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Neuroimaging and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208940/neurological-disorders-complicating-pregnancy-focus-on-obstetric-outcome
#1
Sandya Renukesh, Lavanya Rai
INTRODUCTION: Neurological disorders in pregnancy can be pregnancy related or can be caused by exacerbation of a pre-existing neurological condition or sometimes may even be detected for the first time during pregnancy in which it might be an incidental finding. The diagnosis and management of the neurological disorders in pregnancy is always a challenging task due to varied symptomatology and risks to the fetus. The evaluation and management should be performed in a stepwise fashion and requires multidisciplinary approach...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193273/stub1-chip-mutations-cause-gordon-holmes-syndrome-as-part-of-a-widespread-multisystemic-neurodegeneration-evidence-from-four-novel-mutations
#2
Stefanie Nicole Hayer, Tine Deconinck, Benjamin Bender, Katrien Smets, Stephan Züchner, Selina Reich, Ludger Schöls, Rebecca Schüle, Peter De Jonghe, Jonathan Baets, Matthis Synofzik
BACKGROUND: CHIP, the protein encoded by STUB1, is a central component of cellular protein homeostasis and interacts with several key proteins involved in the pathogenesis of manifold neurodegenerative diseases. This gives rise to the hypothesis that mutations in STUB1 might cause a far more multisystemic neurodegenerative phenotype than the previously reported cerebellar ataxia syndrome. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing data-sets from n = 87 index subjects of two ataxia cohorts were screened for individuals with STUB1 mutations...
February 13, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190753/evaluation-of-the-first-seizure-patient-key-points-in-the-history-and-physical-examination
#3
Tomasz A Nowacki, Jeffrey D Jirsch
PURPOSE: This review will present the history and physical examination as the launching point of the first seizure evaluation, from the initial characterization of the event, to the exclusion of alternative diagnoses, and then to the determination of specific acute or remote causes. Clinical features that may distinguish seizures from alternative diagnoses are discussed in detail, followed by a discussion of acute and remote first seizure etiologies. METHODS: This review article is based on a discretionary selection of English language articles retrieved by a literature search in the PubMed database, and the authors' clinical experience...
December 8, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171851/utility-of-gray-matter-segmentation-of-ictal-interictal-perfusion-spect-and-interictal-18-f-fdg-pet-in-medically-refractory-epilepsy
#4
Kathryn C Elkins, Valeria M Moncayo, Hyunmi Kim, Larry D Olson
PURPOSE: We present a method of gray-matter segmentation of functional neuroimaging for localization of seizure onset zone (SOZ) in epilepsy surgery. (18)F-FDG-PET hypometabolism and ictal SPECT hyperperfusion may correspond to SOZ. We hypothesize that limiting functional images to gray matter improves identification of small, subtle, or obscure cortical volumes of (18)F-FDG-PET hypometabolism and eliminates hyperperfused seizure propagation pathways within white matter in ictal perfusion SPECT...
January 30, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160673/reduced-thalamic-volume-in-patients-with-electrical-status-epilepticus-in-sleep
#5
Iván Sánchez Fernández, Jurriaan M Peters, Alireza Akhondi-Asl, Jacquelyn Klehm, Simon K Warfield, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: To test whether patients with Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep (ESES) and normal neuroimaging have a smaller thalamic volume than expected for age and for total brain volume. METHODS: Case-control study comparing three groups of subjects of 4-14 years of age and normal magnetic resonance imaging: 1) ESES patients, 2) patients with refractory epilepsy control group, and 3) healthy controls. Thalamic and total brain volumes were calculated using an algorithm for automatic segmentation and parcellation of magnetic resonance imaging...
