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Brain Cancer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937451/cognitive-and-psychosocial-functioning-of-preschool-aged-children-with-cancer
#1
Victoria W Willard, Lauren E Cox, Kathryn M Russell, Ansley Kenney, Niki Jurbergs, Andrew E Molnar, Jennifer L Harman
OBJECTIVE: Most children with cancer are diagnosed in early childhood, potentially resulting in missed developmental opportunities. The most common diagnoses-brain tumors, leukemia-are also associated with increased risk of neurocognitive deficits. Unfortunately, research regarding the functioning of preschool-aged children with cancer is limited. Our objective is to describe the cognitive and psychosocial functioning of preschool-aged children with cancer who completed a clinical evaluation at a hospital-based psychology clinic...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925679/substance-p-mediated-dgls-complexing-with-dachpt-for-targeting-therapy-of-glioma
#2
Tao Sun, Xutao Jiang, Qingbing Wang, Qinjun Chen, Yifei Lu, Lisha Liu, Yu Zhang, Xi He, Chunhui Ruan, Yujie Zhang, Qin Guo, Yaohua Liu, Chen Jiang
Currently, glioblastoma (glioma) is described as the deadliest brain tumor for its invasive natural with exceeding difficulty in surgical excision. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) can restrict the penetration of most therapeutic reagents including platinum (Pt)-based drugs-the most widely used reagents in clinical trials for their revolutionized cancer chemotherapy against a broad range of tumors. Nanomedicine represents a promising strategy for the intravenous delivery of Pt-based drugs into the brain. In this research, with the aim of malignant glioma treatment by Pt-based drugs, a novel nano drug carrier was developed: dendrigraft poly-L-lysines (DGLs) was PEGylated, linked with diethylenetriaminpentaacetic acid (DTPA) to complex (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt), and modified with Substance P (SP) as a BBB/glioma dual-targeting moiety...
September 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924548/remodeling-the-blood-brain-barrier-microenvironment-by-natural-products-for-brain-tumor-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Xiao Zhao, Rujing Chen, Mei Liu, Jianfang Feng, Jun Chen, Kaili Hu
Brain tumor incidence shows an upward trend in recent years; brain tumors account for 5% of adult tumors, while in children, this figure has increased to 70%. Moreover, 20%-30% of malignant tumors will eventually metastasize into the brain. Both benign and malignant tumors can cause an increase in intracranial pressure and brain tissue compression, leading to central nervous system (CNS) damage which endangers the patients' lives. Despite the many approaches to treating brain tumors and the progress that has been made, only modest gains in survival time of brain tumor patients have been achieved...
September 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921309/lung-cancer-associated-brain-metastasis-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-options
#4
REVIEW
Meysam Yousefi, Tayyeb Bahrami, Arash Salmaninejad, Rahim Nosrati, Parisa Ghaffari, Seyed H Ghaffari
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in humans. There are several reasons for this high rate of mortality, including metastasis to several organs, especially the brain. In fact, lung cancer is responsible for approximately 50% of all brain metastases, which are very difficult to manage. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying lung cancer-associated brain metastasis brings up novel therapeutic promises with the hope to ameliorate the severity of the disease...
