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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804509/lifetime-stress-exposure-and-health-a-review-of-contemporary-assessment-methods-and-biological-mechanisms
#1
Grant S Shields, George M Slavich
Life stress is a central construct in health research because it is associated with increased risk for a variety of serious mental and physical health problems, including anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disorders, Alzheimer's disease, certain cancers, and other diseases of aging. In this review, we examine how lifetime stress exposure contributes to elevated disease risk, and explore ongoing measurement and scientific issues related to this topic. To accomplish these goals, we first review existing instruments that have been developed for assessing perceived stress, self-reported life events, interviewer-assessed life stressors, and lifetime stress exposure...
August 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801927/mediating-burden-and-stress-over-time-caregivers-of-patients-with-primary-brain-tumor
#2
Maija Reblin, Brent Small, Heather Jim, Jason Weimer, Paula Sherwood
There is a growing literature on the effects of cancer caregiving on the well-being of informal family caregivers. However, there has been little longitudinal research on caregivers of patients with the complex, rapidly-changing disease of primary malignant brain tumor (PBT). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to model longitudinal relationships between caregiver burden, social support, and distress within caregivers of patients with PBT. METHODS: Caregiver participants were recruited from a neuro-oncology clinic...
August 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792436/special-issue-cancer-metabolism
#3
EDITORIAL
Madhu Basetti
This special issue is designed to present the latest research findings and developments in the field of cancer metabolism. Cancer is a complex disease and a common term used for more than 100 diseases, whereas metabolism describes a labyrinth of complex biochemical pathways in the cell. It is essential to understand metabolism in the context of cancer for the early detection of disease biomarkers and to find proper targets for potential treatments. The articles presented in this issue cover metabolic aspects of brain tumours, breast tumours, paraganglioma, and the metabolic activity of tumour suppressor gene p53...
August 9, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791407/long-non-coding-rna-meg3-inhibits-cell-growth-of-gliomas-by-targeting-mir-93-and-inactivating-pi3k-akt-pathway
#4
Ling Zhang, Xin Liang, Yuxiong Li
Gliomas are the most common cancers in the brain, accompanied with high morbility, occurrence, disability and mortality. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proposed as promoter or inhibitor in many cancer processes. Previous findings have indicated that lncRNA-maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is involved in tumorigenesis of several cancers, including glioma. However, the underlying mechanism of MEG3 in glioma remains elusive. In our study, MEG3 was found downregulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues...
August 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789707/checkpoint-inhibitors-in-melanoma-and-early-phase-development-in-solid-tumors-what-s-the-future
#5
EDITORIAL
Paolo A Ascierto, Grant A McArthur
Anti-programmed death (PD)-1 and PD-ligand (L)-1 checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the therapy of several cancers. Immunotherapy of cancer can offer long-term durable benefit to patients, is active regardless of tumour histology, has a unique immune-related safety profile, and can be used in combination with other cancer treatments. In addition, recent research has shown that immune-based therapy can be used as adjuvant therapy, that outcomes may be influenced by dose, and that clinical activity is observed in patients with brain metastases...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783480/cognitive-and-occupational-function-in-survivors-of-adolescent-cancer
#6
Bethany D Nugent, Catherine M Bender, Susan M Sereika, Jean M Tersak, Margaret Rosenzweig
PURPOSE: Adolescents with cancer have unique developmental considerations. These include brain development, particularly in the frontal lobe, and a focus on completing education and entering the workforce. Cancer and treatment at this stage may prove to uniquely affect survivors' experience of cognitive and occupational function. METHODS: An exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive comparative study was employed to describe cognitive and occupational function in adult survivors of adolescent cancer (diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 21 years) and explore differences in age- and gender-matched controls...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772286/prevalence-of-cancer-at-baseline-screening-in-the-national-cancer-institute-li-fraumeni-syndrome-cohort
#7
Phuong L Mai, Payal P Khincha, Jennifer T Loud, Rosamma M DeCastro, Renée C Bremer, June A Peters, Chia-Ying Liu, David A Bluemke, Ashkan A Malayeri, Sharon A Savage
Importance: Establishment of an optimal cancer surveillance program is important to reduce cancer-related morbidity and mortality in individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare, highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome. Objective: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a comprehensive cancer screening regimen in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, using multiple radiologic techniques, including rapid whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laboratory measurements...
