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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640705/genomic-analysis-of-childhood-brain-tumors-methods-for-genome-wide-discovery-and-precision-medicine-become-mainstream
#1
Stephen C Mack, Paul A Northcott
Recent breakthroughs in next-generation sequencing technology and complementary genomic platforms have transformed our capacity to interrogate the molecular landscapes of human cancers, including childhood brain tumors. Numerous high-throughput genomic studies have been reported for the major histologic brain tumor entities diagnosed in children, including interrogations at the level of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, many of which have yielded essential new insights into disease biology. The nature of these discoveries has been largely platform dependent, exemplifying the usefulness of applying different genomic and computational strategies, or integrative approaches, to address specific biologic and/or clinical questions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632243/team-science-and-big-brains
#2
Anne Katz
Recently, I was honored with the task of moderating a session at the Oncology Nursing Society's 42nd Annual Congress in Denver, Colorado. The panel discussion, "Team Science: A Discussion With the Experts," was described as an opportunity to learn about team science implementation in the conduct of cancer research. The panel members were leaders in oncology research. As the session was about to begin, I looked over at the panelists and decided that this session should have been called "The Big Brains Session" because the panelists are giants in the field...
July 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631980/orexin-research-patent-news-from-2016
#3
Christoph Boss, Catherine Roch
The orexin (hypocretin) system consists of two G-protein-coupled receptors, orexin 1 (Ox1) and orexin 2 (Ox2) and two endogenous peptidic ligands, orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB). It is evolutionarily highly conserved. In the brain, it is involved in the promotion of wakefulness under motivational circumstances as well as in anxiety and addictive disorders. In addition, its activation via the Ox1 receptor triggers apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) such as suvorexant are successfully used to treat primary insomnia...
June 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631844/sonic-hedgehog-wnt-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-cell-signaling-pathway-crosstalk-potential-therapy-for-depression
#4
REVIEW
Mohd Tayyab, Mehdi H Shahi, Shirin Farheen, Mubeena P M Mariyath, Nabeela Khanam, Javier S Castresana, M Mobarak Hossain
There are various theories to explain the pathophysiology of depression and support its diagnosis and treatment. The roles of monoamines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Wnt signaling are well researched, but sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and its downstream transcription factor Gli1 are not well studied in depression. Shh signaling plays a fundamental role in embryonic development and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and also involved in the growth of cancer. In this article, we summarize the evidence for the Shh signaling pathway in depression and the potential crosstalk of Shh with Wnt and BDNF...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631533/u-can-a-prospective-longitudinal-collection-of-biomaterials-and-clinical-information-from-adult-cancer-patients-in-sweden
#5
Bengt Glimelius, Beatrice Melin, Gunilla Enblad, Irina Alafuzoff, Anna Beskow, Håkan Ahlström, Anna Bill-Axelson, Helgi Birgisson, Ove Björ, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Tony Hansson, Thomas Helleday, Per Hellman, Kerstin Henriksson, Göran Hesselager, Magnus Hultdin, Michael Häggman, Martin Höglund, Håkan Jonsson, Chatarina Larsson, Henrik Lindman, Ingrid Ljuslinder, Stephanie Mindus, Peter Nygren, Fredrik Pontén, Katrine Riklund, Richard Rosenquist, Fredrik Sandin, Jochen M Schwenk, Roger Stenling, Karin Stålberg, Peter Stålberg, Christer Sundström, Camilla Thellenberg Karlsson, Bengt Westermark, Anders Bergh, Lena Claesson-Welsh, Richard Palmqvist, Tobias Sjöblom
BACKGROUND: Progress in cancer biomarker discovery is dependent on access to high-quality biological materials and high-resolution clinical data from the same cases. To overcome current limitations, a systematic prospective longitudinal sampling of multidisciplinary clinical data, blood and tissue from cancer patients was therefore initiated in 2010 by Uppsala and Umeå Universities and involving their corresponding University Hospitals, which are referral centers for one third of the Swedish population...
June 20, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629431/microrna-330-3p-promotes-cell-invasion-and-metastasis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-through-gria3-by-activating-mapk-erk-signaling-pathway
#6
Chun-Hua Wei, Gang Wu, Qian Cai, Xi-Can Gao, Fan Tong, Rui Zhou, Rui-Guang Zhang, Ji-Hua Dong, Yu Hu, Xiao-Rong Dong
BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis (BM) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recent studies demonstrated that microRNA-330-3p (miR-330-3p) was involved in NSCLC brain metastasis (BM). However, the exact parts played by miR-330-3p in BM of NSCLC remain unknown. Discovery and development of biomarkers and elucidation of the mechanism underlying BM in NSCLC is critical for effective prophylactic interventions. Here, we evaluated the expression and biological effects of miR-330-3p in NSCLC cells and explored the underlying mechanism of miR-330-3p in promoting cell migration and invasion in NSCLC...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624530/the-emerging-role-of-wnt-signaling-dysregulation-in-the-understanding-and-modification-of-age-associated-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Clorinda Arias
Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway that participates in multiple aspects of cellular function during development and in adults. In particular, this pathway has been implicated in cell fate determination, proliferation and cell polarity establishment. In the brain, it contributes to synapse formation, axonal remodeling, dendrite outgrowth, synaptic activity, neurogenesis and behavioral plasticity. The expression and distribution of Wnt components in different organs vary with age, which may have important implications for preserving tissue homeostasis...
