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Neuroimaging and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822871/altered-language-network-in-benign-childhood-epilepsy-patients-with-spikes-from-non-dominant-side-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#1
Jiajia Fang, Sihan Chen, Cheng Luo, Qiyong Gong, Dongmei An, Dong Zhou
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is one of the most common childhood epilepsy syndromes, and language deficits associated with BECTS have become a hot topic. This study investigated alterations of the language network in BECTS children with spikes from the non-dominant side in comparison with healthy controls. Twenty-three children with BECTS and 20 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Region of interest -based whole brain functional connectivity analysis was used to identify the potential differences in the functional connectivity of the Broca's area between the two groups...
August 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820708/clinical-spectrum-etiology-and-outcome-of-neurological-disorders-in-the-rural-hospital-of-mosango-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#2
Deby Mukendi, Jean-Roger Lilo Kalo, Alain Mpanya, Luigi Minikulu, Tharcisse Kayembe, Pascal Lutumba, Barbara Barbé, Philippe Gillet, Jan Jacobs, Harry Van Loen, Cedric P Yansouni, François Chappuis, Raffaella Ravinetto, Kristien Verdonck, Marleen Boelaert, Andrea S Winkler, Emmanuel Bottieau
There is little published information on the epidemiology of neurological disorders in rural Central Africa, although the burden is considered to be substantial. This study aimed to investigate the pattern, etiology, and outcome of neurological disorders in children > 5 years and adults admitted to the rural hospital of Mosango, province of Kwilu, Democratic Republic of Congo, with a focus on severe and treatable infections of the central nervous system (CNS). From September 2012 to January 2015, 351 consecutive patients hospitalized for recent and/or ongoing neurological disorder were prospectively evaluated by a neurologist, subjected to a set of reference diagnostic tests in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and followed-up for 3-6 months after discharge...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799517/imaging-biomarkers-of-anti-epileptic-drug-action-insights-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Lorenzo Caciagli, Fenglai Xiao, Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
BACKGROUND: Approximately one third of patients with epilepsy are refractory to medical treatment. Adverse effects associated with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to affect quality of life often more than seizures themselves. Neuroimaging techniques, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have proven instrumental in clinical decision making in relation to epilepsy surgery, but may also provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying treatment response and side effects associated with AEDs...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737272/dynamic-coupling-between-fmri-local-connectivity-and-interictal-eeg-in-focal-epilepsy-a-wavelet-analysis-approach
#4
Amir Omidvarnia, Mangor Pedersen, David N Vaughan, Jennifer M Walz, David F Abbott, Andrew Zalesky, Graeme D Jackson
Simultaneous scalp EEG-fMRI recording is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique for combining electrophysiological and hemodynamic aspects of brain function. Despite the time-varying nature of both measurements, their relationship is usually considered as time-invariant. The aim of this study was to detect direct associations between scalp-recorded EEG and regional changes of hemodynamic brain connectivity in focal epilepsy through a time-frequency paradigm. To do so, we developed a voxel-wise framework that analyses wavelet coherence between dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS, calculated from fMRI) and band amplitude fluctuation (BAF) of a target EEG electrode with dominant interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs)...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728046/advanced-morphological-neuroimaging-study-in-lateral-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-multicentric-study
#5
Roberta Vasta, Alessia Sarica, Francesca Bisulli, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Alfredo D'Aniello, Jacopo C Difrancesco, Laura Canafoglia, Marina Casazza, Silvana Franceschetti, Carlotta Stipa, Paolo Tinuper, Laura Mumoli, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate
Lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (lTLE) is a rare condition characterized by auditory auras or receptive aphasia, negative MRI, and relatively benign evolution. With the low number of cases in the world, our objective was to analyze a cohort of sporadic cases with lTLE (slTLE), in order to investigate possible cerebral morphological alterations. Forty patients with lTLE (34.93±12.08years of age) and 38 healthy controls (CTRL, 34.55±9.08years of age) were enrolled from four tertiary Italian epilepsy centers, which provided brain MRI T1-weighted images following a standard protocol for patients with epilepsy...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721930/pharmacoresistant-epileptic-eyelid-twitching-in-a-child-with-a-mutation-in-syngap1
#6
Tetsuya Okazaki, Yoshiaki Saito, Rika Hiraiwa, Shinji Saitoh, Masachika Kai, Kaori Adachi, Yoko Nishimura, Eiji Nanba, Yoshihiro Maegaki
SYNGAP1 gene mutation has been associated with epilepsy which is often drug resistant, with seizure types including eyelid myoclonia. However, detailed descriptions, including ictal video-EEG, have not been reported. We report the case of a 4-year-old boy who developed recurrent epileptic eyelid twitching at 1 year and 5 months of age. Seizures gradually increased in frequency to more than 50 times per day and manifested with upward eye deviation, motion arrest, loss of consciousness, and eyelid twitching lasting for five seconds...
