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Neuroimaging and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027858/role-of-the-temporal-pole-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-seizure-networks-an-intracranial-electrode-investigation
#1
Taylor J Abel, Royce W Woodroffe, Kirill V Nourski, Toshio Moritani, Aristides A Capizzano, Patricia Kirby, Hiroto Kawasaki, Matthew Howard, Mary Ann Werz
OBJECTIVE A convergence of clinical research suggests that the temporal pole (TP) plays an important and potentially underappreciated role in the genesis and propagation of seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Understanding its role is becoming increasingly important because selective resections for medically intractable TLE spare temporopolar cortex (TPC). The purpose of this study was to characterize the role of the TPC in TLE after using dense electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings in patients undergoing invasive monitoring for medically intractable TLE...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991719/neuroimaging-and-cognitive-functions-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Cettina Allone, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Laura Rosa Pisani, Patrizia Pollicino, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of refractory focal epilepsy. Neuroimaging researches have demonstrated structural abnormalities in several cerebral regions. Cognitive impairment has been frequently described as a potential comorbidity of long-term TLE. This review investigated the state of research regarding neuropsychological impairment and neuroimaging studies in TLE patients. Studies were found on PubMed and Web of Sciences databases, 412 publications were selected: only 20 articles met search criteria...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990168/automated-analysis-of-seizure-semiology-and-brain-electrical-activity-in-presurgery-evaluation-of-epilepsy-a-focused-survey
#3
REVIEW
David Ahmedt-Aristizabal, Clinton Fookes, Sasha Dionisio, Kien Nguyen, João Paulo S Cunha, Sridha Sridharan
Epilepsy being one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide, and with almost 30-40% of patients experiencing partial epilepsy being nonresponsive to medication, epilepsy surgery is widely accepted as an effective therapeutic option. Presurgical evaluation has advanced significantly using noninvasive techniques based on video monitoring, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological and neuropsychological tests; however, certain clinical settings call for invasive intracranial recordings such as stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG), aiming to accurately map the eloquent brain networks involved during a seizure...
October 9, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984246/the-role-of-eeg-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-the-epilepsy-syndromes-a-tool-for-clinical-practice-by-the-ilae-neurophysiology-task-force-part-1
#4
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Roberto Caraballo, Sushma Goyal, Anna Kaminska, Pramote Laoprasert, Hirokazu Oguni, Guido Rubboli, William Tatum, Pierre Thomas, Eugen Trinka, Luca Vignatelli, Solomon L Moshé
The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures...
October 6, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967231/congenital-anomalies-and-the-severity-of-impairments-for-cerebral-palsy
#5
Kjersti P Jystad, Kristin M Strand, Solveig Bjellmo, Stian Lydersen, Kari Klungsöyr, Magne Stoknes, Jon Skranes, Guro L Andersen, Torstein Vik
AIM: To study the prevalence of congenital anomalies among children with cerebral palsy (CP) born at term or late preterm, and if CP subtypes and clinical manifestations differ between children with and without congenital anomalies. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Cerebral Palsy Register of Norway and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. All children with congenital CP born at and later than 34 weeks' gestation in Norway from 1999 to 2009 were included...
October 2, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966877/the-olivary-hypothesis-of-essential-tremor-time-to-lay-this-model-to-rest
#6
REVIEW
Elan D Louis, Abhishek Lenka
BACKGROUND: Although essential tremor (ET) is the most common tremor disorder, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The traditional model of ET, proposed in the early 1970s, posited that the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) was the prime generator of tremor in ET and that ET is a disorder of electrophysiological derangement, much like epilepsy. This article comprehensively reviews the origin and basis of this model, its merits and problems, and discusses whether it is time to lay this model to rest...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950221/spontaneous-seizure-remission-following-status-epilepticus-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-due-to-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#7
Nadine Girard, Eric Guedj, Patrick Chauvel, Fabrice Bartolomei, Aileen McGonigal
We describe a patient with chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy related to right parietal focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), who became seizure-free following an episode of convulsive status epilepticus (SE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were performed before and after SE. Longitudinal MRI scans showed a stable appearance of the FCD with no new signal change. However, diffusion tensor imaging showed altered white matter fiber tract orientation in posterior cortices, especially in proximity to the lesion, at 3 years post-SE...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929415/pediatric-neurocysticercosis
#8
REVIEW
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminth infection of nervous system in humans caused by the encysted larvae of Taenia solium. It is a major cause of epilepsy in tropical areas and the most common cause of focal-onset seizures in North Indian children. Children with neurocysticercosis have pleomorphic manifestations depending on the location, number and viability of the cysts and host response. In endemic areas, neurocysticercosis should be clinically suspected in any child with recent-onset seizures, headache or focal motor deficits where there is no other suggestion of an underlying neurological disorder...
