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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167111/hla-loss-in-nsclc-facilitating-immune-escape
#1
(no author information available yet)
Researchers have developed a new software tool, called LOHHLA, which can pinpoint allele-specific HLA loss in tumors. When applied to a cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, this genomic event was detected in 40% of cases, increasing in frequency as the disease spread to the brain.
November 22, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162041/does-anthracycline-based-chemotherapy-in-pregnant-women-with-cancer-offer-safe-cardiac-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-for-the-developing-fetus
#2
Marialuisa Framarino-Dei-Malatesta, Paolo Sammartino, Angela Napoli
BACKGROUND: Cancer treatment during pregnancy is a growing problem especially now that women delay childbearing. Systemic treatment of these malignancies during pregnancy centers mainly on the anticancer drugs anthracyclines, widely used in treating hematological and breast cancer during pregnancy and sometimes associated with early and late toxicity for the fetus. Owing to concern about their cardiac and neurodevelopmental toxicity more information is needed on which anthracycline to prefer and whether they can safely guarantee a cardiotoxicity-free outcome in the fetus...
November 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160600/current-evidence-of-cannabinoid-based-analgesia-obtained-in-preclinical-and-human-experimental-settings
#3
REVIEW
J Lötsch, I Weyer-Menkhoff, I Tegeder
Cannabinoids have a long record of recreational and medical use and become increasingly approved for pain therapy. This development is based on preclinical and human experimental research summarized in this review. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are widely expressed throughout the nociceptive system. Their activation by endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids modulates the release of neurotransmitters. This is reflected in antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in preclinical models of inflammatory, cancer and neuropathic pain, and by nociceptive hypersensitivity of cannabinoid receptor-deficient mice...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156849/interest-of-integrins-targeting-in-glioblastoma-according-to-tumor-heterogeneity-and-cancer-stem-cell-paradigm-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Laure Malric, Sylvie Monferran, Julia Gilhodes, Sabrina Boyrie, Perrine Dahan, Nicolas Skuli, Julie Sesen, Thomas Filleron, Aline Kowalski-Chauvel, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Christine Toulas, Anthony Lemarié
Glioblastomas are malignant brain tumors with dismal prognosis despite standard treatment with surgery and radio/chemotherapy. These tumors are defined by an important cellular heterogeneity and notably contain a particular subpopulation of Glioblastoma-initiating cells, which recapitulate the heterogeneity of the original Glioblastoma. In order to classify these heterogeneous tumors, genomic profiling has also been undertaken to classify these heterogeneous tumors into several subtypes. Current research focuses on developing therapies, which could take into account this cellular and genomic heterogeneity...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156720/novel-strategies-of-raman-imaging-for-brain-tumor-research
#5
Imiela Anna, Polis Bartosz, Polis Lech, Abramczyk Halina
Raman diagnostics and imaging have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of human brain tumors from normal structures. Raman spectroscopic methods have potential to be applied in clinical practice as they allow for identification of tumor margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate medulloblastoma (grade IV WHO) (n= 5), low-grade astrocytoma (grades I-II WHO) (n =4), ependymoma (n=3) and metastatic brain tumors (n= 1) and the tissue from the negative margins used as normal controls...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156634/an-overview-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-its-application-in-non-parenteral-drug-delivery
#6
REVIEW
Munawar A Mohammed, Jaweria T M Syeda, Kishor M Wasan, Ellen K Wasan
The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the chitosan based nanoparticles for various non-parenteral applications and also to put a spotlight on current research including sustained release and mucoadhesive chitosan dosage forms. Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer regarded as safe for human dietary use and approved for wound dressing applications. Chitosan has been used as a carrier in polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery through various routes of administration. Chitosan has chemical functional groups that can be modified to achieve specific goals, making it a polymer with a tremendous range of potential applications...
November 20, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156557/the-invasive-region-of-glioblastoma-defined-by-5ala-guided-surgery-has-an-altered-cancer-stem-cell-marker-profile-compared-to-central-tumour
#7
Stuart J Smith, Mohammed Diksin, Saachi Chhaya, Shwetha Sairam, Maria A Estevez-Cebrero, Ruman Rahman
Glioblastoma, a WHO grade IV astrocytoma, is a highly aggressive and heterogeneous tumour that infiltrates deeply into surrounding brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection impossible. Despite chemo-radiotherapy, the residual cell population within brain parenchyma post-surgery causes inevitable recurrence. Previously, the tumour core has been the focus of research and the basis for targeted therapeutic regimes, which have failed to improve survival in clinical trials. Here, we focus on the invasive margin as defined by the region with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5ALA) (GliolanTM) fluorescence at surgery beyond the T1 enhancing region on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131323/validity-and-usefulness-of-a-single-item-measure-of-patient-reported-bother-from-side-effects-of-cancer-therapy
#8
Timothy P Pearman, Jennifer L Beaumont, Daniel Mroczek, Mary O'Connor, David Cella
BACKGROUND: The improving efficacy of cancer treatment has resulted in an increasing array of treatment-related symptoms and associated burdens imposed on individuals undergoing aggressive treatment of their disease. Often, clinical trials compare therapies that have different types, and severities, of adverse effects. Whether rated by clinicians or patients themselves, it can be difficult to know which side effect profile is more disruptive or bothersome to patients. A simple summary index of bother can help to adjudicate the variability in adverse effects across treatments being compared with each other...
