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Neuroimaging and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#1
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644979/intraoperative-fast-ripples-independently-predict-postsurgical-epilepsy-outcome-comparison-with-other-electrocorticographic-phenomena
#2
Shaun A Hussain, Gary W Mathern, Phoebe Hung, Julius Weng, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y Wu
In the surgical management of epilepsy, the resection of cortex exhibiting interictal fast ripples (250-500Hz) on electrocorticography has been linked to postoperative seizure-freedom. Although fast ripples appear to accurately identify the epileptogenic zone-the minimum tissue that must be removed at surgery to achieve seizure-freedom-it has not been established that fast ripples are a superior biomarker in comparison with multimodal presurgical neuroimaging and other electrocorticography abnormalities. Hence, in the prediction of postoperative seizure-freedom, we compared the value of fast ripples with other intraoperative electocorticography abnormalities including focal slowing, paroxysmal fast activity, intermittent spike discharges, continuous epileptiform discharges, focal attenuation, and intraoperative seizures, as well as complete resection of the lesion defined by MRI and other neuroimaging...
June 16, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637943/stereoelectroencephalography-indication-and-efficacy
#3
Koji Iida, Hiroshi Otsubo
Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is a method for invasive study of patients with refractory epilepsy. Localization of the epileptogenic zone in SEEG relied on the hypothesis of anatomo-electro-clinical analysis limited by X-ray, analog electroencephalography (EEG), and seizure semiology in the 1950s. Modern neuroimaging studies and digital video-EEG have developed the hypothesis aiming at more precise localization of the epileptic network. Certain clinical scenarios favor SEEG over subdural EEG (SDEEG). SEEG can cover extensive areas of bilateral hemispheres with highly accurate sampling from sulcal areas and deep brain structures...
June 20, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617386/-l-2-hydroxyglutaric-aciduria-caused-by-a-new-mutation-in-the-l2hgdh-gene
#4
E V Saifullina, E Yu Zakharova, M V Kurkina, R V Magzhanov, E V Gaisina, E N Zakirova
The authors present a case-report of 13 year-old girl with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria [MIM#236792], a rare autosomal/recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the L-encoding 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L2HGDH, 14q21.3). Clinical signs of the disease are presented by predominantly neurological symptoms (epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, cognitive impairment). The distinctive feature is the specific multifocal lesion of the white matter detected on MRI. The characteristic neuroimaging picture and positive results of biochemical and molecular genetic diagnosis were identified...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612538/-risk-factors-and-prognosis-of-secondary-epilepsy-in-children-with-viral-encephalitis
#5
Liang Huang, Dan Yu, Rong Luo, Min Li, Hui Zhou, Xiao-Tang Cai, Zhi-Ling Wang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical features of viral encephalitis in children at acute stage, and the relationship of these clinical features with post viral encephalitic epilepsy. METHODS: The children with viral encephalitis treated in West China Second University Hospital between January 2010 and January 2014 were enrolled. The clinical features included general conditions, clinical manifestations, video electroencephalogram (VEEG), neuroimaging, virology, prognosis and antiepileptic drugs...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607431/cerebrospinal-fluid-micrornas-are-potential-biomarkers-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-status-epilepticus
#6
Rana Raoof, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos, Sebastian Bauer, Björn Tackenberg, Felix Rosenow, Johannes Lang, Müjgan Dogan Onugoren, Hajo Hamer, Tessa Huchtemann, Peter Körtvélyessy, Niamh M C Connolly, Shona Pfeiffer, Jochen H M Prehn, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, David C Henshall, Catherine Mooney
There is a need for diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy and status epilepticus to support clinical examination, electroencephalography and neuroimaging. Extracellular microRNAs may be potentially ideal biomarkers since some are expressed uniquely within specific brain regions and cell types. Cerebrospinal fluid offers a source of microRNA biomarkers with the advantage of being in close contact with the target tissue and sites of pathology. Here we profiled microRNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy or status epilepticus, and compared findings to matched controls...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605690/potential-implications-of-luria-s-work-for-the-neuropsychology-of-epilepsy-and-epilepsy-surgery-a-perspective-for-re-examination
#7
REVIEW
Panayiotis Patrikelis, Giuliana Lucci, Anna Siatouni, Anastasia Verentzioti, Athanasia Alexoudi, Stylianos Gatzonis
The pioneeristic work of Alexander Romanovic Luria into the field of human neuropsychology offered eminent contributions to clinical praxis by providing theory guided methods and instruments for the study of higher cortical functions. However, lots of this knowledge corpus either remains untranslated and thus inaccessible, or in some cases selectively overlooked by academic authorities and consequently not passed to the future generations of experts. Although Luria was not exclusively devoted to the study of epilepsy, his theories and clinical approaches actually penetrate the whole neuropathology spectrum...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600359/ictal-pain-in-focal-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#8
Sara Casciato, Alessandra Morano, Jinane Fattouch, Martina Fanella, Mariarita Albini, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Carlo Di Bonaventura
We report an adult with acute unilateral pain as isolated manifestation of acute symptomatic focal non-convulsive status epilepticus. Pain is rarely a manifestation of epileptic seizures. Traditionally, painful seizures have been thought to originate in either the parietal or temporal lobes, but their localising value is debatable. Recent functional neuroimaging studies and electrophysiological findings obtained by using intracerebral recordings have shown the involvement of the insular cortex along with several other brain structures in the processing of painful inputs, comprising a more widespread anatomo-functional network...