January 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156248/long-term-surgical-results-of-supplementary-motor-area-epilepsy-surgery
#6
Mario A Alonso-Vanegas, Daniel San-Juan, Ricardo M Buentello García, Carlos Castillo-Montoya, Horacio Sentíes-Madrid, Erika Brust Mascher, Paul Shkurovick Bialik, Carlos Trenado
OBJECTIVE Supplementary motor area (SMA) epilepsy is a well-known clinical condition; however, long-term surgical outcome reports are scarce and correspond to small series or isolated case reports. The aim of this study is to present the surgical results of SMA epilepsy patients treated at 2 reference centers in Mexico City. METHODS For this retrospective descriptive study (1999-2014), 52 patients underwent lesionectomy and/or corticectomy of the SMA that was guided by electrocorticography (ECoG). The clinical, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and pathological findings are described...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139530/neurocysticercosis-diagnostic-problems-current-therapeutic-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Vedantam Rajshekhar
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis) can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug) may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110926/distributed-source-localization-of-interictal-spikes-in-benign-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-standardized-low-resolution-brain-electromagnetic-tomography-sloreta-study
#8
Tae-Hoon Eom, Jung-Hyun Shin, Young-Hoon Kim, Seung-Yun Chung, In-Goo Lee, Jung-Min Kim
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS), also known as Rolandic epilepsy, is the most common benign childhood epilepsy. Centrotemporal spikes are characteristic findings on electroencephalography (EEG). Though the condition is considered benign, many studies have reported some degree of neuropsychological impairment in individuals with BCECTS. There is also growing evidence from neuroimaging studies that BCECTS may affect a larger portion of the brain than originally thought. We performed distributed source localization analysis of interictal spikes in BCECTS...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109780/neuroimaging-studies-towards-understanding-the-central-effects-of-pharmacological-cannabis-products-on-patients-with-epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
Jane B Allendorfer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Recent interest for the use of cannabis-derived products as therapeutic agents in the treatment of epilepsies has necessitated a reevaluation of their effects on brain and behavior. Overall, prolonged cannabis use is thought to result in functional and structural brain alterations. These effects may be dependent on a number of factors: e.g., which phytocannabinoid is used (e.g., cannabidiol (CBD) vs. tetrahyrocannabinol (THC)), the frequency of use (occasional vs. heavy), and at what age (prenatal, childhood, adulthood) the use began...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087827/neuropsychological-outcome-following-frontal-lobectomy-for-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-adults
#10
Robyn M Busch, Darlene P Floden, Lisa Ferguson, Shamseldeen Mahmoud, Audrina Mullane, Stephen Jones, Lara Jehi, William Bingaman, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. METHODS: Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078877/congenital-muscular-dystrophy-and-epilepsy-a-prospective-case-series-of-pediatric-patients
#11
G Vitaliti, P Pavone, C Romano, M Barbagallo, M Vecchio, C Ledda, R Lubrano, R Falsaperla
Congenital Muscular Dystrophies (CMDs) can be considered as a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by marked weakness, generalized hypotonia and joint contractures. They are divided into pure and classical forms, without ocular and cerebral involvement, and complex forms, which are associated with cerebral abnormalities. Seizures have rarely been described in the pure forms while they seem to occur more frequently in complex forms. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of seizure in CMD...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076834/risk-factors-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Shu Ou, Xi Liu, Jinxian Yuan, Hao Huang, Juan Yang, Liang He, Yangmei Chen
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to identify risk factors for posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). METHODS: Two electronic databases (Medline and Embase) were searched to identify studies with a cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional design reporting on epidemiologic evidence regarding risk factors for PTE. RESULTS: Men had a higher risk of developing PTE than women [relative ratio (RR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1...