September 18, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918420/computer-analysis-of-glioma-transcriptome-profiling-alternative-splicing-events
#5
Vladimir N Babenko, Natalya V Gubanova, Anatoly O Bragin, Irina V Chadaeva, Gennady V Vasiliev, Irina V Medvedeva, Alexey S Gaytan, Alexey L Krivoshapkin, Yuriy L Orlov
Here we present the analysis of alternative splicing events on an example of glioblastoma cell culture samples using a set of computer tools in combination with database integration. The gene expression profiles of glioblastoma were obtained from cell culture samples of primary glioblastoma which were isolated and processed for RNA extraction. Transcriptome profiling of normal brain samples and glioblastoma were done by Illumina sequencing. The significant differentially expressed exon-level probes and their corresponding genes were identified using a combination of the splicing index method...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917711/crocodiles-and-alligators-antiamoebic-and-antitumor-compounds-of-crocodiles
#6
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Shareni Jeyamogan, Salwa Mansoor Ali, Fatima Abbas, K A Sagathevan, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Crocodiles exist in unsanitary environments, feed on rotten meat, are often exposed to heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead, selenium, tolerate high levels of radiation, and are amid the very few species to survive the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, nonetheless they can live for up to a 100 years. Moreover, as they live in unhygienic conditions, they regularly come across pathogens. Logically, we postulate that crocodiles have established mechanisms to defend themselves from noxious agents as well as protecting themselves from pathogens...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917271/cognitive-impairment-and-chemotherapy-a-brief-overview
#7
REVIEW
Milena Vitali, Carla Ida Ripamonti, Fausto Roila, Claudia Proto, Diego Signorelli, Martina Imbimbo, Giulia Corrao, Angela Brissa, Gallucci Rosaria, Filippo de Braud, Marina Chiara Garassino, Giuseppe Lo Russo
Patients with cancer are experiencing long-term survival following chemotherapy, but the treatment may also be associated with short and long-term toxicity, including the possibility of cognitive dysfunction. A literature overview indicated a significant association between chemotherapy and cognitive impairment but prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of this decline. Although chemotherapeutic agents are unlikely to cross the blood-brain barrier, it has been alleged that the occurrence of neurotoxicity is linked to the pro-inflammatory cytokine pathways...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904242/the-g-quadruplex-dna-stabilizing-drug-pyridostatin-promotes-dna-damage-and-downregulates-transcription-of-brca1-in-neurons
#8
Jose F Moruno-Manchon, Edward C Koellhoffer, Jayakrishnan Gopakumar, Shashank Hambarde, Nayun Kim, Louise D McCullough, Andrey S Tsvetkov
The G-quadruplex is a non-canonical DNA secondary structure formed by four DNA strands containing multiple runs of guanines. G-quadruplexes play important roles in DNA recombination, replication, telomere maintenance, and regulation of transcription. Small molecules that stabilize the G-quadruplexes alter gene expression in cancer cells. Here, we hypothesized that the G-quadruplexes regulate transcription in neurons. We discovered that pyridostatin, a small molecule that specifically stabilizes G-quadruplex DNA complexes, induced neurotoxicity and promoted the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cultured neurons...
September 12, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903085/multiscale-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-lipid-interactions-with-p-glycoprotein-in-a-complex-membrane
#9
Laura Domicevica, Heidi Koldsø, Philip C Biggin
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can transport a wide range of very different hydrophobic organic molecules across the membrane. Its ability to extrude molecules from the cell creates delivery problems for drugs that target proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) and also causes drug-resistance in many forms of cancer. Whether a drug will be susceptible to export by P-gp is difficult to predict and currently this is usually assessed with empirical and/or animal models. Thus, there is a need to better understand how P-gp works at the molecular level in order to fulfil the 3Rs: Refinement, reduction and replacement of animals in research...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900896/fusion-of-gelonin-and-anti-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-igf-1r-affibody-for-enhanced-brain-cancer-therapy
#10
Songhee Ham, Kyoung Ah Min, Jae Wook Yang, Meong Cheol Shin
Owing to the extraordinary potency in inhibiting protein translation that could eventually lead to apoptosis of tumor cells, ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) such as gelonin have been considered attractive drug candidates for cancer therapy. However, due to several critical obstacles (e.g., severe toxicity issues caused by a lack of selectivity in their mode of action and the low cytotoxicity via poor cellular uptake, etc.), clinical application of RIPs is yet far from being accomplished. To overcome these challenges, in the present study, we engineered gelonin fusion proteins with anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) affibody ("IAFF") via the genetic recombinant method and the SpyCatcher/SpyTag-mediated conjugation method...
