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Neuroimaging and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227798/histological-and-mri-markers-of-white-matter-damage-in-focal-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Deleo, Maria Thom, Luis Concha, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Neda Bernasconi
Growing evidence highlights the importance of white matter in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy. Ex vivo and post-mortem studies show pathological changes in epileptic patients in white matter myelination, axonal integrity, and cellular composition. Diffusion-weighted MRI and its analytical extensions, particularly diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been the most widely used technique to image the white matter in vivo for the last two decades, and have shown microstructural alterations in multiple tracts both in the vicinity and at distance from the epileptogenic focus...
November 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205291/interactive-effects-of-seizure-frequency-and-lateralization-on-intratemporal-effective-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Chang-Hyun Park, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Hwa-Kyung Chung, A-Reum Jung, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Hyang Woon Lee
OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) show brain connectivity changes in association with cognitive impairment. Seizure frequency and lateralization are 2 important clinical factors that characterize epileptic seizures. In this study, we sought to examine an interactive effect of the 2 seizure factors on intratemporal effective connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in patients with TLE. METHODS: For rsfMRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, we applied stochastic dynamical causal modeling to infer effective connectivity between 3 medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions, including the hippocampus (Hipp), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and amygdala (Amyg), ipsilateral to the seizure focus...
December 4, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203537/teaching-video-neuroimages-epilepsia-partialis-continua-in-an-adolescent-with-preexisting-focal-epilepsy
#3
Niamh C Lagan, Kathleen M Gorman, Amre Shahwan, Mary D King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178251/seizure-and-cognitive-outcomes-after-resection-of-glioneuronal-tumors-in-children
#4
Andrew M Faramand, Nicola Barnes, Sue Harrison, Roxanna Gunny, Tom Jacques, Zubair M Tahir, Sophia M Varadkar, Helen J Cross, William Harkness, Martin M Tisdall
OBJECTIVE: Glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) are well-recognized causes of chronic drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children. Our practice involves an initial period of radiological surveillance and antiepileptic medications, with surgery being reserved for those with radiological progression or refractory seizures. We planned to analyze the group of patients with low-grade GNTs, aiming to identify factors affecting seizure and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 150 children presenting to Great Ormond Street Hospital with seizures secondary to GNTs...
November 26, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175220/periictal-sign-of-the-cross-or-signum-crucis-as-a-lateralizing-sign-in-focal-epilepsies-not-only-a-right-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-feature
#5
Esteban Arango-Jaramillo, Lucas Lozano-García, Vanessa Benjumea-Cuartas, René Andrade-Machado
INTRODUCTION: The sign of the cross (SC) is a catholic ritual that has been described as an automatism during the ictal phase in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the prevalence of the SC and analyze the characteristics of patients who presented this phenomenon during the video-electroencephalography (VEEG) admission in our Epilepsy department. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 1308 recorded seizures; 14 patients presented the SC during the admission...
November 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174639/callosotomy-affects-performance-iq-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#6
René Westerhausen, Celine M R Karud
Morphometric neuroimaging studies on healthy adult individuals regularly report a positive association between intelligence test performance (IQ) and structural properties of the corpus callosum (CC). At the same time, studies examining the effect of callosotomy on epilepsy patients report only negligible changes in IQ as result of the surgery, partially contradicting the findings of the morphometry studies. Objective of the present meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) of 87 cases from 16 reports was to re-investigate the effect of callosotomy on full scale IQ as well as on the verbal and performance subscale under special consideration of two possible moderating factors: pre-surgical IQ levels and the extent of the surgery (complete vs...