January 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055074/surgical-treatment-of-nonlesional-neocortical-epilepsy-long-term-longitudinal-study
#13
Dong Wook Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Hye-Jin Moon, Ki-Young Jung, Kon Chu, Chun-Ki Chung
Importance: The proportion of surgery for nonlesional neocortical epilepsy has recently increased, with a decrease in surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. However, there are only a few studies regarding the long-term surgical outcome and the potential prognostic factors for patients with nonlesional neocortical epilepsy. Objective: To evaluate the long-term surgical outcome and to identify possible prognostic factors in patients with nonlesional neocortical epilepsy...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054130/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Marlene Fischer, Erich Schmutzhard
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological disorder of (sub)acute onset characterized by varied neurological symptoms, which may include headache, impaired visual acuity or visual field deficits, disorders of consciousness, confusion, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. In a majority of patients the clinical presentation includes elevated arterial blood pressure up to hypertensive emergencies. Neuroimaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging, frequently shows a distinctive parieto-occipital pattern with a symmetric distribution of changes reflecting vasogenic edema...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053860/dyke-davidoff-masson-syndrome-in-a-nigerian
#15
Philip B Adebayo, Amnat Bakare, Modupe M Bello, Opeyemi D Olaewe, Kolawole W Wahab
Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) is a rare, but important cause of drug-resistant seizures. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a constellation of clinical features that consists of hemiparesis, seizure, facial asymmetry, and intellectual disability with distinct neuroimaging features. A 27-year-old lady presented to us with drug-resistant epilepsy, hemiparesis, and intellectual disability that necessitated her withdrawal from school. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, and hyperpneumatization of the frontal sinuses consistent with DDMS...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009725/cognitive-decline-and-dementia-in-down-syndrome
#16
Rosalyn Hithersay, Sarah Hamburg, Bernice Knight, André Strydom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease is most likely universal in older individuals with Down syndrome, due to having three copies of the amyloid precursor protein gene, resulting in amyloid-beta plaque deposition. Down syndrome is an important population in which to consider clinical trials of treatments to prevent or delay the development of dementia. However, assessment of subtler cognitive changes is challenging due to the presence of intellectual disability. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research confirmed that older adults with Down syndrome often present with cognitive decline: more than 80% may experience dementia by age 65 years...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989258/musical-hallucinations-a-brief-review-of-functional-neuroimaging-findings
#17
Francesco Bernardini, Luigi Attademo, Karen Blackmon, Orrin Devinsky
Musical hallucinations are uncommon phenomena characterized by intrusive and frequently distressful auditory musical percepts without an external source, often associated with hypoacusis, psychiatric illness, focal brain lesion, epilepsy, and intoxication/pharmacology. Their physiological basis is thought to involve diverse mechanisms, including "release" from normal sensory or inhibitory inputs as well as stimulation during seizures, or they can be produced by functional or structural disorders in diverse cortical and subcortical areas...
December 19, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988965/ictal-asystole-a-systematic-review
#18
Dalma Tényi, Csilla Gyimesi, Péter Kupó, Réka Horváth, Beáta Bóné, Péter Barsi, Norbert Kovács, Tamás Simor, Zsuzsa Siegler, László Környei, András Fogarasi, József Janszky
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively analyze ictal asystole (IA) on a large number of subjects. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of case report studies of patients diagnosed with IA (1983-2016). Each included case was characterized with respect to patient history, IA seizure characteristics, diagnostic workup, and therapy. In addition, comparative analyses were also carried out: two alignments were developed based on the delay between epilepsy onset and IA onset ("new-onset" if <1 year, "late-onset" if ≥1 year) and asystole duration (asystole was "very prolonged" if lasted >30 s)...
December 18, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942447/altered-structural-and-functional-thalamocortical-networks-in-secondarily-generalized-extratemporal-lobe-seizures
#19
Syu-Jyun Peng, Yue-Loong Hsin
Structural and functional abnormalities in the thalamocortical network in primary generalized epilepsies or mesial temporal lobe epilepsy have recently been identified by voxel-wise analyses of neuroimaging. However, evidence is needed regarding the profiles of the thalamocortical network in patients with secondarily generalized seizures from focal neocortical sources. We used high-resolution T1-weighted, diffusion-tensor and resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine 16 patients with secondarily generalized extratemporal lobe seizures and 16 healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923187/sleep-eeg-patterns-in-infants-with-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome
#20
Maria Durce Costa Gomes Carvalho, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Vanessa van der Linden, Paula Fabiana Sobral, Regina Coeli Ferreira Ramos, Maria Ângela Wanderley Rocha, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Sarah Pinheiro de Alencar, Magda Lahorgue Nunes
OBJECTIVES: To describe sleep EEG patterns of neonates, and infants with microcephaly due to congenital Zika virus (ZikV) syndrome. METHODS: A descriptive case series of EEGs performed in a cohort of neonates with microcephaly monitored from October 2015 to February 2016 at a University Hospital in Northeast Brazil. Infants were investigated following an established protocol that includes EEG, neuroimaging studies, PCR and specific antibodies for ZikV detection...
January 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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