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Neuroimaging and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453111/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-therapeutic-complications-long-term-neurological-and-neuroimaging-follow-up
#1
Hsiu-Fen Lee, Ching-Shiang Chi
PURPOSE: To understand the long-term neurological outcomes and chronological changes of brain MRIs in patients with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). METHODS: From December 2000 to May 2016, 29 patients diagnosed with FIRES were collected retrospectively. The demographic distribution, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and treatment methodology were described. Follow-up clinical outcomes and chronological evolution of neuroimaging findings were analyzed...
February 6, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427835/phenytoin-related-ataxia-in-patients-with-epilepsy-clinical-and-radiological-characteristics
#2
Priya D Shanmugarajah, Nigel Hoggard, Daniel P Aeschlimann, Pascale C Aeschlimann, Gary J Dennis, Stephen J Howell, Markus Reuber, Richard A Grünewald, Marios Hadjivassiliou
PURPOSE: Phenytoin is an effective anticonvulsant for focal epilepsy. Its use can be associated with long-term adverse effects including cerebellar ataxia. Whilst phenytoin is toxic to Purkinje cells in vitro; the clinical and radiological phenotype and mechanism of cerebellar degeneration in vivo remain unclear. We describe the prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics of phenytoin-related ataxia. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy receiving treatment with phenytoin were recruited from the Epilepsy clinics at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK...
February 2, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423566/clinical-and-neuroimaging-features-of-autosomal-recessive-spastic-paraplegia-35-spg35-case-reports-new-mutations-and-brief-literature-review
#3
Francesco Mari, Beatrice Berti, Alessandro Romano, Jacopo Baldacci, Riccardo Rizzi, M Grazia Alessandrì, Alessandra Tessa, Elena Procopio, Anna Rubegni, Charles Marques Lourenḉo, Alessandro Simonati, Renzo Guerrini, Filippo Maria Santorelli
Spastic paraplegia 35 (SPG35) is a recessive condition characterized by childhood onset, progressive course, complicated by dystonia, dysarthria, cognitive impairment, and epilepsy. Mutations in the FA2H gene have been described in several families, leading to the proposal of a single entity, named fatty acid hydrolase-associated neurodegeneration (FAHN). Several reports have described a polymorphic radiological picture with white matter lesions of various degrees and a distinct form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation...
February 8, 2018: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414563/genital-automatisms-reappraisal-of-a-remarkable-but-ignored-symptom-of-focal-seizures
#4
Hava Özlem Dede, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Leyla Baysal-Kıraç, Betül Baykan, Ayşen Gökyiğit
OBJECTIVES: Genital automatisms (GAs) are uncommon clinical phenomena of focal seizures. They are defined as repeated fondling, grabbing, or scratching of the genitals. The aim of this study was to determine the lateralizing and localizing value and associated clinical characteristics of GAs. METHODS: Three hundred thirteen consecutive patients with drug-resistant seizures who were referred to our tertiary center for presurgical evaluation between 2009 and 2016 were investigated...
February 1, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414550/clinical-aspects-neuroimaging-and-electroencephalography-of-35-cases-of-hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-syndrome
#5
Mohamed Albakaye, Halima Belaïdi, Fatiha Lahjouji, Leila Errguig, Callixte Kuate, Youssoufa Maiga, Seybou Hassane Diallo, Najib Kissani, Reda Ouazzani
INTRODUCTION: The hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome is a rare consequence of febrile seizures during childhood. It is characterized by the presence of prolonged unilateral clonic seizures occurring during febrile illness in a child less than 4years of age. Then, a flaccid unilateral hemiplegia with variable duration occurs. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to describe the clinical, electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging treatment and outcome of series of cases of HHE syndrome followed for 10years in our clinical neurophysiology department of the specialty hospital of Rabat...
January 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371079/schizencephaly-in-children-a-single-medical-center-retrospective-study
#6
Po-Cheng Hung, Huei-Shyong Wang, Ming-Liang Chou, Kuang-Lin Lin, Meng-Ying Hsieh, I-Jun Chou, Alex M-C Wong
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, and neuroimaging features, outcomes, and other associated systemic disorders in children with schizencephaly at a single medical center in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of children with schizencephaly between January 2000 and December 2014. The MRI findings of schizencephaly were recorded along with the presence of associated cerebral disorders...
January 6, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369733/clinical-applications-of-ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Matilde Inglese, Lazar Fleysher, Niels Oesingmann, Maria Petracca
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of paramount importance for the early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and MRI findings are part of the MS diagnostic criteria. There is a growing interest in the use of ultra-high-field strength -7 Tesla- (7T) MRI to investigate, in vivo, the pathological substrate of the disease. Areas covered: An overview of 7T MRI applications in MS focusing on increased sensitivity for lesion detection, specificity of the central vein sign and better understanding of MS pathophysiology and discuss the implications for disease diagnosis, monitoring and treatment planning...