August 3, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770964/cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-glioblastoma-an-update
#8
H-S Xu, X-L Qin, H-L Zong, X-G He, L Cao
The glioblastoma includes brain tumors, which are very aggressive in nature and are among the most common brain tumors in adults. Latest therapeutic avenues involve combination approach. However, the observed median survival is still no more than 15 months. Moreover, there is a scarcity of accurate pre-clinical model systems, which in turn resulted in limited treatment options for this disease. Cancer stem cells are attractive avenues in anticancer research against glioblastoma. Most of the recent studies are focused towards the identification of novel markers for cancer stem cells...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762580/mnal-layered-double-hydroxide-nanoparticles-as-a-dual-functional-platform-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-sirna-delivery
#9
Huali Zuo, Weiyu Chen, Bei Li, Kewei Xu, Helen Cooper, Zi Gu, Zhi Ping Xu
Multifunctional nanoparticles for cancer theranosis have been widely explored for effective cancer detection and therapy. In this research, dually functionalised manganese-based layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (Mn-LDHs) have been examined as an effective anticancer drug/gene delivery system and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality for brain cancer theranostics. Such Mn-LDHs have been shown to accommodate dsDNA/siRNAs and efficiently deliver to Neuro-2a cells (N2a). Mn-LDHs have also shown high biocompatibility with low cytotoxicity...
August 1, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755993/breaching-barriers-in-glioblastoma-part-i-molecular-pathways-and-novel-treatment-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Ana Miranda, María Blanco-Prieto, João Sousa, Alberto Pais, Carla Vitorino
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour, and the most aggressive in nature. The prognosis for patients with GBM remains poor, with a median survival time of only 1-2 years. The treatment failure relies on the development of resistance by tumour cells and the difficulty of ensuring that drugs effectively cross the dual blood brain barrier/blood brain tumour barrier. The advanced molecular and genetic knowledge has allowed to identify the mechanisms responsible for temozolomide resistance, which represents the standard of care in GBM, along with surgical resection and radiotherapy...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748331/eligibility-for-phase-3-clinical-trials-of-systemic-therapy-in-real-world-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-cancer-managed-in-a-rural-region
#11
Carsten Nieder, Mohsan A Syed, Astrid Dalhaug, Adam Pawinski, Jan Norum
Previous research has identified disparities between urban and rural cancer care, including clinical trial access. Therefore, we addressed three different questions in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer managed according to national guidelines in a rural Norwegian standard practice setting. (1) How many patients would have been eligible for three recent landmark randomized clinical trials? (2) Is survival different between eligible and non-eligible patients receiving first-line systemic therapy? (3) Is survival different between eligible patients and published trial results? We performed a retrospective analysis of 101 consecutive patients (2006-2016)...
September 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743728/imaging-regiospecific-lipid-turnover-in-mouse-brain-with-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#12
Richard H Carson, Charlotte R Lewis, Mercede N Erickson, Anna P Zagieboylo, Bradley C Naylor, Kelvin W Li, Paul B Farnsworth, John C Price
Compartmentalization of metabolism into specific regions of the cell, tissue and organ, is critical to life for all organisms. Mass spectrometric imaging techniques have been valuable in identifying and quantifying concentrations of metabolites in specific locations of cells and tissues, but a true understanding of metabolism requires measurement of metabolite flux on a spatially resolved basis. Here we utilize desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to measure lipid turnover in the brains of mice...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739696/differences-in-extracellular-matrix-composition-and-its-role-in-invasion-in-primary-and-secondary-intracerebral-malignancies
#13
József Virga, Csaba Dávid Szemcsák, Judit Reményi-Puskár, Judit Tóth, Tibor Hortobágyi, Éva Csősz, Gábor Zahuczky, László Szivos, Lászlo Bognár, Almos Klekner
BACKGROUND/AIM: The most common malignant primary brain tumor is glioblastoma which infiltrates the peritumoral brain, while secondary brain metastases are well demarcated malignancies. Previous research has proved the pivotal role of the changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) in cancer cell invasion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression of 40 ECM molecules was determined using qRT-PCR in 54 fresh-frozen glioblastoma and brain metastasis samples. Seventy-two samples were used to determine the levels of 20 ECM proteins...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733441/molecular-screening-for-cancer-treatment-optimization-moscato-01-in-pediatric-patients-a-single-institutional-prospective-molecular-stratification-trial
#14
Anne Catherine Harttrampf, Ludovic Lacroix, Marc Deloger, Frederic Deschamps, Stéphanie Puget, Nathalie Auger, Philippe Vielh, Pascale Varlet, Zsofia Balogh, Samuel Abbou, Adrien Allorant, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Sabine Sarnacki, Louise Galmiche, Guillaume Meurice, Véronique Minard-Colin, Jacques Grill, Laurence Brugières, Christelle Dufour, Nathalie Gaspar, Stefan Michiels, Gilles Vassal, Jean-Charles Soria, Birgit Geoerger