September 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927715/microstructural-white-matter-changes-and-their-relation-to-neuropsychological-deficits-in-patients-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#9
Susanne Knake, Christine Roth, Marcus Belke, Jens Sonntag, Tobias Kniess, Soeren Krach, Andreas Jansen, Jens Sommer, Frieder M Paulus, Barbara Carl, Felix Rosenow, Anke M Hermsen, Katja Menzler
OBJECTIVE: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome. Neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have led to the hypothesis that JME is related to dysfunction of frontal brain regions and mainly frontal thalamocortical networks. METHODS: We investigated possible microstructural white matter abnormalities of 20 patients with JME as compared with 20 healthy control subjects using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886496/convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-a-quaternary-hospital-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-picu-in-south-africa-an-8-year-review
#10
Yavini Reddy, Yusentha Balakrishna, Lawrence Mubaiwa
PURPOSE: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to describe the clinical profile, aetiology, neuroimaging and EEG findings as well as outcome of children with CSE in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of electronic records of children with CSE admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) over an 8-year period from January 2007 to December 2014. RESULTS: Seventy six patients were admitted to the PICU with CSE and 55(72%) had refractory status epilepticus...
October 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875535/disrupted-intrinsic-and-remote-functional-connectivity-in-heterotopia-related-epilepsy
#11
W Liu, X Hu, D An, Q Gong, D Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Several neuroimaging studies have examined neural interactions in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH). However, features of the underlying functional network remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined alterations in the local (regional) and remote (interregional) cerebral networks in this disorder. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects all having suffered from PNH with epilepsy, as well as 28 age- and sex- matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study...
September 6, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872032/atlas-of-electroencephalography-3rd-edition
#12
Ali Akbar Asadi-Pooya, Dennis Dlugos, Christopher Skidmore, Michael R Sperling
Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of the electrical activity of the brain. EEG is a reliable test to assess cerebral function. It aids in diagnosis, classification, and management of patients with epilepsy. It also has practical uses in conditions other than epilepsy. Moreover, it is harmless and inexpensive. EEG is an important tool for evaluating patients with epilepsy. It may help classify the syndrome, identify the likely source of focal seizures, and confirm a diagnosis of status epilepticus...
September 5, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859565/neuroplasticity-and-the-brain-connectome-what-can-jean-talairach-s-reflections-bring-to-modern-psychosurgery
#13
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835827/epilepsy-ataxia-sensorineural-deafness-tubulopathy-syndrome-in-a-european-child-with-kcnj10-mutations-a-case-report
#14
Antigone Papavasiliou, Katerina Foska, John Ioannou, Mato Nagel
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, tubulopathy syndrome is a multi-organ disorder that links to autosomal recessive mutations in the KCNJ10 gene, which encodes for the Kir4.1 potassium channel. It is mostly described in consanguineous, non-European families. CASE REPORT: A European male of non-consanguineous birth, with early-onset, static ataxic motor disorder, intellectual disability and epilepsy, imitating cerebral palsy, presented with additional findings of renal tubulopathy, sensorineural deafness and normal neuroimaging leading to the diagnosis of epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, tubulopathy syndrome...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832001/acquired-epileptic-opercular-syndrome-related-to-a-heterozygous-deleterious-substitution-in-grin2a
#15
Claudine Sculier, Anne-Sophie Tilmant, Xavier De Tiège, Sanda Giurgea, Philippe Paquier, Gabrielle Rudolf, Gaetan Lesca, Patrick Van Bogaert
Epileptic encephalopathies with continuous spike-and-waves during sleep (CSWS) are characterized by cognitive or language impairment, and are occasionally associated with pathogenic variants of the GRIN2A gene. In these disorders, speech dysfunction could be either related to cerebral dysfunction caused by the GRIN2A deleterious variant or intense interictal epileptic activity. Here, we present a patient with apraxia of speech, clearly linked to severity of epilepsy, carrying a GRIN2A variant. A 6-year-old boy developed acute regression of expressive language following epileptic seizures, leading to complete mutism, at which time EEG revealed CSWS...