January 25, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365066/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-the-common-epilepsies-assessed-in-a-worldwide-enigma-study
#8
Christopher D Whelan, Andre Altmann, Juan A Botía, Neda Jahanshad, Derrek P Hibar, Julie Absil, Saud Alhusaini, Marina K M Alvim, Pia Auvinen, Emanuele Bartolini, Felipe P G Bergo, Tauana Bernardes, Karen Blackmon, Barbara Braga, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Anna Calvo, Sarah J Carr, Jian Chen, Shuai Chen, Andrea Cherubini, Philippe David, Martin Domin, Sonya Foley, Wendy França, Gerrit Haaker, Dmitry Isaev, Simon S Keller, Raviteja Kotikalapudi, Magdalena A Kowalczyk, Ruben Kuzniecky, Soenke Langner, Matteo Lenge, Kelly M Leyden, Min Liu, Richard Q Loi, Pascal Martin, Mario Mascalchi, Marcia E Morita, Jose C Pariente, Raul Rodríguez-Cruces, Christian Rummel, Taavi Saavalainen, Mira K Semmelroch, Mariasavina Severino, Rhys H Thomas, Manuela Tondelli, Domenico Tortora, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Lucy Vivash, Felix von Podewils, Jan Wagner, Bernd Weber, Yi Yao, Clarissa L Yasuda, Guohao Zhang, Nuria Bargalló, Benjamin Bender, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Ingmar Blümcke, Chad Carlson, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, Fernando Cendes, Luis Concha, Norman Delanty, Chantal Depondt, Orrin Devinsky, Colin P Doherty, Niels K Focke, Antonio Gambardella, Renzo Guerrini, Khalid Hamandi, Graeme D Jackson, Reetta Kälviäinen, Peter Kochunov, Patrick Kwan, Angelo Labate, Carrie R McDonald, Stefano Meletti, Terence J O'Brien, Sebastien Ourselin, Mark P Richardson, Pasquale Striano, Thomas Thesen, Roland Wiest, Junsong Zhang, Annamaria Vezzani, Mina Ryten, Paul M Thompson, Sanjay M Sisodiya
Progressive functional decline in the epilepsies is largely unexplained. We formed the ENIGMA-Epilepsy consortium to understand factors that influence brain measures in epilepsy, pooling data from 24 research centres in 14 countries across Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australia. Structural brain measures were extracted from MRI brain scans across 2149 individuals with epilepsy, divided into four epilepsy subgroups including idiopathic generalized epilepsies (n =367), mesial temporal lobe epilepsies with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE; left, n = 415; right, n = 339), and all other epilepsies in aggregate (n = 1026), and compared to 1727 matched healthy controls...
January 22, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360171/new-perspectives-in-epilepsy-neuropathology
#9
Maria Thom
As epilepsy surgery programmes commenced in the 1950s, many eminent neuropathologists embraced the opportunity to study the varied lesions identified in relation to electroencephalography, neuroimaging, psychometry as well as outcome following removal of what was termed the 'alien' brain tissue [1-3]. Beyond their insightful and meticulous histological descriptions, they began to address the questions of what caused these lesions, how they gave rise to epilepsy (the processes of 'epileptogensis') and how they related to other co-morbidities or mortality associated with epilepsy...
January 23, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350182/the-role-of-eeg-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-the-epilepsy-syndromes-a-tool-for-clinical-practice-by-the-ilae-neurophysiology-task-force-part-2
#10
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Roberto Caraballo, Sushma Goyal, Anna Kaminska, Pramote Laoprasert, Hirokazu Oguni, Guido Rubboli, William Tatum, Pierre Thomas, Eugen Trinka, Luca Vignatelli, Solomon L Moshé
The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures...
December 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344465/grey-and-white-matter-alterations-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-a-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Ji Hyun Kim
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been classified as a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is characterized by a strong genetic basis, age-specific onset of seizures, specific types of seizures, generalized spike-wave discharges on electroencephalography, and a lack of focal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, a wide range of advanced neuroimaging techniques have been utilized to elucidate the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying JME...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336036/the-incidence-and-significance-of-periictal-apnea-in-epileptic-seizures
#12
Nuria Lacuey, Bilal Zonjy, Johnson P Hampson, M R Sandhya Rani, Anita Zaremba, Rup K Sainju, Brian K Gehlbach, Stephan Schuele, Daniel Friedman, Orrin Devinsky, Maromi Nei, Ronald M Harper, Luke Allen, Beate Diehl, John J Millichap, Lisa Bateman, Mark A Granner, Deidre N Dragon, George B Richerson, Samden D Lhatoo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate periictal central apnea as a seizure semiological feature, its localizing value, and possible relationship with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) pathomechanisms. METHODS: We prospectively studied polygraphic physiological responses, including inductance plethysmography, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ), electrocardiography, and video electroencephalography (VEEG) in 473 patients in a multicenter study of SUDEP...
January 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331287/characterizing-the-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-with-magnetoencephalography-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Irene E Harmsen, Nathan C Rowland, Richard A Wennberg, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the literature related to the use of MEG to characterize the effects of DBS...