November 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173952/corrigendum-to-advanced-morphological-neuroimaging-study-in-lateral-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-multicentric-study-epilepsy-behav-74-2017-pages-69-72
#7
Roberta Vasta, Alessia Sarica, Francesca Bisulli, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Alfredo D'Aniello, Jacopo C Difrancesco, Laura Canafoglia, Marina Casazza, Silvana Franceschetti, Carlotta Stipa, Paolo Tinuper, Laura Mumoli, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159052/subcortical-grey-matter-changes-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#8
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Bin Kim, Sang-Il Suh, Dong Wook Kim
Recent neuroimaging studies have provided converging evidence of structural and functional abnormalities of the thalamus in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). There has also been limited evidence indicating involvement of the subcortical grey matter structures other than thalamus in JME, but with inconsistent findings across the studies. In the present study, we combined volumetric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging analyses to investigate macrostructural and microstructural alterations of the subcortical grey matter in 64 JME patients compared to 58 matched control subjects...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149669/effective-clinical-classification-of-chronic-epilepsy-into-focal-and-generalized-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Shambhu Kumar, Mamta Bhushan Singh, Garima Shukla, Sreenivas Vishnubhatla, M V Padma Srivastava, Vinay Goyal, Kameshwar Prasad, Victor Patterson
PURPOSE: Investigations such as EEG and brain imaging are often difficult to obtain in primary care settings of resource-limited regions impacting millions of epilepsy patients. We wanted to test the hypothesis that classification of chronic epilepsy into focal and generalized based on clinical history and examination alone would be comparable to making such a classification with additional inputs from EEG and brain imaging. METHODS: Two investigators independently classified consecutive chronic epilepsy patients into focal, generalized and unclassified epilepsy...
December 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127595/neurological-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#10
Tania Saad, Alessandra Augusta PennaeCosta, Fernanda Veiga de Góes, Marcela de Freitas, Julia Valeriano de Almeida, Lúcio José de Santa Ignêz, Ana Paula Amancio, Renata Joviano Alvim, Ludmilla Athayde Antunes Kramberger
INTRODUCTION: In 2015, it was observed a rise in the number of microcephalic newborns associated with a history of non-specific febrile sickness and rash during pregnancy in Brazil. Since then, microcephaly has emerged as a public health concern. A few months after, the causal relation between congenital microcephaly and the Zika virus was discovered. Zika virus, an arbovirus, is a new TORCH member that leads to congenital infection through vertical transmission and harms the developing brain, disrupting synaptogenesis, and causing other central nervous system lesions...
November 10, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111092/quantitative-neuroimaging-in-mucopolysaccharidoses-clinical-trials
#11
REVIEW
Igor Nestrasil, Leonardo Vedolin
The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are rare lysosomal storage disorders caused by mutations in lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation. The resulting intracellular accumulation of GAGs leads to widespread tissue and organ dysfunction. In addition to somatic signs and symptoms, patients with MPS can present with neurological manifestations such as cognitive decline, behavioral problems (e.g. hyperactivity and aggressiveness), sleep disturbances, and/or epilepsy. These are associated with significant abnormalities of the central nervous system (CNS), including white and gray matter lesions, brain atrophy, ventriculomegaly, and spinal cord compression...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109381/epileptogenic-brain-malformations-and-mutations-in-tubulin-genes-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Annalisa Mencarelli, Paolo Prontera, Gabriela Stangoni, Elisabetta Mencaroni, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Malformations of the cerebral cortex are an important cause of developmental disabilities and epilepsy. Neurological disorders caused by abnormal neuronal migration have been observed to occur with mutations in tubulin genes. The α- and β-tubulin genes encode cytoskeletal proteins, which play a role in the developing brain. TUBA1A mutations are associated with a wide spectrum of neurological problems, which are characterized by peculiar clinical details and neuroradiologic patterns. This manuscript describes the case of a nine-year-old girl with microcephaly, mild facial dysmorphisms, epileptic seizures, and severe developmental delay, with a de novo heterozygous c...
October 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101630/biotin-thiamin-responsive-basal-ganglia-disease-in-siblings
#13
Vykuntaraju K Gowda, Varunvenkat M Srinivasan, Maya Bhat, Naveen Benakappa
Biotin Thiamine responsive Basal Ganglia Disease (BTBGD) is a rare treatable autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in SLC19A3 gene. It usually presents with encephalopathy and dystonia; if not treated, can progress to quadriparesis and death. Two Indian siblings born to a consanguineous marriage presented with regression of milestones, epilepsy and dystonia. Neuroimaging showed signal changes in basal ganglia and thalami. Genetic testing showed a homozygous missense substitution p.Gly23Val (c...