June 15, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620182/residential-radon-exposure-and-brain-cancer-an-ecological-study-in-a-radon-prone-area-galicia-spain
#8
Alberto Ruano-Ravina, Nuria Aragonés, Karl T Kelsey, Mónica Pérez-Ríos, María Piñeiro-Lamas, Gonzalo López-Abente, Juan M Barros-Dios
We aimed to know if radon concentration is associated with municipal mortality due to brain cancer in Galicia, Spain. We designed an ecological study taking as study unit Galician municipalities. To be included, municipalities had to have at least three radon measurements. We correlated radon concentrations with municipal mortality due to these malignant tumors during the period 1999-2008. We calculated the relative risk of dying of brain cancers for each municipality and correlated this value with municipal radon concentration using Spearman's Rho...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620009/recommendations-for-cancer-surveillance-in-individuals-with-rasopathies-and-other-rare-genetic-conditions-with-increased-cancer-risk
#9
REVIEW
Anita Villani, Mary-Louise C Greer, Jennifer M Kalish, Akira Nakagawara, Katherine L Nathanson, Kristian W Pajtler, Stefan M Pfister, Michael F Walsh, Jonathan D Wasserman, Kristin Zelley, Christian P Kratz
In October 2016, the American Association for Cancer Research held a meeting of international childhood cancer predisposition syndrome experts to evaluate the current knowledge of these syndromes and to propose consensus surveillance recommendations. Herein, we summarize clinical and genetic aspects of RASopathies and Sotos, Weaver, Rubinstein-Taybi, Schinzel-Giedion, and NKX2-1 syndromes as well as specific metabolic disorders known to be associated with increased childhood cancer risk. In addition, the expert panel reviewed whether sufficient data exist to make a recommendation that all patients with these disorders be offered cancer surveillance...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607533/cysteinyl-leukotrienes-as-potential-pharmacological-targets-for-cerebral-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Paolo Gelosa, Francesca Colazzo, Elena Tremoli, Luigi Sironi, Laura Castiglioni
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent lipid mediators widely known for their actions in asthma and in allergic rhinitis. Accumulating data highlights their involvement in a broader range of inflammation-associated diseases such as cancer, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases. The reported elevated levels of CysLTs in acute and chronic brain lesions, the association between the genetic polymorphisms in the LTs biosynthesis pathways and the risk of cerebral pathological events, and the evidence from animal models link also CysLTs and brain diseases...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603776/actionable-molecular-biomarkers-in-primary-brain-tumors
#11
Verena Staedtke, Omar Dildar A Dzaye, Matthias Holdhoff
Recent genome-wide studies of malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS) have revolutionized our understanding of the biology of these tumors. This newly gained knowledge provides a wealth of opportunity for biomarker driven clinical research. To date, however, only few of the available molecular markers truly influence clinical decision-making and treatment. The most widely validated markers in neuro-oncology presently are: 1) MGMT promoter methylation as a prognostic and predictive marker in glioblastoma, 2) co-deletion of 1p and 19q differentiating oligodendrogliomas from astrocytomas, 3) IDH1/2 mutations, and 4) select pathway-associated mutations...
July 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600777/psychoneuroimmunology-developments-in-stress-research
#12
REVIEW
Rainer H Straub, Maurizio Cutolo
Links between the central nervous stress system and peripheral immune cells in lymphoid organs have been detailed through 50 years of intensive research. The brain can interfere with the immune system, where chronic psychological stress inhibits many functions of the immune system. On the other hand, chronic peripheral inflammation-whether mild (during aging and psychological stress) or severe (chronic inflammatory diseases)-clearly interferes with brain function, leading to disease sequelae like fatigue but also to overt psychiatric illness...
June 9, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598356/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-in-glioblastoma
#13
REVIEW
Vincent Soubannier, Stefano Stifani
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor regulating a wide array of genes mediating numerous cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, motility and survival, to name a few. Aberrant activation of NF-κB is a frequent event in numerous cancers, including glioblastoma, the most common and lethal form of brain tumours of glial cell origin (collectively termed gliomas). Glioblastoma is characterized by high cellular heterogeneity, resistance to therapy and almost inevitable recurrence after surgery and treatment...