January 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318927/cost-effectiveness-of-evaluation-of-children-with-epilepsy-in-the-emergency-department-need-for-investment-in-patient-education
#14
Karen S Carvalho, Anthony L Fine, Christopher J Haines, Ignacio Valencia, Divya S Khurana, Agustin Legido
We aimed to study cost-effectiveness of seizure evaluation of children with epilepsy in the emergency department (ED). We reviewed epilepsy patients seen at our ED for 1 year. Age, laboratory and neuroimaging results, treatment, disposition, and usefulness of the visit (need for hospitalization, clinical improvement) were analyzed. We identified 330 patients, aged 23 days-21 years, 190 (57.5%) had blood tests, 45 (13.6%) urinalysis, 2 (0.6%) cerebrospinal fluid testing, and 44 neuroimaging studies (13.3%)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305185/predictors-of-outcome-after-surgery-in-134-children-with-drug-resistant-tle
#15
Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Ramshekhar Menon, Mathew Abraham, George Vilanilam, Suvasini Sharma, Bejoy Thomas, Chandrashekharan Kesavadas, Ajith Cherian, Raviprasad Varma, Sanjeev V Thomas
PURPOSE: To determine the factors predicting seizure outcome in children who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Among the 664 patients who underwent ATL for TLE from 1995 to 2008, there were 134 children. "Excellent" outcome in them was defined as seizure freedom during the entire follow-up (Engel class I a); "good outcome", if in remission last 2 years, and the rest as "unfavorable outcome". To identify the potential predictors of seizure recurrence, the attributes of recurred and non-recurred groups was compared by univariate and multivariate analysis...
January 2, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303866/pet-and-ictal-spect-can-be-helpful-for-localizing-epileptic-foci
#16
Tim J von Oertzen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional neuroimaging with PET and SPECT is a commonly used tool in presurgical evaluation. The following article reviews the literature of PET and SPECT in presurgical assessment of epilepsies published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET adds concomitant information in temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. The pattern of hypometabolism in FDG-PET is a good additional predictor or seizure outcome in TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis or negative MRI...
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295801/prevalence-of-idiopathic-epilepsy-among-school-children-in-gharbia-governorate-egypt
#17
Azza Kamal Alshahawy, Amira Hamed Darwish, Safynaz Elsaid Shalaby, Wegdan Mawlana
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders among children. Data about its prevalence in Egypt is limited. Our aim was to study the prevalence of idiopathic epilepsy among school children in Gharbia governorate, Egypt. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A Cross-sectional school-based survey study was conducted; a validated screening questionnaire was distributed among urban and rural primary and preparatory school children. Students with suspected epilepsy were subjected to clinical evaluation, Electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging...
December 30, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289531/epileptic-seizures-are-reduced-by-autonomic-biofeedback-therapy-through-enhancement-of-fronto-limbic-connectivity-a-controlled-trial-and-neuroimaging-study
#18
Yoko Nagai, Julia Aram, Matthias Koepp, Louis Lemieux, Marco Mula, Hugo Critchley, Sanjay Sisodiya, Mara Cercignani
BACKGROUND: Thirty-percent of patients with epilepsy are drug-resistant, and might benefit from effective noninvasive therapeutic interventions. Evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of autonomic biofeedback therapy using galvanic skin response (GSR; an index of sympathetic arousal) in treating epileptic seizures. This study aimed to extend previous controlled clinical trials of autonomic biofeedback therapy with a larger homogeneous sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, we used neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of change in seizure frequency following the therapy...
December 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288503/neurodegenerative-processes-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-clinical-pathological-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#19
X Y Tai, B Bernhardt, M Thom, P Thompson, S Baxendale, M Koepp, N Bernasconi
Cognitive decline is increasingly described as a co-morbidity of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment are not fully understood despite examining clinical factors, such as seizure frequency, and cellular mechanisms of excitotoxicity. We review the neuropsychometry evidence for progressive cognitive decline and examine the pathology and neuroimaging evidence supporting a neurodegenerative process in hippocampal sclerosis (HS)-related TLE. Accelerated cognitive decline is described in groups of adult HS-related TLE patients...
December 30, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279279/characterization-of-a-novel-variant-in-siblings-with-asparagine-synthetase-deficiency
#20
Stephanie J Sacharow, Elizabeth E Dudenhausen, Carrie L Lomelino, Lance Rodan, Christelle Moufawad El Achkar, Heather E Olson, Casie A Genetti, Pankaj B Agrawal, Robert McKenna, Michael S Kilberg
Asparagine Synthetase Deficiency (ASD) is a recently described inborn error of metabolism caused by bi-allelic pathogenic variants in the asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene. ASD typically presents congenitally with microcephaly and severe, often medically refractory, epilepsy. Development is generally severely affected at birth. Tone is abnormal with axial hypotonia and progressive appendicular spasticity. Hyperekplexia has been reported. Neuroimaging typically demonstrates gyral simplification, abnormal myelination, and progressive cerebral atrophy...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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