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Neuroimaging and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667705/intellectual-disability-in-cerebral-palsy-a-population-based-retrospective-study
#1
Susan M Reid, Elaine M Meehan, Sarah J Arnup, Dinah S Reddihough
AIM: A population-based observational study design was used to describe the epidemiology of intellectual disability in cerebral palsy (CP) in terms of clinical and neuroimaging associations, and to report the impact of intellectual disability on utilization of health services and length of survival. METHOD: Population CP registry data were used to retrospectively assess the frequency of intellectual disability and strength of associations between intellectual disability and mobility, epilepsy, vision, hearing, communication, and neuroimaging patterns (n=1141)...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666984/unusual-white-matter-involvement-in-east-syndrome-associated-with-novel-kcnj10-mutations
#2
Mariasavina Severino, Susanna Lualdi, Chiara Fiorillo, Pasquale Striano, Teresa De Toni, Silvio Peluso, Giuseppe De Michele, Andrea Rossi, Mirella Filocamo, Claudio Bruno
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and tubulopathy (EAST syndrome) is a rare channelopathy due to KCNJ10 mutations. So far, only mild cerebellar hypoplasia and/or dentate nuclei abnormalities have been reported as major neuroimaging findings in these patients. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical and brain MRI features of two unrelated patients (aged 27 and 23 years) with EAST syndrome carrying novel homozygous frameshift mutations (p.Asn232Glnfs*14and p...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666958/ictal-interictal-continuum-patterns
#3
REVIEW
Gamaleldin M Osman, Davi F Araújo, Carolina B Maciel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present data available on the epidemiology and significance of rhythmic and periodic patterns that lie on the ictal interictal continuum and propose an algorithm for the clinical approach to patients exhibiting these patterns. RECENT FINDINGS: There is accumulating evidence on the prognostic implications of various rhythmic and periodic patterns in the critically ill population. These patterns are not only associated with increased seizure risk but have also been associated with worse outcome and increased long-term risk of epilepsy in recent studies...
April 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645068/-frequency-semiology-and-prognosis-of-benign-infantile-epilepsy
#4
J Ramos-Lizana, G Martinez-Espinosa, M I Rodriguez-Lucenilla, J Aguirre-Rodriguez, P Aguilera-Lopez
INTRODUCTION: Benign infantile epilepsy is an epileptic syndrome of infancy. Until now, only a small number of case-series have been published. AIM: To study the frequency, semiology and prognosis of benign infantile epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 827 patients with one or more epileptic seizures seen at our hospital between 1 June 1994 and 1 March 2011 were included and prospectively followed. A diagnosis of benign infantile epilepsy was made in patients that fulfilled the following criteria at six month of evolution: one or more focal and/or generalised seizures, onset before 24 months, no neurological deficit and normal neuroimaging and interictal EEG...
April 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615062/kars-related-diseases-progressive-leukoencephalopathy-with-brainstem-and-spinal-cord-calcifications-as-new-phenotype-and-a-review-of-literature
#5
Anna Ardissone, Davide Tonduti, Andrea Legati, Eleonora Lamantea, Rita Barone, Imen Dorboz, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy, Gabriella Nebbia, Marco Maggioni, Barbara Garavaglia, Isabella Moroni, Laura Farina, Anna Pichiecchio, Simona Orcesi, Luisa Chiapparini, Daniele Ghezzi
BACKGROUND: KARS encodes lysyl- transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase, which catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA-Lys in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Eleven families/sporadic patients and 16 different mutations in KARS have been reported to date. The associated clinical phenotype is heterogeneous ranging from early onset encephalopathy to isolated peripheral neuropathy or nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Recently additional presentations including leukoencephalopathy as predominant cerebral involvement or cardiomyopathy, isolated or associated with muscular and cerebral involvement, have been reported...