July 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716274/head-ct-findings-at-a-public-hospital-in-rural-haiti
#7
Yannis K Valtis, Maggie F Cochran, Louine Martineau, Bregenet Lamour, Jeffrey B Mendel, Aaron L Berkowitz
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is often unavailable in low-income countries, creating challenges for precise diagnosis of neurologic disease in individual patients, and impeding acquisition of precise neuroepidemiologic data for program and policy development. METHODS: We analyzed reports from 3614 head CTs performed between July 2013 and January 2016 at Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais, a public academic hospital in rural Haiti, extracting patients' age, study indication, and radiologic findings...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711291/clinical-value-and-predictors-of-subclinical-seizures-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-undergoing-scalp-video-eeg-monitoring
#8
Shan Wang, Bo Jin, Linglin Yang, Cong Chen, Yao Ding, Yi Guo, Zhongjin Wang, Wenjie Ming, Yelei Tang, Shuang Wang, Meiping Ding
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical importance and predictors of SCSs in a large population of patients with temporal epilepsy (TLE) undergoing video electroencephalographic (VEEG) monitoring. We reviewed the VEEG data of 327 consecutive patients with TLE admitted to our epilepsy center between August 2012 and January 2017. Demographic, electro-clinical, and neuroimaging data were recorded and re-analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first study assessing SCSs recorded by long-term VEEG monitoring in patients with TLE...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702345/hierarchical-disruption-in-the-bayesian-brain-focal-epilepsy-and-brain-networks
#9
Amir Omidvarnia, Mangor Pedersen, Richard E Rosch, Karl J Friston, Graeme D Jackson
In this opinion paper, we describe a combined view of functional and effective brain connectivity along with the free-energy principle for investigating persistent disruptions in brain networks of patients with focal epilepsy. These changes are likely reflected in effective connectivity along the cortical hierarchy and construct the basis of increased local functional connectivity in focal epilepsy. We propose a testable framework based on dynamic causal modelling and functional connectivity analysis with the capacity of explaining commonly observed connectivity changes during interictal periods...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698725/plasma-pyridoxal-5%C3%A1-phosphate-level-in-children-with-intractable-and-controlled-epilepsy
#10
Zahra Pirzadeh, Mohammad Ghofrani, Mohsen Mollamohammadi
OBJECTIVE: Intractable epilepsy is a serious neurologic problem with different etiologies. Decreased levels of pyridoxal phosphate in cerebral spinal fluid of patients with intractable epilepsy due to pyridoxine dependency epilepsy are reported. The aim of this study was to compare plasma pyridoxal 5´-phosphate level in patients with intractable and controlled epilepsy. MATERIALS & METHODS: This cross- sectional analytic study included 66 epileptic children, 33 patients with controlled and 33 patients with intractable epilepsy, after neonatal period up to 15 yr old of age...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696034/fast-non-invasive-functional-diffuse-optical-tomography-for-brain-imaging
#11
Xianjin Dai, Tao Zhang, Hao Yang, Jianbo Tang, Paul R Carney, Huabei Jiang
Advances in epilepsy studies have shown that specific changes in hemodynamics precede and accompany seizure onset and propagation. However, it has been challenging to non-invasively detect these changes in real-time and in humans, due to the lack of fast functional neuroimaging tools. Here, we present a functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) method with the guidance of an anatomical human-head atlas for three-dimensionally mapping the brain in real time. Central to our DOT system is a human head interface coupled with a technique that can incorporate topological information of the brain surface into the DOT image reconstruction...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688882/neuroimaging-in-animal-models-of-epilepsy
#12
REVIEW
Daniele Bertoglio, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Olli Gröhn
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological conditions worldwide. The current poor understanding and lack of reliable biomarkers of the epileptogenic process are the major limitations in the development of anti-epileptic drugs that are able to prevent or modify the underlying disease. The rapid progress in advanced imaging technologies has expanded our opportunities to study the disease in animal models of epilepsy by means of non-invasive research tools. Here we review the advances of different in vivo imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance-based and nuclear imaging-based modalities, in animal models of epilepsy...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687722/a-meta-analysis-on-progressive-atrophy-in-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-time-is-brain
#13
REVIEW
Lorenzo Caciagli, Andrea Bernasconi, Samuel Wiebe, Matthias J Koepp, Neda Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt
OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with cumulative brain damage, with no expert consensus and no quantitative syntheses of the available evidence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies on progressive atrophy, searching PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases for cross-sectional and longitudinal quantitative MRI studies on drug-resistant TLE. RESULTS: We screened 2,976 records and assessed eligibility of 248 full-text articles...
