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Mri and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343216/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-identifies-iron-oxide-labeled-human-neural-stem-cells-automated-computational-detection
#1
Mohsen Baghchechi, Amy Plaia, Mary Hamer, Nirmalya Ghosh, Stephen Ashwal, Andre Obenaus
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HII) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Human neural stem cell (hNSC) therapy provides new hope for the treatment of neonatal HII. These multipotent cells can aid in HII recovery by activating multiple reparative mechanisms including secretion of neurotrophic factors that enhance brain repair and plasticity. For clinical use of implanted hNSCs, methods are required to identify, quantify, track, and visualize migration and replication in an automated and reproducible fashion...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343008/electroclinical-features-of-epilepsy-in-patients-with-invdup-15
#2
REVIEW
Alberto Verrotti, Fiammetta Sertorio, Sara Matricardi, Pietro Ferrara, Pasquale Striano
PURPOSE: InvDup(15) syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities associated with epilepsy. Here we review the seizure types described in InvDup(15) patients and the main electroclinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of the syndrome. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was performed to identify papers examining InvDup(15) syndrome and epilepsy. RESULTS: About 65% of the InvDup(15) patients described in the literature had multiple seizure types with a predominance (40...
March 9, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334998/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-epileptic-spikes-using-simultaneous-eeg-functional-mri
#3
Jennifer M Walz, Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Mira Semmelroch, Graeme D Jackson
Epileptic spikes occur on the sub-second timescale and are known to involve not only epileptic foci but also large-scale distributed brain networks. There is likely to be a sequence of neural activity in multiple brain regions that occurs within the duration of a single spike, but standard electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, which use only the timing of the spikes to model the functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cannot determine the sequence of these activations. Our aim in this study is to temporally resolve these spatial activations to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spike-related neural activity at a sub-second timescale...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334078/relationships-between-morphologic-and-functional-patterns-in-the-polymicrogyric-cortex
#4
Matteo Lenge, Carmen Barba, Domenico Montanaro, Gayane Aghakhanyan, Francesca Frijia, Renzo Guerrini
Polymicrogyria is a malformation of cortical folding and layering underlying different cognitive and neurological manifestations. The polymicrogyric cortex has heterogeneous morphofunctional patterns, qualitatively described at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by variable severity gradients and functional activations. We investigated the link between abnormal cortical folding and cortical function in order to improve surgical planning for patients with polymicrogyria and intractable epilepsy. We performed structural and functional MRI on 14 patients with perisylvian polymicrogyria and adopted surface-based methods to detect alterations of cortical thickness (CT) and local gyrification index (LGI) compared with normal cortex (30 age-matched subjects)...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330972/fatal-cerebral-edema-with-status-epilepticus-in-children-with-dravet-syndrome-report-of-5-cases
#5
Kenneth A Myers, Jacinta M McMahon, Simone A Mandelstam, Mark T Mackay, Renate M Kalnins, Richard J Leventer, Ingrid E Scheffer
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a well-recognized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy associated with SCN1A mutations and 15% mortality by 20 years. Although over half of cases succumb to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, the cause of death in the remainder is poorly defined. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of a cohort of children with DS and SCN1A mutations who developed fatal cerebral edema causing mass effect after fever-associated status epilepticus. Cases were identified from a review of children with DS enrolled in the Epilepsy Genetics Research Program at The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, who died after fever-associated status epilepticus...
