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Brain Cancer Research

Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
S Sengupta, G Mao, Z S Gokaslan, P Sampath
Glioblastoma (GBM) is by far the most common and the most aggressive of all the primary brain malignancies. No curative therapy exists, and median life expectancy hovers at around 1 year after diagnosis, with a minute fraction surviving beyond 5 years. The difficulty in treating GBM lies in the cancer's protected niche within the blood-brain barrier and the heterogeneity of the cancer cells, which possess varying degrees of susceptibility to various common modalities of treatment. Over time, it is the tumor heterogeneity of GBM and the ability of the cancer stem cells to evolve in response treatment that renders the cancer refractory to conventional treatment...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
De-Lan Li, Xin-Ru Chen, Shu-Xiang Ma, Li-Kun Chen
Identification of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene has refined the classification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and promoted research on molecularly targeted drugs such as crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor with good efficacy, in ALK-rearranged NSCLC. At present, few studies have reported the efficacy of crizotinib in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC with brain metastases. In a patient with NSCLC harboring ALK-rearrangement who had brain metastases and poor performance status (PS), we obtained a durable response with crizotinib administered following multi-line chemotherapy regimens...
September 2016: Thoracic Cancer
George M Slavich
Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body of work is evidence that stress is involved in the development, maintenance, or exacerbation of several mental and physical health conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, stroke, and certain types of cancer...
October 2016: Teaching of Psychology
Claire de Oliveira, Reka Pataky, Karen E Bremner, Jagadish Rangrej, Kelvin K W Chan, Winson Y Cheung, Jeffrey S Hoch, Stuart Peacock, Murray D Krahn
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major public health issue and represents a significant economic burden to health care systems worldwide. The objective of this analysis was to estimate phase-specific, 5-year and lifetime net costs for the 21 most prevalent cancer sites, and remaining tumour sites combined, in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We selected all adult patients diagnosed with a primary cancer between 1997 and 2007, with valid ICD-O site and histology codes, and who survived 30 days or more after diagnosis, from the Ontario Cancer Registry (N = 394,092)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
Ankit Mangla, Nikki Agarwal, Chou Carmel, Thomas Lad
Erlotinib is one of the most widely used tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor. Since its introduction, it has revolutionized the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Skin rashes and diarrhea are the most often reported side effects of erlotinib however it is also associated with interstitial pneumonitis or interstitial lung disease, which often turns out to be fatal complication of using this medicine. Though reported scarcely in the western world, the association of interstitial lung disease with epidermal growth factor receptor has attracted a lot of attention in the recent times...
September 5, 2016: Rare Tumors
Masaaki Nishihara, Ko Takesue, Yoshitaka Hirooka
OBJECTIVE: Sympathoexcitation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the brain controls sympathetic outflow through γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic mechanisms. Renal denervation (RDN) exerts a long-term antihypertensive effect in hypertension with CKD; however, the effects of RDN on sympathetic nerve activity and GABA-ergic modulation in the PVN are not clear...
October 4, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Xingliang Dai, Cheng Ma, Qing Lan, Tao Xu
Glioma is still difficult to treat because of its high malignancy, high recurrence rate, and high resistance to anticancer drugs. An alternative method for research of gliomagenesis and drug resistance is to use in vitro tumor model that closely mimics the in vivo tumor microenvironment. In this study, we established a 3D bioprinted glioma stem cell model, using modified porous gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix. Glioma stem cells achieved a survival rate of 86.92%, and proliferated with high cellular activity immediately following bioprinting...
October 11, 2016: Biofabrication
Robert Gerlai, Tanya L Poshusta, Mindy Rampersad, Yohaan Fernandes, Tammy M Greenwood, Margot A Cousin, Eric W Klee, Karl J Clark
The zebrafish enjoys several advantages over other model organisms. It is small, easy to maintain, prolific, and numerous genetic tools are available for it. For example, forward genetic screens have allowed investigators to identify important genes potentially involved in a variety of functions from embryogenesis to cancer. However, despite its sophisticated behavioral repertoire, behavioral methods have rarely been utilized in forward genetic screens. Here, we employ a two-tiered strategy, a proof of concept study, to explore the feasibility of behavioral screens...
October 5, 2016: Behavior Genetics
Ah Young Lee, Ji Myung Choi, Jaemin Lee, Myoung Hee Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Eun Ju Cho
In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of three kinds of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions against cognitive impairment in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. After intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid beta25-35 (Aβ25-35) into the brain of institute of cancer research mice, olive oil (rich in oleic acid, C18:1), corn oil (rich in linoleic acid, C18:2), and perilla oil (rich in α-linolenic acid [ALA], C18:3) were administered at the oral dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 14 days...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Wenrong Xia, Hongwei Tian, Xin Cai, HaiBo Kong, Wenliang Fu, Weiwei Xing, Yuanyuan Wang, Minji Zou, Yuhua Hu, Donggang Xu
SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) is an important regulation protease in the protein desumoylation, which was shown to have a prooncogenicrole in many types of cancer. However, the mechanism of action for SENP1 in astrocytoma is not yet clear. Astrocytoma is the most frequent one among various neurogliomas, of which a subtype known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain glioma and seriously influences the life quality of the patients. In this study, the expression of SENP1 was detected in 28 cases of various grades of astrocytoma and 6 cases of normal human tissues...
