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Brain Cancer Research

Michael Platten, David A Reardon
Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, L Eric Huang
OBJECTIVE Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors. Recent studies have supported the importance of key genetic alterations, including isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations and 1p19q codeletion, in glioma prognosis. Mutant IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate, a key metabolite of the Krebs cycle. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is composed of MPC1 and MPC2 subunits and is functionally essential for the Krebs cycle. The authors sought to explore the impact of MPC1 and MPC2 expression on patient prognosis...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Yiran Ao, Qin Zhao, Kai Yang, Gang Zheng, Xiaoqing Lv, Xiaoli Su
Clock genes are the core of the circadian rhythms in the human body and are important in regulating normal physiological functions. To date, research has indicated that the clock gene, period circadian clock 2 ( PER2 ), is downregulated in numerous types of cancer, and that it is associated with cancer occurrence and progression via the regulation of various downstream cell cycle genes. However, it remains unclear whether the decreased expression of PER2 influences the expression of other clock genes in cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jinhua Dai, Jianbo Ma, Bixia Yu, Zhankun Zhu, Yanqin Hu
Glioma is the most common primary adult brain tumor. Mounting researches have illustrated the function of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in glioma progress, but almost no studies reported the role of TCL1 Upstream Neural Differentiation-Associated RNA (TUNAR) in glioma cells. This study aimed to investigate the function of TUNAR in glioma. GL15 cell line was used in this study. The interactions between TUNAR and miR-200a, or miR-200a and Rac1 were determined by co-transfection experiment. TUNAR overexpression significantly inhibited glioma malignancy by decreasing cell viability, migration, invasion and promoting cell apoptosis...
March 14, 2018: Oncology Research
Bryan D Loy, Michelle H Cameron, Patrick J O'Connor
Persistent fatigue is a common problem (∼20-45% of U.S. population), with higher prevalence and severity in people with medical conditions such as cancer, depression, fibromyalgia, heart failure, sleep apnea and multiple sclerosis. There are few FDA-approved treatments for fatigue and great disagreement on how to measure fatigue, with over 250 instruments used in research. Many instruments define fatigue as "a lack of energy", thus viewing energy and fatigue states as opposites on a single bipolar continuum...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Seiji Niho, Norihiko Ikeda, Hiroshi Michimae, Kenji Suzuki, Hiroshi Sakai, Takayuki Kaburagi, Katsuo Yoshiya, Koichi Minato, Terufumi Kato, Hiroaki Okamoto, Takashi Seto, Yukio Hosomi, Kimihiro Shimizu, Haruhiro Saito, Masanori Tsuchida, Hideo Kunitoh, Masahiro Tsuboi, Masahiro Takeuchi, Koshiro Watanabe
OBJECTIVES: The TORG0809 study was a multicenter feasibility study of long-term single-agent therapy with S-1 after docetaxel plus cisplatin therapy in patients with completely resected stage II or stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer. We report the results of the final overall survival (OS) analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 129 eligible patients received 3 cycles of docetaxel (60 mg/m, day 1) plus cisplatin (80 mg/m, day 1), followed by S-1 at 40 mg/m twice daily for 14 consecutive days, for >6 months (maximum, 1 y)...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Christiana Neophytou, Panagiotis Boutsikos, Panagiotis Papageorgis
Breast cancer represents a highly heterogeneous disease comprised by several subtypes with distinct histological features, underlying molecular etiology and clinical behaviors. It is widely accepted that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive subtypes, often associated with poor patient outcome due to the development of metastases in secondary organs, such as the lungs, brain, and bone. The molecular complexity of the metastatic process in combination with the lack of effective targeted therapies for TNBC metastasis have fostered significant research efforts during the past few years to identify molecular "drivers" of this lethal cascade...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rafal Woycicki, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Gerlinde A S Metz, Olga Kovalchuk
Recent advances in cancer treatments have led to significant increases in cure rates. Most cancer patients are treated with various cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. These treatment modalities are mutagenic and genotoxic and cause a wide array of late-occurring health problems, and even exert a deleterious influence on future offspring. The adverse effects from exposed parents on offspring are referred to as transgenerational effects, and currently little is known about chemotherapy-induced transgenerational effects...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Anna Kovalchuk, Lilit Nersisyan, Rupasri Mandal, David Wishart, Maria Mancini, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
Cancer survivors experience numerous treatment side effects that negatively affect their quality of life. Cognitive side effects are especially insidious, as they affect memory, cognition, and learning. Neurocognitive deficits occur prior to cancer treatment, arising even before cancer diagnosis, and we refer to them as "tumor brain." Metabolomics is a new area of research that focuses on metabolome profiles and provides important mechanistic insights into various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Michael Carlberg, Tarmo Koppel, Mikko Ahonen, Lennart Hardell
Objective: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO based on an increased risk for childhood leukemia. In case-control studies on brain tumors during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 we assessed lifetime occupations in addition to exposure to different agents. The INTEROCC ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF-EMF exposure ( μ T) with meningioma...