April 4, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596066/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-incidence-risk-factors-and-proposed-mechanisms
#6
Steven P Ellis, Charles Ákos Szabó
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including premature death from different causes. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, or SUDEP, is one of the most common causes of death in people with epilepsy and originally brought to light by medical examiners. It accounts for 5% to 30% of all deaths in individuals with epilepsy and up to 50% in individuals with medically refractory epilepsy. It is commonly associated with a history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and may be mitigated by other electroclinical risk factors, such as postictal electroencephalographic suppression, prone position, altered heart rate variability, conduction abnormalities, gender, or antiepileptic medications, to name a few...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547472/clinical-and-electrographic-correlates-of-bilateral-independent-periodic-discharges
#7
Brin Freund, James J Gugger, Alexandra Reynolds, William O Tatum, Jan Claassen, Peter W Kaplan
PURPOSE: Periodic discharges (PDs) are EEG patterns denoting brain dysfunction and ictal tendency. Their exact meaning regarding etiology and outcomes is not well known. In particular, bilateral independent PDs (BIPDs) are poorly described. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study evaluating neuroimaging, epileptic, clinical, and EEG correlates of BIPDs. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients studied with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale 6...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541057/small-lesion-size-is-associated-with-sleep-related-epilepsy-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia-type-ii
#8
Bo Jin, Wenhan Hu, Linmei Ye, Balu Krishnan, Thandar Aung, Stephen E Jones, Imad M Najm, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Kai Zhang, Junming Zhu, Jianguo Zhang, Meiping Ding, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang, Zhong Irene Wang
Objective: To investigate the neuroimaging and clinical features associated with sleep-related epilepsy (SRE) in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II. Methods: Patients with histopathologically proven FCD type II were included from three epilepsy centers. SRE was defined according to the video EEG findings and seizure history. Cortical surface reconstruction and volume calculation were performed using FreeSurfer. The lesions were manually delineated on T1 volumetric MRI using the ITK-SNAP software...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534299/getting-the-best-outcomes-from-epilepsy-surgery
#9
REVIEW
V N Vakharia, J S Duncan, J-A Witt, C E Elger, R Staba, J Engel
Neurosurgery is an under-utilised treatment that can potentially cure drug-refractory epilepsy. Careful, multidisciplinary pre-surgical evaluation is vital for selecting patients and ensure optimal outcomes. Advances in neuroimaging have improved diagnosis and guide surgical intervention. Invasive electroencephalography allows the evaluation of complex patients who would otherwise not be candidates for neurosurgery. We review the current state of the assessment and selection of patients and consider established and novel surgical procedures, and associated outcome data...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521117/neurocysticercosis-the-good-the-bad-and-the-missing
#10
Arturo Carpio, Agnès Fleury, Matthew L Romo, Ronaldo Abraham
Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a neglected disease that contributes substantially to neurological morbidity/mortality in lower-income countries and increasingly among high-income countries due to migration. Many advances have been made in understanding NC, but unanswered questions remain Areas covered: This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and eradication of NC. Expert commentary: The global NC prevalence remains unknown and needs proper ascertainment. Further understanding of the pathophysiology of extraparenchymally located cysts is needed to improve management...
April 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506031/cognition-and-dementia-in-older-patients-with-epilepsy
#11
Arjune Sen, Valentina Capelli, Masud Husain
With advances in healthcare and an ageing population, the number of older adults with epilepsy is set to rise substantially across the world. In developed countries the highest incidence of epilepsy is already in people over 65 and, as life expectancy increases, individuals who developed epilepsy at a young age are also living longer. Recent findings show that older persons with epilepsy are more likely to suffer from cognitive dysfunction and that there might be an important bidirectional relationship between epilepsy and dementia...
February 28, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504292/current-clinical-applications-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-neurological-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Woo Suk Tae, Byung Joo Ham, Sung Bom Pyun, Shin Hyuk Kang, Byung Jo Kim
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relatively new neuroimaging modality...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467145/electrophysiological-signatures-of-spatial-boundaries-in-the-human-subiculum
#13
Sang Ah Lee, Jonathan F Miller, Andrew J Watrous, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Gregory A Worrell, Brent M Berry, Joshua P Aronson, Kathryn A Davis, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer Sheth, Sandhitsu R Das, Joel M Stein, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S Rizzuto, Joshua Jacobs
Environmental boundaries play a crucial role in spatial navigation and memory across a wide range of distantly-related species. In rodents, boundary representations have been identified at the single-cell level in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of the hippocampal formation. While studies of hippocampal function and spatial behavior suggest that similar representations might exist in humans, boundary-related neural activity has not been identified electrophysiologically in humans until now. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed intracranial recordings from the hippocampal formation of surgical epilepsy patients (of both sexes) while they performed a virtual spatial navigation task and compared the power in three frequency bands (1-4 Hz, 4-10 Hz, 30-90 Hz) for target locations near and far from the environmental boundaries...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453111/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-therapeutic-complications-long-term-neurological-and-neuroimaging-follow-up
#14
Hsiu-Fen Lee, Ching-Shiang Chi
PURPOSE: To understand the long-term neurological outcomes and chronological changes of brain MRIs in patients with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). METHODS: From December 2000 to May 2016, 29 patients diagnosed with FIRES were collected retrospectively. The demographic distribution, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and treatment methodology were described. Follow-up clinical outcomes and chronological evolution of neuroimaging findings were analyzed...
