Viswanadh, Rahul Pratap Singh, Poornima Agrawal, Abhishesh Kumar Mehata, Datta Maroti Pawde, Narendra, Roshan Sonkar, Madaswamy Sona Muthu
Nanotheranostics have demonstrated the development of advanced platforms that can diagnose brain cancer at early stages, initiate first-line therapy, monitor it, and if needed, rapidly start subsequent treatments. In brain nanotheranostics, therapeutic as well as diagnostic entities are loaded in a single nanoplatform, which can be further developed as a clinical formulation for targeting various modes of brain cancer. In the present review, we concerned about theranostic nanosystems established till now in the research field...
2018: Nanotheranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285401/multifunctional-stimuli-responsive-polymer-gated-iron-and-gold-embedded-silica-nano-golf-balls-nanoshuttles-for-targeted-on-demand-theranostics
#9
Liping Wang, Grace Jang, Deependra Kumar Ban, Vrinda Sant, Jay Seth, Sami Kazmi, Nirav Patel, Qingqing Yang, Joon Lee, Woraphong Janetanakit, Shanshan Wang, Brian P Head, Gennadi Glinsky, Ratneshwar Lal
Multi-functional nanoshuttles for remotely targeted and on-demand delivery of therapeutic molecules and imaging to defined tissues and organs hold great potentials in personalized medicine, including precise early diagnosis, efficient prevention and therapy without toxicity. Yet, in spite of 25 years of research, there are still no such shuttles available. To this end, we have designed magnetic and gold nanoparticles (NP)-embedded silica nanoshuttles (MGNSs) with nanopores on their surface. Fluorescently labeled Doxorubicin (DOX), a cancer drug, was loaded in the MGNSs as a payload...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282838/the-inositol-pyrophosphate-pathway-in-health-and-diseases
#10
Anutosh Chakraborty
Inositol pyrophosphates (IPPs) are present in organisms ranging from plants, slime moulds and fungi to mammals. Distinct classes of kinases generate different forms of energetic diphosphate-containing IPPs from inositol phosphates (IPs). Conversely, polyphosphate phosphohydrolase enzymes dephosphorylate IPPs to regenerate the respective IPs. IPPs and/or their metabolizing enzymes regulate various cell biological processes by modulating many proteins via diverse mechanisms. In the last decade, extensive research has been conducted in mammalian systems, particularly in knockout mouse models of relevant enzymes...
December 27, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282720/revealing-the-glioma-cancer-stem-cell-interactome-one-niche-at-a-time
#11
Daniel J Silver, Justin D Lathia
Glioblastoma cancer stem cells (CSCs) are insidious. They extensively infiltrate brain tissue, resist radio- and chemotherapy, and are thought to represent the ultimate drivers of disease progression. New research has identified CD109, a GPI-anchored protein, on a population of perivascular CSCs. Interrogation of primary human tumor tissue suggests a role for CD109-expressing CSCs in the progression from low- to high-grade glioma, and animal modeling reveals a critical role for CD109 in the maintenance of the GBM CSC phenotype...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282077/pdgfa-pdgfr%C3%AE-regulated-golm1-promotes-human-glioma-progression-through-activation-of-akt
#12
Ran Xu, Jianxiong Ji, Xin Zhang, Mingzhi Han, Chao Zhang, Yangyang Xu, Yuzhen Wei, Shuai Wang, Bin Huang, Anjing Chen, Di Zhang, Qing Zhang, Wenjie Li, Zheng Jiang, Jian Wang, Xingang Li
BACKGROUND: Golgi Membrane Protein 1 (GOLM1), a protein involved in the trafficking of proteins through the Golgi apparatus, has been shown to be oncogenic in a variety of human cancers. Here, we examined the role of GOLM1 in the development of human glioma. METHODS: qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate GOLM1 levels in cell lines and a cohort of primary human glioma and non-neoplastic brain tissue samples. Glioma cell lines were modified with lentiviral constructs expressing short hairpin RNAs targeting GOLM1 or overexpressing the protein to assess function in proliferation, viability, and migration and invasion in vitro using EdU, CCK8, clone-forming, Transwell assays, 3D tumor spheroid invasion assay and in vivo in orthotopic implantations...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260390/parent-perspectives-and-preferences-for-strategies-regarding-nonsedated-mri-scans-in-a-pediatric-oncology-population
#13
Breya Walker, Heather M Conklin, Doralina L Anghelescu, Lacey P Hall, Wilburn E Reddick, Robert Ogg, Lisa M Jacola
PURPOSE: Children with cancer frequently require MRI scans for clinical purposes. Sedation with general anesthesia (GA) is often used to promote compliance, reduce motion, and alleviate anxiety. The use of GA for MRI scans is costly in terms of time, personnel, and medications. In addition, prominent risks are associated with anesthesia exposure in patients with complex medical conditions. Successful behavioral interventions have been implemented in clinical research settings to promote scan success and compliance...