March 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324681/morphometric-mri-features-are-associated-with-surgical-outcome-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#6
Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho Garcia, Larissa Botelho Gaça, Gabriel Barbosa Sandim, Idaiane Batista Assunção Leme, Henrique Carrete, Ricardo Silva Centeno, João Ricardo Sato, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
PURPOSE: Corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) improves seizure control, quality of life, and decreases mortality for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). One-third of patients continue having seizures, and it is pivotal to determine structural abnormalities that might influence the postoperative outcome. Studies indicate that nonhippocampal regions may play a role in the epileptogenic network in MTLE-HS and could generate seizures postoperatively...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322026/objective-3d-surface-evaluation-of-intracranial-electrophysiologic-correlates-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-abnormalities-in-children-with-focal-epilepsy
#7
Jeong-Won Jeong, Eishi Asano, Vinod Kumar Pilli, Yasuo Nakai, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
To determine the spatial relationship between 2-deoxy-2[(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) metabolic and intracranial electrophysiological abnormalities in children undergoing two-stage epilepsy surgery, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to correlate hypo- and hypermetabolic cortical regions with ictal and interictal electrocorticography (ECoG) changes mapped onto the brain surface. Preoperative FDG-PET scans of 37 children with intractable epilepsy (31 with non-localizing MRI) were compared with age-matched pseudo-normal pediatric control PET data...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321965/robust-presurgical-functional-mri-at-7-t-using-response-consistency
#8
Pedro Lima Cardoso, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, Barbara Dymerska, Alexander Geißler, Moritz Wurnig, Siegfried Trattnig, Roland Beisteiner, Simon Daniel Robinson
Functional MRI is valuable in presurgical planning due to its non-invasive nature, repeatability, and broad availability. Using ultra-high field MRI increases the specificity and sensitivity, increasing the localization reliability and reducing scan time. Ideally, fMRI analysis for this application should identify unreliable runs and work even if the patient deviates from the prescribed task timing or if there are changes to the hemodynamic response due to pathology. In this study, a model-free analysis method-UNBIASED-based on the consistency of fMRI responses over runs was applied, to ultra-high field fMRI localizations of the hand area...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319873/magnetoencephalography-with-temporal-spread-imaging-to-visualize-propagation-of-epileptic-activity
#9
Sumiya Shibata, Masao Matsuhashi, Takeharu Kunieda, Yukihiro Yamao, Rika Inano, Takayuki Kikuchi, Hisaji Imamura, Shigetoshi Takaya, Riki Matsumoto, Akio Ikeda, Ryosuke Takahashi, Tatsuya Mima, Hidenao Fukuyama, Nobuhiro Mikuni, Susumu Miyamoto
OBJECTIVE: We describe temporal spread imaging (TSI) that can identify the spatiotemporal pattern of epileptic activity using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). METHODS: A three-dimensional grid of voxels covering the brain is created. The array-gain minimum-variance spatial filter is applied to an interictal spike to estimate the magnitude of the source and the time (Ta) when the magnitude exceeds a predefined threshold at each voxel. This calculation is performed through all spikes...
January 30, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314978/can-developmental-venous-anomalies-cause-seizures
#10
Claire Dussaule, Pascal Masnou, Ghaïdaa Nasser, Frédérique Archambaud, Cécile Cauquil-Michon, Jean-Paul Gagnepain, Viviane Bouilleret, Christian Denier
Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are congenital anatomical variants of normal venous drainage of normal brain. Although DVAs are often discovered on the occasion of a seizure, their involvement in epilepsy is poorly studied. Our objective was to determine whether DVA can cause seizures, in the cases where there is no associated lesion, including no cavernoma or dysplasia. Based on clinical history, cerebral MRI, EEG recording, and (18)F-FDG PET, we report 4 patients with DVA revealed by seizures. The first patient had a convulsive seizure caused by a hemorrhagic infarction due to thrombosis of her DVA...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306691/predictive-value-of-electrocorticography-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-undergoing-selective-amygdalohippocampectomy
#11
Aline Herlopian, Bashir Shihabuddin
PURPOSE: The utility of intraoperative electrocorticography has been reported in predicting seizure outcome in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) undergoing standard temporal lobectomy. Three studies reported the predictive outcome in patients with MTS undergoing selective amygdalohippocampectomy (sAHE). We evaluate the predictive value of the intraoperative electrocorticography in postoperative outcome in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to MTS undergoing sAHE...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304232/a-systematic-evaluation-of-intraoperative-white-matter-tract-shift-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery-using-high-field-mri-and-probabilistic-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging-tractography
#12
Joseph Yuan-Mou Yang, Richard Beare, Marc L Seal, A Simon Harvey, Vicki A Anderson, Wirginia J Maixner
OBJECTIVE Characterization of intraoperative white matter tract (WMT) shift has the potential to compensate for neuronavigation inaccuracies using preoperative brain imaging. This study aimed to quantify and characterize intraoperative WMT shift from the global hemispheric to the regional tract-based scale and to investigate the impact of intraoperative factors (IOFs). METHODS High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) diffusion-weighted data were acquired over 5 consecutive perioperative time points (MR1 to MR5) in 16 epilepsy patients (8 male; mean age 9...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297685/-surgical-technique-and-memory-outcome-of-transsylvian-hippocampal-transection-in-24-patients-with-mri-negative-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Michiharu Morino, Sachiko Takamizawa, Chika Yoshimura, Tatsuya Sasaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288357/epilepsy-prevalence-and-severity-predictors-in-mri-identified-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#14
Lauren M Maynard, James L Leach, Paul S Horn, Christine G Spaeth, Francesco T Mangano, Katherine D Holland, Lili Miles, Robert Faist, Hansel M Greiner
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of epilepsy and drug-resistant epilepsy in pediatric patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To determine clinical and imaging differences between those with drug-resistant epilepsy, drug-responsive epilepsy, and no epilepsy among children with MRI-identified FCD. METHODS: A keyword search of a hospital radiology database identified 97 study participants for inclusion in this retrospective study...