November 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099542/chloral-hydrate-as-a-sedating-agent-for-neurodiagnostic-procedures-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Choong Yi Fong, Chee Geap Tay, Lai Choo Ong, Nai Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: Paediatric neurodiagnostic investigations, including brain neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG), play an important role in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders. The use of an appropriate sedative agent is important to ensure the successful completion of the neurodiagnostic procedures, particularly in children, who are usually unable to remain still throughout the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of chloral hydrate as a sedative agent for non-invasive neurodiagnostic procedures in children...
November 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098688/thalamocortical-functional-connectivity-in-lennox-gastaut-syndrome-is-abnormally-enhanced-in-executive-control-and-default-mode-networks
#15
Aaron E L Warren, David F Abbott, Graeme D Jackson, John S Archer
OBJECTIVE: To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. METHODS: Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis...
November 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093637/structural-and-functional-alterations-at-pre-epileptic-stage-are-closely-associated-with-epileptogenesis-in-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy-model
#16
Hani Kim, Yunsook Choi, Hye-Young Joung, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Yohan Joo, Jin-Hwan Oh, Hoo Jae Hann, Zang-Hee Cho, Hyang Woon Lee
Pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model is an established animal model that mimics medial temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroimaging abnormalities in various stages of epileptogenesis and to correlate them with seizure severity in pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to continuous video and electroencephalographic monitoring after inducing status epilepticus (SE) and seizure severity was estimated by frequency and total durations of class 3 to 5 spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) by modified Racine's classification...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077582/neuroimaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#17
Philip Sparks, Tim Lawrence, Stephan Hinze
OBJECTIVE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repeated subconcussive and concussive head injury. Clinical features include cognitive, behavioral, mood, and motor impairments. Definitive diagnosis is only possible at postmortem. Here, the utility of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of CTE is evaluated by systematically reviewing recent evidence for changes in neuroimaging biomarkers in suspected cases of CTE compared with controls. DATA SOURCES: Providing an update on a previous systematic review of articles published until December 2014, we searched for articles published between December 2014 and July 2016...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061684/teaching-neuroimages-new-onset-focal-epilepsy-the-curious-case-of-the-camel-and-the-jawbone
#18
James D Triplett, Nicholas Lawn, Rob Edis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060718/spatially-regularized-multifractal-analysis-for-fmri-data
#19
Philippe Ciuciu, Herwig Wendt, Sebastien Combrexelle, Patrice Abry
Scale-free dynamics is nowadays a massively used paradigm to model infraslow macroscopic brain activity. Multifractal analysis is becoming the standard tool to characterize scale-free dynamics. It is commonly used on various modalities of neuroimaging data to evaluate whether arrhythmic fluctuations in ongoing or evoked brain activity are related to pathologies (Alzheimer, epilepsy) or task performance. The success of multifractal analysis in neurosciences remains however so far contrasted: While it lead to relevant findings on M/EEG data, less clear impact was shown when applied to fMRI data...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058349/the-bumps-under-the-hippocampus
#20
Cheng Chang, Chuan Huang, Naiyun Zhou, Shawn Xiang Li, Lawrence Ver Hoef, Yi Gao
Shown in every neuroanatomy textbook, a key morphological feature is the bumpy ridges, which we refer to as hippocampal dentation, on the inferior aspect of the hippocampus. Like the folding of the cerebral cortex, hippocampal dentation allows for greater surface area in a confined space. However, examining numerous approaches to hippocampal segmentation and morphology analysis, virtually all published 3D renderings of the hippocampus show the inferior surface to be quite smooth or mildly irregular; we have rarely seen the characteristic bumpy structure on reconstructed 3D surfaces...
October 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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