November 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128836/characterization-of-liposome-containing-spions-conjugated-with-anti-cd20-developed-as-a-novel-theranostic-agent-for-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#9
S Saesoo, S Sathornsumetee, P Anekwiang, C Treetidnipa, P Thuwajit, S Bunthot, W Maneeprakorn, L Maurizi, H Hofmann, Ruktanonchai Uracha Rungsardthong, N Saengkrit
Despite advances in neuroscience cancer research during the past decades, the survival of cancer patients has only marginally improved and the cure remains unlikely. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle protecting the entry of therapeutic agents to central nervous system, especially for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Thus, the use of small nanoparticle as a drug carrier may be new strategies to overcome this problem. In this study, we fabricated liposome consisting of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) functionalized with anti-CD20 (Rituximab; RTX)...
November 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124419/a-systematic-review-to-assess-the-management-of-patients-with-cerebral-metastases-secondary-to-colorectal-cancer
#10
REVIEW
I L Silva, M Iskandarani, A Hotouras, J Murphy, C Bhan, B Adada, S D Wexner
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) rarely metastasizes to the brain. The incidence of cerebral metastases (CM) is estimated between 1 and 3%. Given the improved survival from advanced CRC as a result of surgical and oncological advances, it is anticipated that the incidence of patients with CM from CRC will rise over the next few years. The aim of this article was to systematically review the treatment options and outcome of patients with CM from CRC. METHODS: PubMed and Medline databases were examined using the search words or MESH headings "colorectal" "cancer/carcinoma/adenocarcinoma", "cerebral"/"brain" and "metastases/metastasis"...
November 9, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120752/the-glycogen-shunt-maintains-glycolytic-homeostasis-and-the-warburg-effect-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Robert G Shulman, Douglas L Rothman
Despite many decades of study there is a lack of a quantitative explanation for the Warburg effect in cancer. We propose that the glycogen shunt, a pathway recently shown to be critical for cancer cell survival, may explain the excess lactate generation under aerobic conditions characteristic of the Warburg effect. The proposal is based on research on yeast and mammalian muscle and brain that demonstrates that the glycogen shunt functions to maintain homeostasis of glycolytic intermediates and ATP during large shifts in glucose supply or demand...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113931/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-a-transgenic-model-of-breast-cancer
#12
Gordon Winocur, Hal Berman, Mary Nguyen, Malcolm A Binns, Mark Henkelman, Matthijs van Eede, Micheline Piquette-Miller, Melanie J Sekeres, J Martin Wojtowicz, Johnson Yu, Haibo Zhang, Ian F Tannock
Animal studies have reinforced clinical reports of cognitive impairment in cancer survivors following chemotherapy but, until now, all pre-clinical research in this area has been conducted on normal rodents. The present study investigated the effects of chemotherapy on cognition and underlying biological mechanisms in the FVB/N-Tg (MMTV-neu) 202 Mul/J mouse, a well-characterized transgenic model of breast cancer that has similarities to the tumorigenesis which occurs in humans. Tumor-bearing and control mice received three weekly injections of a combination of methotrexate + 5-fluorouracil, or an equal volume of saline...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107216/pharmacological-effects-and-potential-therapeutic-targets-of-dt-13
#13
REVIEW
Ghulam Jilany Khan, Mohsin Rizwan, Muhammad Abbas, Muhammad Naveed, Yu Boyang, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Sara Khan, Shengtao Yuan, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Li Sun
DT-13 is an isolated compound from Dwarf lillytruf tuber and currently among active research drugs by National Natural Science foundation of China for its several potential effects. The drug has been reported for its multiple pharmacological actions however no thorough review studies are available on it. Our present study is highlighting the pros and cons of DT-13 focusing on its potential pharmacological actions, therapeutic utilization and further exploration for novel targets. The drug possesses very low toxicity profile, quick onset and long duration of action with slow elimination that combinely makes it favorable for the clinical studies...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103883/effect-of-brain-metastasis-on-patient-reported-outcomes-in-advanced-nsclc-treated-in-real-world-community-oncology-settings
#14
Mark S Walker, William Wong, Arliene Ravelo, Paul J E Miller, Lee S Schwartzberg
INTRODUCTION: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) might be affected by the presence of brain metastasis (BM). We report findings from a prospective observational study that examined HRQOL in patients newly diagnosed with advanced NSCLC, with or without baseline BM, through 1 year of follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients starting first-line treatment of stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were prospectively enrolled and consented at 34 US-based community oncology practices...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099032/disparities-in-brain-cancer-in-the-united-states-a-literature-review-of-gliomas
#15
REVIEW
Dharam Persaud-Sharma, Joseph Burns, Jeran Trangle, Sabyasachi Moulik
In the human body, the central regulatory system of homeostasis is maintained by the brain. Its complexity is mesmerizing and many of its functions are largely uncharted. Unfortunately, its functionality is often impaired through neoplastic growths, like gliomas, which are devastating to patients and their families. Annually, gliomas are the most common primary brain tumours affecting over 20,000 people in the United States. However, despite their status as the third most common cause of cancer related death for individuals between ages 20 and 39, the aetiology of gliomas remains unknown...