2018: BioMed Research International
Zhao-Peng Dong, Qian Wang, Zhen-Jie Zhang, Michael J Carr, Dong Li, Wei-Feng Shi
Globally, coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) has been continuously isolated and evidence suggests an association with the development of pancreatitis and type I diabetes. In addition, CV-B4 is also associated with myocarditis and severe central nervous system (CNS) complications, which remain poorly studied and understood. In the present study, we established an Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mouse model of CV-B4 infection and examined whether CV-B4 infection resulted in a predisposition to myocarditis and CNS infection...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Mustafa Aziz Hatiboglu, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Eray Metin Guler, Kerime Akdur, Arife Nalli, Ersin Karatas, Saffet Tuzgen
BACKGROUND: Prognosis of patients with melanoma brain metastasis is poor despite various chemotherapeutic agents. Researchers focus on finding effective treatment with low risk of toxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ) has been found to be effective on different types of cancer. However, no data exists on the effect of TQ in intracerebral melanoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of TQ in B16-F10 melanoma cell in vitro and intracerebral melanoma in vivo. METHODS: The mechanisms of efficacy were investigated by ATP assay for cytotoxicity, flow cytometry and Acridine-orange staining for apoptosis, Comet assay for genotoxicity, CM-H2 DCF-DA (2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein) for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ELISA methods for inflammatory cytokines...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Shalini Singh, Sushmita Jha
Nucleotide binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing proteins (NLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors involved in major innate immune defense mechanisms. NLRs play a key role in several cancers, autoimmune, and inflammation-associated diseases. Association of NLRP3 has been widely investigated in neurodegenerative diseases, chronic alcoholism, depression, traumatic brain injury, and pathogenic infections. Several research studies have shown possible involvement of various other inflammasome-forming and non-inflammasome-forming NLRs in the brain; however, their mechanisms of action are yet to be defined clearly...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Manuel Valiente, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Adrienne Boire, Priscilla K Brastianos, Sarah B Goldberg, Eudocia Q Lee, Emilie Le Rhun, Matthias Preusser, Frank Winkler, Riccardo Soffietti
Metastasis, involving the spread of systemic cancer to the brain, results in neurologic disability and death. Current treatments are largely palliative in nature; improved therapeutic approaches represent an unmet clinical need. However, recent experimental and clinical advances challenge the bleak long-term outcome of this disease. Encompassing key recent findings in epidemiology, genetics, microenvironment, leptomeningeal disease, neurocognition, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and prophylaxis, we review preclinical and clinical studies to provide a comprehensive picture of contemporary research and the management of secondary brain tumors...
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Craig Sale, Rebecca Louise Jones
Carnosine was originally discovered in skeletal muscle, where it exists in larger amounts than in other tissues. The majority of research into the physiological roles of carnosine have been conducted on skeletal muscle. Given this and the potential for muscle carnosine content to be increased with supplementation, there is now a large body of research examining the ergogenic effects (or otherwise) of carnosine. More recent research, however, points towards a potential for carnosine to exert a wider range of physiological effects in other tissues, including the brain, heart, pancreas, kidney and cancer cells...
March 4, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Bethsebie Lalduhsaki Sailo, Kishore Banik, Ganesan Padmavathi, Monisha Javadi, Devivasha Bordoloi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Despite the significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, it still remains one of the most fatal diseases in the world due to the lack of sensitive diagnosis methods and effective drugs. Therefore, discovering novel therapies that are safe, efficacious and affordable are required for the better management of this disease. Tocotrienols, analogues of Vitamin E have gained increased attention due to their safety and efficacy. Extensive research over the past several years has strongly indicated that tocotrienols can efficiently prevent/inhibit the growth of different cancers such as cancers of blood, brain, breast, cervical, colon, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach etc...
February 26, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Mostafa Pasandi Boroon, Mohammad-Bagher Ayani, Sajad Razavi Bazaz
Hyperthermia is one of the most appealing methods of cancer treatment in which the temperature of tumor is elevated to reach a desired temperature. One of the methods of increasing tissue temperature is injection of nanoparticle fluids to tumor and applying alternative magnetic field, which is called magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia method. The total number of injection points, as well as the their location within a tissue play a significant role in this method. Furthermore, the power of heating of a magnetic material per gram or specific loss power (SLP) is another important factor which needs to be investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Chuin Hau Teo, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar
Beta-catenin is a protein with dual functions in the cell, playing a role in both adhesion between cells as well as gene transcription via the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In the canonical Wnt signalling pathway, beta-catenin again plays multiple roles. In the embryonic stage, the regulation of beta-catenin levels activates genes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation. In an adult organism, beta-catenin continues to regulate the cell cycle - as a result over-expression of beta-catenin may lead to cancer...
February 22, 2018: Neuro-Signals
Ana Cicvaric, Jiaye Yang, Tanja Bulat, Alice Zambon, Manuel Dominguez-Rodriguez, Rebekka Kühn, Michael G Sadowicz, Anjana Siwert, Joaquim Egea, Daniela D Pollak, Thomas Moeslinger, Francisco J Monje
The Fibronectin Leucine-Rich Transmembrane protein 2 (FLRT2) has been implicated in several hormone -and sex-dependent physiological and pathological processes (including chondrogenesis, menarche and breast cancer); is known to regulate developmental synapses formation, and is expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure central for learning and memory. However, the role of FLRT2 in the adult hippocampus and its relevance in sex-dependent brain functions remains unknown. We here used adult single-allele FLRT2 knockout (FLRT2+/- ) mice and behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular/biological assays to examine the effects of FLRT2 haplodeficiency on synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Patricia Giuliani, Mariachiara Zuccarini, Marzia Carluccio, Sihana Ziberi, Patrizia Di Iorio, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain malignancy. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of stem-like cells (GSCs) inside the tumor with high self-renewal, resistance to chemotherapy and invasiveness/migration potential is associated with poor GBM prognosis. GSC aggressiveness seems to be linked to an important process involved in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for several biochemical changes and the acquisition of a more mesenchymal phenotype by GSCs, that enhance their migration, invasiveness and resistance to apoptosis...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Targets
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