June 9, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551109/early-visual-analysis-tool-using-magnetoencephalography-for-treatment-and-recovery-of-neuronal-dysfunction
#9
Waqas Rasheed, Yee Yik Neoh, Nor Hisham Bin Hamid, Faruque Reza, Zamzuri Idris, Tong Boon Tang
Functional neuroimaging modalities play an important role in deciding the diagnosis and course of treatment of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. This article presents an analytical tool with visualization by exploiting the strengths of the MEG (magnetoencephalographic) neuroimaging technique. The tool automates MEG data import (in tSSS format), channel information extraction, time/frequency decomposition, and circular graph visualization (connectogram) for simple result inspection. For advanced users, the tool also provides magnitude squared coherence (MSC) values allowing personalized threshold levels, and the computation of default model from MEG data of control population...
May 11, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549652/the-fault-in-their-stars-accumulating-astrocytic-inclusions-associated-with-clusters-of-epileptic-spasms-in-children-with-global-developmental-delay
#10
Robyn Whitney, Sameer AlMehmadi, Bláthnaid McCoy, Ivanna Yau, Ayako Ochi, Hiroshi Otsubo, Shelly K Weiss, James Rutka, Lili-Naz Hazrati, O Carter Snead, Cristina Go
BACKGROUND: The presence of cerebral astrocytic inclusions recently has been described in a subset of children with early-onset refractory epilepsy, with or without structural brain malformations, and varying degrees of developmental delay. METHODS: We describe two new individuals with epilepsy with astrocytic inclusions and suggest that in some children this disorder may represent a unique hemispheric epilepsy. We review previously reported individuals with epilepsy with astrocytic inclusions...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549335/microstructural-alterations-of-white-matter-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#11
Jinnan Gong, Xuebin Chang, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Song Tan, Dezhong Yao, Cheng Luo
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common type of idiopathic generalized epilepsy that is characterized by myoclonic jerks of the upper limbs and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Frontal cognitive dysfunctions and abnormal coupling of the thalamocortical system have been found in neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. This study intended to explore white matter (WM) measurement changes in JME using MRI. Twenty-six patients with JME and 25 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for the acquisition of diffusion MRI and structural MRI data...
April 4, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527263/-racemose-neurocysticercosis-neuroimaging-guides-the-diagnosis
#12
Carlos Hugo Zapata, Sergio Alberto Vargas, Carlos Santiago Uribe
Neurocysticercosis is the leading cause of parasitosis of the central nervous system and acquired epilepsy in developing countries. The clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis, especially its racemose variant, are pleomorphic and unspecific, characteristics that hinder the diagnosis and make it a challenge for the clinician.The objective of this report was to describe two cases of racemose neurocysticercosis in which neuroimaging led to the definitive diagnosis. The first case involved a patient with persistent headache and focal neurological signs...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503985/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-management-of-a-first-unprovoked-seizure-in-children-and-adolescents-with-a-focus-on-the-revised-diagnostic-criteria-for-epilepsy
#13
Arnold J Sansevere, Jennifer Avalone, Lauren Doyle Strauss, Archana A Patel, Anna Pinto, Maya Ramachandran, Ivan Sanchez Fernandez, Ann M Bergin, Amir Kimia, Phillip L Pearl, Tobias Loddenkemper
By definition, unprovoked seizures are not precipitated by an identifiable factor, such as fever or trauma. A thorough history and physical examination are essential to caring for pediatric patients with a potential first unprovoked seizure. Differential diagnosis, EEG, neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and initiation of treatment will be reviewed. Treatment is typically initiated after 2 unprovoked seizures, or after 1 seizure in select patients with distinct epilepsy syndromes. Recent expansion of the definition of epilepsy by the ILAE allows for the diagnosis of epilepsy to be made after the first seizure if the clinical presentation and supporting diagnostic studies suggest a greater than 60% chance of a second seizure...