June 9, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588474/a-life-long-approach-to-physical-activity-for-brain-health
#14
Helen Macpherson, Wei-P Teo, Luke A Schneider, Ashleigh E Smith
It is well established that engaging in lifelong Physical activity (PA) can help delay the onset of many chronic lifestyle related and non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type two diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Additionally, growing evidence also documents the importance of PA for brain health, with numerous studies indicating regular engagement in physical activities may be protective against cognitive decline and dementia in late life. Indeed, the link between PA and brain health may be different at each stage of life from childhood, mid-life and late life...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586949/phase-1-2-trial-of-5-fraction-stereotactic-radiosurgery-with-5-mm-margins-with-concurrent-and-adjuvant-temozolomide-in-newly%C3%A2-diagnosed-supratentorial-glioblastoma-health-related-quality-of-life-results
#15
Erqi L Pollom, Dylann Fujimoto, Jacob Wynne, Kira Seiger, Leslie A Modlin, Lisa R Jacobs, Melissa Azoulay, Rie von Eyben, Laurie Tupper, Iris C Gibbs, Steven L Hancock, Gordon Li, Steven D Chang, John R Adler, Griffith R Harsh, Ciara Harraher, Seema Nagpal, Reena P Thomas, Lawrence D Recht, Clara Y H Choi, Scott G Soltys
PURPOSE: We report a longitudinal assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) treated on a prospective dose escalation trial of 5-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (25-40 Gy in 5 fractions) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. METHODS: HRQOL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life questionnaire core-30 (QLQ-C30) general, the EORTC quality of life questionnaire-brain cancer specific module (QLQ-BN20), and the M...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585222/potential-therapeutic-effects-of-psilocybin
#16
REVIEW
Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Psilocybin and other 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist classic psychedelics have been used for centuries as sacraments within indigenous cultures. In the mid-twentieth century they were a focus within psychiatry as both probes of brain function and experimental therapeutics. By the late 1960s and early 1970s these scientific inquires fell out of favor because classic psychedelics were being used outside of medical research and in association with the emerging counter culture. However, in the twenty-first century, scientific interest in classic psychedelics has returned and grown as a result of several promising studies, validating earlier research...
June 5, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583903/interleukin-13-conjugated-quantum-dots-for-identification-of-glioma-initiating-cells-and-their-extracellular-vesicles
#17
A B Madhankumar, Oliver Mrowczynski, Suhag Patel, Cody Weston, Brad Zacharia, Michael Glantz, Christopher Siedlecki, Lichong Xu, James R Connor
Cadmium selenide (CdSe) based quantum dots modified with polyethylene glycol and chemically linked to interleukin-13 (IL13) were prepared with the aim of identifying the high affinity receptor (IL13Rα2) which is expressed in glioma stem cells and exosomes secreted by these cancer stem cells. IL13 conjugated quantum dots (IL13QD) were thoroughly characterized for their physicochemical properties including particle size and surface morphology. Furthermore, the specific binding of the IL13QD to glioma cells and to glioma stem cells (GSC) was verified using a competitive binding study...
June 2, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582760/current-status-and-future-therapeutic-perspectives-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-gbm-therapy-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Komal Anjum, Bibi Ibtesam Shagufta, Syed Qamar Abbas, Seema Patel, Ishrat Khan, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Najeeb Akhter, Syed Shams Ul Hassan
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest form of heterogeneous brain cancer. It affects an enormous number of patients every year and the survival is approximately 8 to 15 months. GBM has driven by complex signaling pathways and considered as a most challenging to treat. Standard treatment of GBM includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and also the combined treatment. This review article described inter and intra- tumor heterogeneity of GMB. In addition, recent chemotherapeutic agents, with their mechanism of action have been defined...
June 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575493/-mir-mir-on-the-wall-who-s-the-most-malignant-medulloblastoma-mir-of-them-all
#19
Xin Wang, Borja L Holgado, Vijay Ramaswamy, Stephen Mack, Kory Zayne, Marc Remke, Xiaochong Wu, Livia Garzia, Craig Daniels, Anna M Kenney, Michael D Taylor
miRNAs have wide-ranging effects on large-scale gene regulation. As such, they play a vital role in dictating normal development and its aberrant expression has been implicated in cancer. There has been a large body of research on the role of miRNAs in medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. The identification of the four molecular subgroups with distinct biological, genetic and transcriptional features has revolutionized the field of medulloblastoma research over the past five years...
June 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574813/an-immunocompetent-mouse-model-of-human-glioblastoma
#20
Samantha Semenkow, Shen Li, Ulf D Kahlert, Eric H Raabe, Jiadi Xu, Antje Arnold, Miroslaw Janowski, Byoung Chol Oh, Gerald Brandacher, Jeff W M Bulte, Charles G Eberhart, Piotr Walczak
Orthotopic xenotransplantation studies represent the final stage in preclinical cancer research and could facilitate the implementation of precision medicine. To date, these xenografts have been tested in immunodeficient animals, but complete elimination of the adaptive immunity is a significant drawback. We present a method of efficient human glioblastoma (GBM) cell engraftment in adult mice with intact immune systems, mediated by a transient blockade of T-cell co-stimulation. Compared to transplants grown in immunodeficient hosts, the resulting tumors more accurately resemble the clinical pathophysiology of patient GBMs, which are characterized by blood-brain-barrier leakage and strong neo-vascularization...
May 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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