This single institutional feasibility study prospectively characterized genomic alterations in recurrent or refractory solid tumors of pediatric patients in order to select a targeted therapy.<br /><br />Experimental Design: Following treatment failure patients with signed consent and aged above 6 months, underwent tumor biopsy or surgical resection of primary or metastatic tumor site.  These newly acquired samples were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization array, next generation sequencing for 75 target genes, whole exome and RNA sequencing...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728585/neuroscience-in-the-third-dimension-shedding-new-light-on-the-brain-with-tissue-clearing
#15
REVIEW
Robin J Vigouroux, Morgane Belle, Alain Chédotal
For centuries analyses of tissues have depended on sectioning methods. Recent developments of tissue clearing techniques have now opened a segway from studying tissues in 2 dimensions to 3 dimensions. This particular advantage echoes heavily in the field of neuroscience, where in the last several years there has been an active shift towards understanding the complex orchestration of neural circuits. In the past five years, many tissue-clearing protocols have spawned. This is due to varying strength of each clearing protocol to specific applications...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717885/risk-of-severe-acute-liver-injury-among-patients-with-brain-cancer-treated-with-temozolomide-a-nested-case-control-study-using-the-healthcore-integrated-research-database
#16
Vibha C A Desai, Scott C Quinlan, Anne C Deitz, Jinghua He, Crystal N Holick, Stephan Lanes
Temozolomide (TMZ) is used to treat adult patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported among patients using TMZ. The objective of the study was to assess the relation, if any, between exposure to TMZ and serious acute liver injury (SALI). We used the HealthCore Integrated Research Database to perform a case-control study nested within a retrospective cohort of adult patients aged 18-100 years with at least two diagnoses of brain cancer anytime between 2006 and 2014...
August 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710339/impact-of-low-dose-ct-screening-on-smoking-cessation-among-high-risk-participants-in-the-uk-lung-cancer-screening-trial
#17
Kate Brain, Ben Carter, Kate J Lifford, Olivia Burke, Anand Devaraj, David R Baldwin, Stephen Duffy, John K Field
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation was examined among a subset of current smokers who were high-risk participants in the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) pilot trial of low-dose CT screening. METHODS: High-risk individuals aged 50-75 years who completed baseline questionnaires were randomised to CT screening (intervention) or usual care (no screening control). Smoking habit was determined at baseline using self-report. Smokers were asked whether they had quit smoking since joining UKLS at short-term follow-up (2 weeks after baseline scan results or control assignment) and longer-term follow-up (up to 2 years after recruitment)...
July 14, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706610/a-novel-variant-of-oct4-entitled-oct4b3-is-expressed-in-human-bladder-cancer-and-astrocytoma-cell-lines
#18
Ensieh M Poursani, Majid Mehravar, Bahram Mohammad Soltani, Seyed Javad Mowla, James E Trosko
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing is an important mechanism that regulates gene expression and function in human cells. OCT4, a crucial pluripotency marker in embryonic stem/carcinoma cells generates several spliced variants in different cell types and cancers. The expression of OCT4 in cancers has been challenged in many studies. The existence of several OCT4 spliced variants and absence of specific discriminating primers is the main reason of this controversy. Therefore, using specific primers and discriminating OCT4 variants from each other might help to reduce these discrepancies in carcinogenesis and stem cell researches...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699908/expression-of-protein-kinase-c-gamma-promotes-cell-migration-in-colon-cancer
#19
Catríona M Dowling, Sheri L Hayes, James J Phelan, Mary Clare Cathcart, Stephen P Finn, Brian Mehigan, Paul McCormick, John C Coffey, Jacintha O'Sullivan, Patrick A Kiely
Despite extensive efforts, Protein Kinase Cs (PKCs) have proven to be an intractable target in cancer therapies. Traditionally it was accepted that PKCs act as tumour promoters, however new research suggests that PKCs may play an important role in the suppression of cancer. A challenge in targeting PKCs is the limited data available in patient samples. One of the PKC isozymes, PKC gamma, is thought to be present only in the brain and has been largely neglected in the context of cancer. Analysis of gene expression levels of PKC gamma in patient matched normal and colon cancer tissue samples revealed an up-regulation of the gene in the cancer tissue of 54% of the patients examined...
July 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694114/epigenetic-dysregulation-of-protocadherins-in-human-disease
#20
REVIEW
Nady El Hajj, Marcus Dittrich, Thomas Haaf
Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a group of cell-cell adhesion molecules that are highly expressed in the nervous system and have a major function in dendrite development and neural circuit formation. However, the role protocadherins play in human health and disease remains unclear. Several recent studies have associated epigenetic dysregulation of protocadherins with possible implications for disease pathogenesis. In this review, we briefly recap the various epigenetic mechanisms regulating protocadherin genes, particularly the clustered Pcdhs...
July 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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