February 6, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427835/phenytoin-related-ataxia-in-patients-with-epilepsy-clinical-and-radiological-characteristics
#15
Priya D Shanmugarajah, Nigel Hoggard, Daniel P Aeschlimann, Pascale C Aeschlimann, Gary J Dennis, Stephen J Howell, Markus Reuber, Richard A Grünewald, Marios Hadjivassiliou
PURPOSE: Phenytoin is an effective anticonvulsant for focal epilepsy. Its use can be associated with long-term adverse effects including cerebellar ataxia. Whilst phenytoin is toxic to Purkinje cells in vitro; the clinical and radiological phenotype and mechanism of cerebellar degeneration in vivo remain unclear. We describe the prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics of phenytoin-related ataxia. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy receiving treatment with phenytoin were recruited from the Epilepsy clinics at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK...
February 2, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423566/clinical-and-neuroimaging-features-of-autosomal-recessive-spastic-paraplegia-35-spg35-case-reports-new-mutations-and-brief-literature-review
#16
Francesco Mari, Beatrice Berti, Alessandro Romano, Jacopo Baldacci, Riccardo Rizzi, M Grazia Alessandrì, Alessandra Tessa, Elena Procopio, Anna Rubegni, Charles Marques Lourenḉo, Alessandro Simonati, Renzo Guerrini, Filippo Maria Santorelli
Spastic paraplegia 35 (SPG35) is a recessive condition characterized by childhood onset, progressive course, complicated by dystonia, dysarthria, cognitive impairment, and epilepsy. Mutations in the FA2H gene have been described in several families, leading to the proposal of a single entity, named fatty acid hydrolase-associated neurodegeneration (FAHN). Several reports have described a polymorphic radiological picture with white matter lesions of various degrees and a distinct form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation...
February 8, 2018: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414563/genital-automatisms-reappraisal-of-a-remarkable-but-ignored-symptom-of-focal-seizures
#17
Hava Özlem Dede, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Leyla Baysal-Kıraç, Betül Baykan, Ayşen Gökyiğit
OBJECTIVES: Genital automatisms (GAs) are uncommon clinical phenomena of focal seizures. They are defined as repeated fondling, grabbing, or scratching of the genitals. The aim of this study was to determine the lateralizing and localizing value and associated clinical characteristics of GAs. METHODS: Three hundred thirteen consecutive patients with drug-resistant seizures who were referred to our tertiary center for presurgical evaluation between 2009 and 2016 were investigated...
February 1, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414550/clinical-aspects-neuroimaging-and-electroencephalography-of-35-cases-of-hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-syndrome
#18
Mohamed Albakaye, Halima Belaïdi, Fatiha Lahjouji, Leila Errguig, Callixte Kuate, Youssoufa Maiga, Seybou Hassane Diallo, Najib Kissani, Reda Ouazzani
INTRODUCTION: The hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome is a rare consequence of febrile seizures during childhood. It is characterized by the presence of prolonged unilateral clonic seizures occurring during febrile illness in a child less than 4years of age. Then, a flaccid unilateral hemiplegia with variable duration occurs. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to describe the clinical, electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging treatment and outcome of series of cases of HHE syndrome followed for 10years in our clinical neurophysiology department of the specialty hospital of Rabat...
January 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371079/schizencephaly-in-children-a-single-medical-center-retrospective-study
#19
Po-Cheng Hung, Huei-Shyong Wang, Ming-Liang Chou, Kuang-Lin Lin, Meng-Ying Hsieh, I-Jun Chou, Alex M-C Wong
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, and neuroimaging features, outcomes, and other associated systemic disorders in children with schizencephaly at a single medical center in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of children with schizencephaly between January 2000 and December 2014. The MRI findings of schizencephaly were recorded along with the presence of associated cerebral disorders...
January 6, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369733/clinical-applications-of-ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Matilde Inglese, Lazar Fleysher, Niels Oesingmann, Maria Petracca
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of paramount importance for the early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and MRI findings are part of the MS diagnostic criteria. There is a growing interest in the use of ultra-high-field strength -7 Tesla- (7T) MRI to investigate, in vivo, the pathological substrate of the disease. Areas covered: An overview of 7T MRI applications in MS focusing on increased sensitivity for lesion detection, specificity of the central vein sign and better understanding of MS pathophysiology...
March 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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