March 6, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287070/coregistration-of-multimodal-imaging-is-associated-with-favourable-two-year-seizure-outcome-after-paediatric-epilepsy-surgery
#15
Michael Scott Perry, Laurie Bailey, Daniel Freedman, David Donahue, Saleem Malik, Hayden Head, Cynthia Keator, Angel Hernandez
Multimodal coregistration uses multiple image datasets coregistered to an anatomical reference (i.e. MRI), allowing multiple studies to be viewed together. Commonly used in intractable epilepsy evaluation and generally accepted to improve localization of the epileptogenic zone, data showing that coregistration improves outcome is lacking. We compared seizure freedom following epilepsy surgery in paediatric patients, evaluated before and after the use of coregistration protocols at our centre, to determine whether this correlated with a change in outcome...
March 8, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286253/chiari-i-malformation-in-a-child-with-pten-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome-association-or-coincidence
#16
Veronica Saletti, Silvia Esposito, Angelo Maccaro, Sabrina Giglio, Laura Grazia Valentini, Luisa Chiapparini
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) refers to a group of clinical conditions caused by germline mutations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. Increasing evidence has documented that PHTS may be associated with a broader spectrum of structural brain abnormalities, including dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum, brain tumors, vascular malformations, white matter abnormalities, dilated perivascular spaces and cortical dysplasia. We report a PTEN-mutated child showing macrocephaly, mild intellectual disability and epilepsy symptomatic of right occipital polymicrogyria, who also developed Chiari I Malformation (CIM) that repeatedly required surgical correction...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284051/amygdala-enlargement-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-subtype-or-nonspecific-finding
#17
Anny Reyes, Thomas Thesen, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky, Carrie R McDonald, Graeme D Jackson, David N Vaughan, Karen Blackmon
OBJECTIVE: Amygdala enlargement (AE) is observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which has led to the suggestion that it represents a distinct TLE subtype; however, it is unclear whether AE is found at similar rates in other epilepsy syndromes or in healthy controls, which would limit its value as a marker for focal epileptogenicity. METHODS: We compared rates of AE, defined quantitatively from high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, in a large multi-site sample of 136 patients with nonlesional localization related epilepsy (LRE), including TLE and extratemporal (exTLE) focal epilepsy, 34 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and 233 healthy controls (HCs)...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281494/role-of-magnetoencephalography-and-stereo-electroencephalography-in-the-presurgical-evaluation-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
V Jayabal, Ashok Pillai, S Sinha, N Mariyappa, P Satishchandra, S Gopinath, Kurupath Radhakrishnan
In selected patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies (DRFE), who otherwise are likely to be excluded from epilepsy surgery (ES) because of the absence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-demonstrable lesion or discordant anatomo-electro-clinical (AEC) data, magnetoencephalography (MEG) may help to generate an AEC hypothesis and stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) may help to verify the hypothesis and proceed with ES. The sensitivity of MEG is much better in localizing the spiking zone in relation to lateral temporal and extratemporal cortical regions compared to the mesial temporal structures...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281493/use-of-resting-state-fmri-in-planning-epilepsy-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Sharon Chiang, Zulfi Haneef, John M Stern, Jerome Engel
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal neuronal excitability and synchronization, affecting 0.5-1% of the population worldwide. Although anti-seizure drugs are often effective, a significant number of patients with epilepsy continue to experience refractory seizures and are candidates for surgical resection. Whereas standard presurgical evaluation has relied on intracranial electroencephalography (icEEG) and direct cortical stimulation to identify epileptogenic tissue and areas of cortex for which resection would produce clinical deficits, the invasive nature and limited spatial extent of icEEG has led to the investigation of less invasive imaging modalities as adjunctive tools in the presurgical workup...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281007/seizure-outcomes-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-normal-mri-and-without-specific-histopathology
#20
Jugoslav Ivanovic, Pål G Larsson, Ylva Østby, John Hald, Bård K Krossnes, Jan G Fjeld, Are H Pripp, Kristin Å Alfstad, Arild Egge, Milo Stanisic
BACKGROUND: Seizure outcome following surgery in pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging and normal or non-specific histopathology is not sufficiently presented in the literature. METHODS: In a retrospective design, we reviewed data of 263 patients who had undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery and identified 26 (9.9%) who met the inclusion criteria. Seizure outcomes were determined at 2-year follow-up. Potential predictors of Engel class I (satisfactory outcome) were identified by logistic regression analyses...
March 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
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