July 25, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097610/understanding-mitochondrial-polymorphisms-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Karen M Bussard, Linda D Siracusa
Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were once thought to be predominantly innocuous to cell growth. Recent evidence suggests that mtDNA undergo naturally occurring alterations, including mutations and polymorphisms, which profoundly affect the cells in which they appear and contribute to a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Furthermore, interplay between mtDNA and nuclear DNA has been found in cancer cells, necessitating consideration of these complex interactions for future studies of cancer mutations and polymorphisms...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097383/mind-the-sr-gap-roles-of-slit-robo-gaps-in-neurons-brains-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Bethany Lucas, Jeff Hardin
The Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) were first identified as potential Slit-Robo effectors that influence growth cone guidance. Given their N-terminal F-BAR, central GAP and C-terminal SH3 domains, srGAPs have the potential to affect membrane dynamics, Rho family GTPase activity and other binding partners. Recent research has clarified how srGAP family members act in distinct ways at the cell membrane, and has expanded our understanding of the roles of srGAPs in neuronal and non-neuronal cells...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095543/background-current-role-and-potential-applications-of-radiogenomics
#18
Katja Pinker, Fuki Shitano, Evis Sala, Richard K Do, Robert J Young, Andreas G Wibmer, Hedvig Hricak, Elizabeth J Sutton, Elizabeth A Morris
With the genomic revolution in the early 1990s, medical research has been driven to study the basis of human disease on a genomic level and to devise precise cancer therapies tailored to the specific genetic makeup of a tumor. To match novel therapeutic concepts conceived in the era of precision medicine, diagnostic tests must be equally sufficient, multilayered, and complex to identify the relevant genetic alterations that render cancers susceptible to treatment. With significant advances in training and medical imaging techniques, image analysis and the development of high-throughput methods to extract and correlate multiple imaging parameters with genomic data, a new direction in medical research has emerged...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092950/slicerdmri-open-source-diffusion-mri-software-for-brain-cancer-research
#19
Isaiah Norton, Walid Ibn Essayed, Fan Zhang, Sonia Pujol, Alex Yarmarkovich, Alexandra J Golby, Gordon Kindlmann, Demian Wasserman, Raul San Jose Estepar, Yogesh Rathi, Steve Pieper, Ron Kikinis, Hans J Johnson, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Lauren J O'Donnell
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is the only noninvasive method for mapping white matter connections in the brain. We describe SlicerDMRI, a software suite that enables visualization and analysis of dMRI for neuroscientific studies and patient-specific anatomic assessment. SlicerDMRI has been successfully applied in multiple studies of the human brain in health and disease, and here, we especially focus on its cancer research applications. As an extension module of the 3D Slicer medical image computing platform, the SlicerDMRI suite enables dMRI analysis in a clinically relevant multimodal imaging workflow...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081819/cognitive-function-of-artemisia-argyi-h-fermented-by-monascus-purpureus-under-tmt-induced-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-icr-mice
#20
Jin Yong Kang, Du Sang Lee, Seon Kyeong Park, Jeong Su Ha, Jong Min Kim, Gi Jeong Ha, Weon Taek Seo, Ho Jin Heo
The cognitive effect of Artemisia argyi H. under liquid-state fermentation by Monascus purpureus (AAFM), which has cellular antioxidant activity and neuronal cell viability, on trimethyltin- (TMT-) induced learning and memory impairment in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice was confirmed. Tests were conducted to determine the neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress, and the results showed that AAFM has protective effects through the repression of mitochondrial injury and cellular membrane damage against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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