September 12, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895435/intranasal-delivery-of-stem-cell-based-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-brain-malignancies
#11
Gina Li, Nicolas Bonamici, Mahua Dey, Maciej S Lesniak, Irina V Balyasnikova
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain cancer in adults, and its poor prognosis and resistance to the existing standard of care require the development of innovative therapeutic modalities. The local delivery of stem cells as therapeutic carriers against glioma has produced encouraging results, but encounters obstacles with regards to the repeatability and invasiveness of administration. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic stem cells could overcome these obstacles, among others, as a noninvasive and easily repeatable mode of administration...
September 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895098/recurrent-cerebral-attack-caused-by-thrombosis-in-the-pulmonary-vein-stump-in-a-patient-with-left-upper-lobectomy-on-anticoagulant-therapy-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Takahito Nakano, Mayumi Inaba, Hiroyuki Kaneda
BACKGROUND: Thrombus formation in the pulmonary vein stump after pulmonary resection has recently been identified as a cause of systemic thrombosis including brain infarction. However, there is limited research focusing on the clinical course of pulmonary vein stump thrombus, and optimal treatment and prevention strategies of this important complication have not been established. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed with lung cancer of the left upper lobe, cT4N2M0, cStage IIIB...
September 11, 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890157/the-cumulative-burden-of-surviving-childhood-cancer-an-initial-report-from-the-st-jude-lifetime-cohort-study-sjlife
#13
Nickhill Bhakta, Qi Liu, Kirsten K Ness, Malek Baassiri, Hesham Eissa, Frederick Yeo, Wassim Chemaitilly, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Johnnie Bass, Michael W Bishop, Kyla Shelton, Lu Lu, Sujuan Huang, Zhenghong Li, Eric Caron, Jennifer Lanctot, Carrie Howell, Timothy Folse, Vijaya Joshi, Daniel M Green, Daniel A Mulrooney, Gregory T Armstrong, Kevin R Krull, Tara M Brinkman, Raja B Khan, Deo K Srivastava, Melissa M Hudson, Yutaka Yasui, Leslie L Robison
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer develop early and severe chronic health conditions (CHCs). A quantitative landscape of morbidity of survivors, however, has not been described. We aimed to describe the cumulative burden of curative cancer therapy in a clinically assessed ageing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: The St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) retrospectively collected data on CHCs in all patients treated for childhood cancer at the St Jude Children's Research Hospital who survived 10 years or longer from initial diagnosis and were 18 years or older as of June 30, 2015...
September 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885712/pathological-complete-response-in-patients-with-esophageal-cancer-after-the-trimodality-approach-the-association-with-baseline-variables-and-survival-the-university-of-texas-md-anderson-cancer-center-experience
#14
Mariela Blum Murphy, Lianchum Xiao, Viren R Patel, Dipen M Maru, Arlene M Correa, Fatemeh G Amlashi, Zhongxing Liao, Ritsuko Komaki, Steven H Lin, Heath D Skinner, Ara Vaporciyan, Garrett L Walsh, Stephen G Swisher, Boris Sepesi, Jeffrey H Lee, Manoop S Bhutani, Brian Weston, Wayne L Hofstetter, Jaffer A Ajani
BACKGROUND: Reports are limited regarding clinical and pretreatment features that might predict a pathological complete response (pathCR) after treatment in patients with esophageal cancer (EC). This might allow patient selection for different strategies. This study examines the association of a pathCR with pretreatment variables, overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and patterns of recurrence in a large cohort from a single institution. METHODS: The baseline clinical features of 911 consecutive patients with EC who were treated with trimodality therapy from January 2000 to November 2013 were analyzed...
September 8, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870895/fluoride-induces-apoptosis-in-mammalian-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Caroline Margonato Cardoso, Veronica Quispe Yujra, Milena DE Barros Viana, Odair Aguiar, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima
Apoptosis is genetically programmed cell death, an irreversible process of cell senescence with characteristic features different from other cellular mechanisms of death such as necrosis. In the last years, apoptosis has been extensively studied in the scientific literature, because it has been established that apoptosis plays a crucial role following the time course of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cancer. Thus, several researchers have strugged to detect what chemical agents are able to inter fere with the apoptotic process...