September 28, 2016: Gene
Mohamed Amiche
The search for new bioactive molecules that could be used in therapeutics is a major public health issue, particularly in the treatment of certain diseases such as cancer. In this context the exploration of the venom of animals (snakes, amphibians, cones, scorpions, insects...) that produce molecules of various structures and biological activities, is a very promising direction. Research in this area led to the discovery of neuropeptides, hormones, toxins, antimicrobial peptides and other extremely potent mediators...
2016: Biologie Aujourd'hui
Jaap C Reijneveld, Martin J B Taphoorn, Corneel Coens, Jacoline E C Bromberg, Warren P Mason, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Gail Ryan, Mohamed Ben Hassel, Roelien H Enting, Alba A Brandes, Antje Wick, Olivier Chinot, Michele Reni, Guy Kantor, Brian Thiessen, Martin Klein, Eugenie Verger, Christian Borchers, Peter Hau, Michael Back, Anja Smits, Vassilis Golfinopoulos, Thierry Gorlia, Andrew Bottomley, Roger Stupp, Brigitta G Baumert
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in patients with a high-risk low-grade glioma has been shown to have no significant effect on progression-free survival. If these treatments have a different effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), it might affect the choice of therapy. We postulated that temozolomide compromises HRQOL and global cognitive functioning to a lesser extent than does radiotherapy. METHODS: We did a prospective, phase 3, randomised controlled trial at 78 medical centres and large hospitals in 19 countries...
September 26, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Boram Lee, Sung Hwan Ahn, Hyeyoung Kim, Jaeman Son, Jiwon Sung, Youngyih Han, Seung Jae Huh, Jin Sung Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Myonggeun Yoon
This study was designed to estimate radiation-induced secondary cancer risks from high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and external radiotherapy for patients with cervical cancer based on measurements of doses absorbed by various organs. Organ doses from HDR brachytherapy and external radiotherapy were measured using glass rod dosimeters. Doses to out-of-field organs were measured at various loca-tions inside an anthropomorphic phantom. Brachytherapy-associated organ doses were measured using a specialized phantom that enabled applicator insertion, with the pelvis portion of the existing anthropomorphic phantom replaced by this new phantom...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
(no author information available yet)
Whole brain radiotherapy makes little or no difference to survival rates or quality of life in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that has spread to the brain, say researchers.
September 28, 2016: Nursing Standard
Marion Piñeros, Mónica S Sierra, M Isabel Izarzugaza, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Although malignant tumors of the brain and central nervous system (CNS) represent less than 3% of new cancer cases estimated worldwide, they cause significant morbidity and in the case of gliomas, the most common histological type, have a poor prognosis. We describe patterns and trends in brain and CNS incidence and mortality in Central and South America. METHODS: We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Jeff Boissoneault, Janelle Letzen, Song Lai, Michael E Robinson, Roland Staud
Studies using arterial spin labelling (ASL) have shown that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have decreased regional cerebral blood flow, which may be associated with changes in functional neural networks. Indeed, recent studies indicate disruptions in functional connectivity (FC) at rest in chronically fatigued patients including perturbations in static FC (sFC), that is average FC at rest between several brain regions subserving neurocognitive, motor and affect-related networks. Whereas sFC often provides information of functional network reorganization in chronic illnesses, investigations of temporal changes in functional connectivity between multiple brain areas may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain network activation associated with such maladies...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Jennifer Bail, Karen Meneses
BACKGROUND: Advancements in chemotherapy have greatly increased breast cancer survival, leading to an increased focus on the management of long-term effects of treatment. Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment, one such long-term effect, is experienced by as many as 90% of breast cancer survivors (BCS) and negatively affects employment, daily function, and quality of life. Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment is a top research and clinical practice priority. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to review computer-based cognitive training intervention studies tested in BCS, present implications for practice and directions for future research, and discuss neuroplasticity and cognitive reserve, the mechanisms by which computer-based cognitive training produces physiologic changes in the brain...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Bing Sun, Zhou Huang, Shikai Wu, Lijuan Ding, Ge Shen, Lei Cha, Junliang Wang, Santai Song
PURPOSE: Brain metastasis (BM) with a cystic component from breast cancer is rare and largely uncharacterized. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of cystic BM in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. RESULTS: A total of 35 eligible patients with cystic BM and 255 patients with solid BM were analyzed. Three factors were significantly associated with an increased probability of developing cystic lesions: age at diagnosis ≤ 40 years, age at BM ≤ 45 years, and poor histological grade (p < 0...
September 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Yin Ting Cheung, Noah D Sabin, Wilburn E Reddick, Deepa Bhojwani, Wei Liu, Tara M Brinkman, John O Glass, Scott N Hwang, Deokumar Srivastava, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy is observed in some children undergoing chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, although its effects on long-term outcomes is unknown. This study examines the associations between acute leukoencephalopathy and neurobehavioural, neurocognitive, and brain white matter imaging outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with chemotherapy without cranial radiation. METHODS: In this longitudinal analysis, we used data of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital (Memphis, TN, USA) who had been treated between June 1, 2000, and Oct 31, 2010...
October 2016: Lancet Haematology
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