July 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503735/wdr45b-related-intellectual-disability-spastic-quadriplegia-epilepsy-and-cerebral-hypoplasia-a-consistent-neurodevelopmental-syndrome
#14
Jehan Suleiman, Diane Allingham-Hawkins, Mais Hashem, Hanan Shamseddin, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Ayman W El-Hattab
The advancement in genomic sequencing has greatly improved the diagnostic yield for neurodevelopmental disorders and led to the discovery of large number of novel genes associated with these disorders. WDR45B has been identified as a potential intellectual disability gene through genomic sequencing of two large cohorts of affected individuals. In this report we present six individuals from three unrelated families with homozygous pathogenic variants in WDR45B: c.799C>T (p.Q267*) in one family and c.673C>T (p...
May 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487114/structural-brain-network-analysis-of-children-with-localization-related-epilepsy
#15
Kanako Takeda, Hiroshi Matsuda, Yusaku Miyamoto, Hitoshi Yamamoto
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is considered to arise from dysfunction in neural networks. Recent advances in neuroimaging and its analysis have made it possible to investigate both functional and structural connectivity in the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate alterations in the structural connectivity in children with localization-related epilepsy using the mathematical method of graph theoretical analysis. METHODOLOGY: Fifteen children with localization-related epilepsy (8 female subjects; mean age, 8...
May 6, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487050/top-100-cited-articles-on-epilepsy-and-status-epilepticus-a-bibliometric-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Kang Min Park, Sung Eun Kim, Byung In Lee, Hyung Chan Kim, Dae Young Yoon, Hong Ki Song, Jong Seok Bae
The purpose of this study is to identify the top 100-cited articles dedicated to epilepsy and status epilepticus published in journals from January, 1950 through February, 2016 that have made key contributions in the field. We performed a search of journals and selected the top 100-cited articles on epilepsy and status epilepticus, respectively, by utilizing the Institute for Scientific Information database available under the banner of the Web of Science. The top-cited articles on epilepsy and status epilepticus were all published in 24 journals, respectively...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452083/neurobiological-bases-of-autism-epilepsy-comorbidity-a-focus-on-excitation-inhibition-imbalance
#17
Yuri Bozzi, Giovanni Provenzano, Simona Casarosa
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy are common neurological diseases of childhood, with an estimated incidence of approximately 0.5-1% of the worldwide population. Several genetic, neuroimaging and neuropathological studies clearly showed that both ASD and epilepsy have developmental origins and a substantial degree of heritability. Most importantly, ASD and epilepsy frequently coexist in the same individual, suggesting a common neurodevelopmental basis for these disorders. Genome-wide association studies recently allowed for the identification of a substantial number of genes involved in ASD and epilepsy, some of which are mutated in syndromes presenting both ASD and epilepsy clinical features...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449981/recessive-afg3l2-mutation-causes-progressive-microcephaly-early-onset-seizures-spasticity-and-basal-ganglia-involvement
#18
Alaa Eskandrani, Amal AlHashem, El-Sayed Ali, Saad AlShahwan, Kalthoum Tlili, Khaled Hundallah, Brahim Tabarki
BACKGROUND: Mutations in AFG3L2, a gene encoding a subunit of the mitochondrial m-AAA protease, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 and recessive spastic ataxia type 5. Neuroimaging shows cerebellar atrophy. METHODS: Retrospective review of the patient charts including their clinical evaluation and molecular genetic, neurodiagnostic, and neuroradiological investigations. RESULTS: We describe five members of a large consanguineous family with a severe mitochondrial phenotype in the form of regression of the developmental milestones in the first year of life, refractory epilepsy, progressive microcephaly, increased blood lactate, basal ganglia involvement, and premature death...
April 5, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433263/memory-assessment-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-to-predict-memory-impairment-after-surgery-a-systematic-review
#19
P Parra-Díaz, N García-Casares
INTRODUCTION: Given that surgical treatment of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy may cause memory impairment, determining which patients are eligible for surgery is essential. However, there is little agreement on which presurgical memory assessment methods are best able to predict memory outcome after surgery and identify those patients with a greater risk of surgery-induced memory decline. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic literature review to determine which presurgical memory assessment methods best predict memory outcome...
April 19, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431832/unravelling-the-mysteries-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#20
K G Hampel, R Rocamora Zuñiga, C M Quesada
INTRODUCTION: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most frequent cause of premature death in epileptic patients. Most SUDEP events occur at night and frequently go unnoticed; the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of this phenomenon therefore remain undetermined. Nevertheless, most cases of SUDEP are attributed to an infrequent yet extremely severe complication of epileptic seizures. DEVELOPMENT: We conducted a systematic literature search on PubMed...
April 18, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
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