August 23, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831542/-importance-of-imaging-diagnostics-and-eeg-for-differential-diagnosis-of-epileptic-seizures
#16
REVIEW
C Vollmar, S Noachtar
Electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging are the two most crucial diagnostic methods for epilepsy. The EEG represents the only specific method to detect epileptogenicity of a brain lesion. The EEG shows some syndrome-specific alterations, helps to make therapeutic decisions and allows prognosis about the disease. Neuroimaging in epilepsy includes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Neuroimaging is crucial to clarify the underlying etiology and to localize the epileptogenic zone and has contributed to expanding the spectrum of patients where epilepsy surgery can be provided...
August 22, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822871/altered-language-network-in-benign-childhood-epilepsy-patients-with-spikes-from-non-dominant-side-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#17
Jiajia Fang, Sihan Chen, Cheng Luo, Qiyong Gong, Dongmei An, Dong Zhou
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is one of the most common childhood epilepsy syndromes, and language deficits associated with BECTS have become a hot topic. This study investigated alterations of the language network in BECTS children with spikes from the non-dominant side in comparison with healthy controls. Twenty-three children with BECTS and 20 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Region of interest -based whole brain functional connectivity analysis was used to identify the potential differences in the functional connectivity of the Broca's area between the two groups...
August 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820708/clinical-spectrum-etiology-and-outcome-of-neurological-disorders-in-the-rural-hospital-of-mosango-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#18
Deby Mukendi, Jean-Roger Lilo Kalo, Alain Mpanya, Luigi Minikulu, Tharcisse Kayembe, Pascal Lutumba, Barbara Barbé, Philippe Gillet, Jan Jacobs, Harry Van Loen, Cedric P Yansouni, François Chappuis, Raffaella Ravinetto, Kristien Verdonck, Marleen Boelaert, Andrea S Winkler, Emmanuel Bottieau
There is little published information on the epidemiology of neurological disorders in rural Central Africa, although the burden is considered to be substantial. This study aimed to investigate the pattern, etiology, and outcome of neurological disorders in children > 5 years and adults admitted to the rural hospital of Mosango, province of Kwilu, Democratic Republic of Congo, with a focus on severe and treatable infections of the central nervous system (CNS). From September 2012 to January 2015, 351 consecutive patients hospitalized for recent and/or ongoing neurological disorder were prospectively evaluated by a neurologist, subjected to a set of reference diagnostic tests in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and followed-up for 3-6 months after discharge...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799517/imaging-biomarkers-of-anti-epileptic-drug-action-insights-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Lorenzo Caciagli, Fenglai Xiao, Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
BACKGROUND: Approximately one third of patients with epilepsy are refractory to medical treatment. Adverse effects associated with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to affect quality of life often more than seizures themselves. Neuroimaging techniques, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have proven instrumental in clinical decision making in relation to epilepsy surgery, but may also provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying treatment response and side effects associated with AEDs...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737272/dynamic-coupling-between-fmri-local-connectivity-and-interictal-eeg-in-focal-epilepsy-a-wavelet-analysis-approach
#20
Amir Omidvarnia, Mangor Pedersen, David N Vaughan, Jennifer M Walz, David F Abbott, Andrew Zalesky, Graeme D Jackson
Simultaneous scalp EEG-fMRI recording is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique for combining electrophysiological and hemodynamic aspects of brain function. Despite the time-varying nature of both measurements, their relationship is usually considered as time-invariant. The aim of this study was to detect direct associations between scalp-recorded EEG and regional changes of hemodynamic brain connectivity in focal epilepsy through a time-frequency paradigm. To do so, we developed a voxel-wise framework that analyses wavelet coherence between dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS, calculated from fMRI) and band amplitude fluctuation (BAF) of a target EEG electrode with dominant interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs)...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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