December 19, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259597/humans-in-a-dish-the-potential-of-organoids-in-modeling-immunity-and-infectious-diseases
#14
Nino Iakobachvili, Peter J Peters
For many decades, human infectious diseases have been studied in immortalized cell lines, isolated primary cells from blood and a range of animal hosts. This research has been of fundamental importance in advancing our understanding of host and pathogen responses but remains limited by the absence of multicellular context and inherent differences in animal immune systems that result in altered immune responses. Recent developments in stem cell biology have led to the in vitro growth of organoids that faithfully recapitulate a variety of human tissues including lung, intestine and brain amongst many others...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259535/one-pot-aqueous-synthesis-of-fluorescent-ag-in-zn-s-quantum-dot-polymer-bioconjugates-for-multiplex-optical-bioimaging-of-glioblastoma-cells
#15
Alexandra A P Mansur, Herman S Mansur, Sandhra M Carvalho, Anderson J Caires
Cancer research has experienced astonishing advances recently, but cancer remains a major threat because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor, where the early diagnosis is vital for longer survival. Thus, this study reports the synthesis of novel water-dispersible ternary AgInS2 (AIS) and quaternary AgInS2-ZnS (ZAIS) fluorescent quantum dots using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as ligand for multiplexed bioimaging of malignant glioma cells (U-87 MG)...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248671/chromatin-in-nervous-system-development-and-disease
#16
EDITORIAL
Shigeki Iwase, Donna M Martin
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is critical during development of the central nervous system. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding epigenetic factors have been found to cause a wide variety of neurodevelopmental disorders including Autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Cancers affecting neuronal and glial cells in the brain have also been shown to exhibit somatic mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting chromatin-based links between regulated and dysregulated cellular proliferation and differentiation...
December 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248129/the-distribution-of-cancer-cases-in-somalia
#17
Yılmaz Baş, Hussein Abshir Hassan, Cevdet Adıgüzel, Oktay Bulur, İkram Abdikarim Ibrahim, Seçil Soydan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of cancer cases in a defined time period in Somalia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 403 cancer cases were diagnosed between January 01, 2016 and March 01, 2017 in the Department of Pathology at the Somalia Mogadishu-Turkey Education and Research Hospital or the Department of Oncology at Uniso Hospital, Somalia University. Data on cancer type, patient age, and gender were obtained from pathology reports and hospital records...
June 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245064/circrnas-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Ines Lucia Patop, Sebastian Kadener
Exonic circular RNAs (circRNAs) are mostly generated from exons of protein-coding genes and, in many cases, are more abundant that the linear product from their hosting gene. Certain circRNAs are very abundant in the brain and in non-dividing cells; and many also show physiological-specific and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, recent work has demonstrated that some circRNAs are functional. Lately an important number of research articles have pointed a relation between cancer and certain circRNAs. In this review, we describe general advances in the field regarding circRNA biogenesis and functions in relationship with cancer...
December 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242735/microcalcified-hepatic-metastases-incidentally-detected-on-f-18-naf-pet-ct-in-a-patient-with-prostate-cancer
#19
Gul Ege Aktas, Ali Sarıkaya, Nuray Can, Selin Soyluoglu Demir
F-18 NaF PET/CT evaluation has gained importance in recent years. Achievements from F-18 NaF PET/CT are: higher sensitivity of positron imaging, higher target background ratio with higher tracer accumulation in bone hydroxyapatite and higher specificity through CT correlation. These properties have also given directions to new research fields based on imaging microcalcifications, very recently. A limited number of cases have reported the F-18 NaF uptake in macrocalcified soft tissue metastases. Although the presence of microcalcification was not proved; accumulation of F-18 NaF in the metastatic brain lesion with no visible calcification on the CT, in a patient with ductal breast carcinoma has also been reported...
December 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239532/a-3d-real-scale-biomimetic-and-biohybrid-model-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-fabricated-through-two-photon-lithography
#20
Attilio Marino, Omar Tricinci, Matteo Battaglini, Carlo Filippeschi, Virgilio Mattoli, Edoardo Sinibaldi, Gianni Ciofani
The investigation of the crossing of exogenous substances through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is object of intensive research in biomedicine, and one of the main obstacles for reliable in vitro evaluations is represented by the difficulties at the base of developing realistic models of the barrier, which could resemble as most accurately as possible the in vivo environment. Here, for the first time, a 1:1 scale, biomimetic, and biohybrid BBB model is proposed. Microtubes inspired to the brain capillaries were fabricated through two-photon lithography and used as scaffolds for the co-culturing of endothelial-like bEnd...
December 14, 2017: Small
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