September 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868972/realizing-the-therapeutic-potential-of-rare-earth-elements-in-designing-nanoparticles-to-target-and-treat-glioblastoma
#16
Victor M Lu, Kerrie L McDonald, Helen E Townley
The prognosis of brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM) is poor, and despite intense research, there have been no significant improvements within the last decade. This stasis implicates the need for more novel therapeutic investigation. One such option is the use of nanoparticles (NPs), which can be beneficial due to their ability to penetrate the brain, overcome the blood-brain barrier and take advantage of the enhanced permeation and retention effect of GBM to improve specificity. Rare earth elements possess a number of interesting natural properties due to their unique electronic configuration, which may prove therapeutically advantageous in an NP formulation...
September 4, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865024/homer-spikar-and-other-drebrin-binding-proteins-in-the-brain
#17
Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Tomoaki Shirao
Drebrin is a major F-actin-binding protein in the brain. In the past two decades, many drebrin-binding proteins in addition to F-actin have been identified in several research fields including neuroscience, oncology, and immunology. Among the drebrin-binding proteins, there are various kinds of proteins including scaffold proteins, nuclear proteins, phosphatases, microtubule-binding proteins, G-actin-binding proteins, gap junction proteins, chemokine receptors, and cell-adhesion-related proteins. The interaction between drebrin and its binding partners seems to play important roles in higher brain functions, because drebrin is involved in the pathogenesis of some neurological diseases with cognitive defects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864727/immuno-oncology-clinical-trial-design-limitations-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
EDITORIAL
Christina S Baik, Eric H Rubin, Patrick M Forde, Janice M Mehnert, Deborah Collyar, Marcus O Butler, Erica L Dixon, Laura Q M Chow
Recent advances in immuno-oncology and regulatory approvals have been rapid and paradigm shifting in many difficult-to-treat malignancies. Despite immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy becoming the standard of care across multiple tumor types, there are many unanswered questions that need to be addressed before this therapeutic modality can be fully harnessed. Areas of limitations include treatment of patients not sufficiently represented in clinical trials, uncertainty of the optimal treatment dosing and duration, and lack of understanding regarding long-term immune related toxicities and atypical tumor responses...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863122/a-novel-molecular-agent-for-glioma-angiogenesis-imaging
#19
Chuanwang Miao, Wei Zhao, Shuanghu Yuan, Jinming Yu, Shuqiang Zhao, Li Ma, Dexian Zhang, Xudong Hu
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are rich in blood vessels and are the most primary and malignant type of brain tumor affecting the central nervous system. A few fluorine-18 (F)-labeled imaging agents can be used for imaging of tumor angiogenesis. In the current study, F-labeled recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) was developed and evaluated as a probe for PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: F-fluorobenzoyl-endostatin (F-FB-endostatin) was synthesized from radiolabeling of rh-endostatin with N-succinimidyl-4-F-fluorobenzoate produced by a facile module-assisted radiosynthesis procedure...
August 31, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853528/-neuro-oncology-a-new-field-in-davidoff-cancer-center-at-rabin-medical-center
#20
REVIEW
Shlomit Yust-Katz, Dror Limon, Ramez Abu-Shkara, Tali Siegal
Neuro-oncology is a subspecialty attracting physicians from medical disciplines such as neurology, neurosurgery, pediatrics, oncology, and radiotherapy. It deals with diagnosis and management of primary brain tumors, as well as metastatic and non-metastatic neurological manifestations that frequently affect cancer patients including brain metastases, paraneoplastic syndromes and neurological complications of cancer treatment. A neuro-oncology unit was established in Davidoff Cancer Center at Rabin Medical Center...
August 2017: Harefuah
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