August 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644979/intraoperative-fast-ripples-independently-predict-postsurgical-epilepsy-outcome-comparison-with-other-electrocorticographic-phenomena
#15
Shaun A Hussain, Gary W Mathern, Phoebe Hung, Julius Weng, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y Wu
In the surgical management of epilepsy, the resection of cortex exhibiting interictal fast ripples (250-500Hz) on electrocorticography has been linked to postoperative seizure-freedom. Although fast ripples appear to accurately identify the epileptogenic zone-the minimum tissue that must be removed at surgery to achieve seizure-freedom-it has not been established that fast ripples are a superior biomarker in comparison with multimodal presurgical neuroimaging and other electrocorticography abnormalities. Hence, in the prediction of postoperative seizure-freedom, we compared the value of fast ripples with other intraoperative electocorticography abnormalities including focal slowing, paroxysmal fast activity, intermittent spike discharges, continuous epileptiform discharges, focal attenuation, and intraoperative seizures, as well as complete resection of the lesion defined by MRI and other neuroimaging...
June 16, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637943/stereoelectroencephalography-indication-and-efficacy
#16
Koji Iida, Hiroshi Otsubo
Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is a method for invasive study of patients with refractory epilepsy. Localization of the epileptogenic zone in SEEG relied on the hypothesis of anatomo-electro-clinical analysis limited by X-ray, analog electroencephalography (EEG), and seizure semiology in the 1950s. Modern neuroimaging studies and digital video-EEG have developed the hypothesis aiming at more precise localization of the epileptic network. Certain clinical scenarios favor SEEG over subdural EEG (SDEEG). SEEG can cover extensive areas of bilateral hemispheres with highly accurate sampling from sulcal areas and deep brain structures...
June 20, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617386/-l-2-hydroxyglutaric-aciduria-caused-by-a-new-mutation-in-the-l2hgdh-gene
#17
E V Saifullina, E Yu Zakharova, M V Kurkina, R V Magzhanov, E V Gaisina, E N Zakirova
The authors present a case-report of 13 year-old girl with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria [MIM#236792], a rare autosomal/recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the L-encoding 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L2HGDH, 14q21.3). Clinical signs of the disease are presented by predominantly neurological symptoms (epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, cognitive impairment). The distinctive feature is the specific multifocal lesion of the white matter detected on MRI. The characteristic neuroimaging picture and positive results of biochemical and molecular genetic diagnosis were identified...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612538/-risk-factors-and-prognosis-of-secondary-epilepsy-in-children-with-viral-encephalitis
#18
Liang Huang, Dan Yu, Rong Luo, Min Li, Hui Zhou, Xiao-Tang Cai, Zhi-Ling Wang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical features of viral encephalitis in children at acute stage, and the relationship of these clinical features with post viral encephalitic epilepsy. METHODS: The children with viral encephalitis treated in West China Second University Hospital between January 2010 and January 2014 were enrolled. The clinical features included general conditions, clinical manifestations, video electroencephalogram (VEEG), neuroimaging, virology, prognosis and antiepileptic drugs...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607431/cerebrospinal-fluid-micrornas-are-potential-biomarkers-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-status-epilepticus
#19
Rana Raoof, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos, Sebastian Bauer, Björn Tackenberg, Felix Rosenow, Johannes Lang, Müjgan Dogan Onugoren, Hajo Hamer, Tessa Huchtemann, Peter Körtvélyessy, Niamh M C Connolly, Shona Pfeiffer, Jochen H M Prehn, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, David C Henshall, Catherine Mooney
There is a need for diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy and status epilepticus to support clinical examination, electroencephalography and neuroimaging. Extracellular microRNAs may be potentially ideal biomarkers since some are expressed uniquely within specific brain regions and cell types. Cerebrospinal fluid offers a source of microRNA biomarkers with the advantage of being in close contact with the target tissue and sites of pathology. Here we profiled microRNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy or status epilepticus, and compared findings to matched controls...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605690/potential-implications-of-luria-s-work-for-the-neuropsychology-of-epilepsy-and-epilepsy-surgery-a-perspective-for-re-examination
#20
REVIEW
Panayiotis Patrikelis, Giuliana Lucci, Anna Siatouni, Anastasia Verentzioti, Athanasia Alexoudi, Stylianos Gatzonis
The pioneeristic work of Alexander Romanovic Luria into the field of human neuropsychology offered eminent contributions to clinical praxis by providing theory guided methods and instruments for the study of higher cortical functions. However, lots of this knowledge corpus either remains untranslated and thus inaccessible, or in some cases selectively overlooked by academic authorities and consequently not passed to the future generations of experts. Although Luria was not exclusively devoted to the study of epilepsy, his theories and clinical approaches actually penetrate the whole neuropathology spectrum...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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