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Mri and epilepsy

Bo Jin, Wenhan Hu, Linmei Ye, Balu Krishnan, Thandar Aung, Stephen E Jones, Imad M Najm, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Kai Zhang, Junming Zhu, Jianguo Zhang, Meiping Ding, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang, Zhong Irene Wang
Objective: To investigate the neuroimaging and clinical features associated with sleep-related epilepsy (SRE) in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II. Methods: Patients with histopathologically proven FCD type II were included from three epilepsy centers. SRE was defined according to the video EEG findings and seizure history. Cortical surface reconstruction and volume calculation were performed using FreeSurfer. The lesions were manually delineated on T1 volumetric MRI using the ITK-SNAP software...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Firas Bannout, Sheri Harder, Michael Lee, Alexander Zouros, Ravi Raghavan, Travis Fogel, Kenneth De Los Reyes, Travis Losey
The neurosurgical treatment of skull base temporal encephalocele for patients with epilepsy is variable. We describe two adult cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with spheno-temporal encephalocele, currently seizure-free for more than two years after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and lesionectomy sparing the hippocampus without long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Encephaloceles were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by maxillofacial head computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
Aditya Jain, Aaron F Struck, Kaitlin M Woo, Christine J Jaskowiak, Lance T Hall
The aim of this study was to investigate thalamic and basal ganglia (BG) metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on interictal18 F-FDG PET using standardized uptake value (SUV). Retrospective review of data was undertaken for patients who were surgically treated for medically intractable TLE. All patients underwent18 F-FDG PET, MRI brain and EEG as preoperative workup, and subsequently underwent temporal lobe resection. Postoperative outcomes were analyzed as without or with residual disabling seizures. SUVmax and SUVpeak values were calculated for thalamus and BG...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Christopher F A Benjamin, Alexa X Li, Hal Blumenfeld, R Todd Constable, Rafeed Alkawadri, Stephan Bickel, Christoph Helmstaedter, Stefano Meletti, Richard Bronen, Simon K Warfield, Jurriaan M Peters, David Reutens, Monika Połczyńska, Dennis D Spencer, Lawrence J Hirsch
The goal of this study was to document current clinical practice and report patient outcomes in presurgical language functional MRI (fMRI) for epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy surgical programs worldwide were surveyed as to the utility, implementation, and efficacy of language fMRI in the clinic; 82 programs responded. Respondents were predominantly US (61%) academic programs (85%), and evaluated adults (44%), adults and children (40%), or children only (16%). Nearly all (96%) reported using language fMRI. Surprisingly, fMRI is used to guide surgical margins (44% of programs) as well as lateralize language (100%)...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Manish N Shah, Anish Mitra, Manu S Goyal, Abraham Z Snyder, Jing Zhang, Joshua S Shimony, David D Limbrick, Marcus E Raichle, Matthew D Smyth
PURPOSE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects resting state brain networks in adults. This study aims to correlate resting state functional MRI (rsMRI) signal latency in pediatric TLE patients with their laterality. METHODS: From 2006 to 2016, 26 surgical TLE patients (12 left, 14 right) with a mean age of 10.7 years (range 0.9-18) were prospectively studied. Preoperative rsMRI was obtained in patients with concordant lateralizing structural MRI, EEG, and PET studies...
March 6, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Vanessa Siffredi, Vicki Anderson, Alissandra McIlroy, Amanda G Wood, Richard J Leventer, Megan M Spencer-Smith
OBJECTIVES: Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), characterized by developmental absence of the corpus callosum, is one of the most common congenital brain malformations. To date, there are limited data on the neuropsychological consequences of AgCC and factors that modulate different outcomes, especially in children. This study aimed to describe general intellectual, academic, executive, social and behavioral functioning in a cohort of school-aged children presenting for clinical services to a hospital and diagnosed with AgCC...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Giovanni Tringali, Beatrice Bono, Ivano Dones, Roberto Cordella, Giuseppe Didato, Flavio Villani, Francesco Prada
BACKGROUND: Type II focal cortical dysplasia is the most common malformation of cortical development associated with drug resistant epilepsy and susceptible to surgical resection. Although advanced imaging modalities are nowadays capable to detect the majority of such cortical disorders, it is still a challenge for the surgeon to visualize them intraoperatively. The lack of direct boundaries' identification between normal brain and subtle dysplastic tissue may explain poor results in terms of seizure-free patients compared to other forms of epilepsy...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sjoerd B Vos, Caroline Micallef, Frederik Barkhof, Andrea Hill, Gavin P Winston, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Duncan
T2-FLAIR is the single most sensitive MRI contrast to detect lesions underlying focal epilepsies but 3D sequences used to obtain isotropic high-resolution images are susceptible to motion artefacts. Prospective motion correction (PMC) - demonstrated to improve 3D-T1 image quality in a pediatric population - was applied to high-resolution 3D-T2-FLAIR scans in adult epilepsy patients to evaluate its clinical benefit. Coronal 3D-T2-FLAIR scans were acquired with a 1mm isotropic resolution on a 3T MRI scanner. Two expert neuroradiologists reviewed 40 scans without PMC and 40 with navigator-based PMC...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Ling-Ling Xie, Xiao-Jie Song, Tian-Yi Li, Li Jiang
We report a case of 14-month-old male monozygotic twins showing early-onset intractable epilepsy, delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, opisthotonus, and dysmorphism. They presented with refractory partial and secondary generalized tonic-clonic or myoclonic seizures since age of 6 months. Electroencephalograms mainly revealed fast activity in left occipital region and generalized high amplitude polyspikes and wave. Brain MRI was normal. A de novo germline hemizygous mutation, C.110 T > C (p...
March 1, 2018: Brain & Development
Najat Saddiki, Sophie Hennion, Romain Viard, Nassima Ramdane, Renaud Lopes, Marc Baroncini, William Szurhaj, Nicolas Reyns, Jean Pierre Pruvo, Christine Delmaire
PURPOSE: Medial lobe temporal structures and more specifically the hippocampus play a decisive role in episodic memory. Most of the memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies evaluate the encoding phase; the retrieval phase being performed outside the MRI. We aimed to determine the ability to reveal greater hippocampal fMRI activations during retrieval phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five epileptic patients underwent a two-step memory fMRI...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Sara Gasparini, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Giuseppe Pustorino, Michele Ascoli, Vittoria Cianci, Chiara Sueri, Silvio Calabrò, Mauro Campello, Emilio Africa, Antonio Gangemi, Paolo Versace, Umberto Aguglia
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case-control study is to evaluate the prevalence of occult temporal encephalomeningocele (OTE) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) of unknown etiology presenting to an epilepsy center, independently from drug sensitivity. METHODS: We studied 95 patients with TLE (51 female, mean age 49.4 ± 17.1 years) and 151 controls (88 female, mean age 54.1 ± 21.0 years) using a 1.5T brain MRI, including balanced steady-state gradient echo sequences, targeted to the temporal lobes...
March 2, 2018: Neurology
Mohamed Almuqbil, Michael J Rivkin, Masanori Takeoka, Edward Yang, Lance H Rodan
GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) is a well described neurometabolic disorder that results from impaired glucose transport into the central nervous system. GLUT1DS classically presents with infantile-onset epilepsy, progressive microcephaly, developmental delay, ataxia, dystonia, and spasticity, but a minority of patients may manifest with paroxysmal non-epileptic phenomena including hemiparesis (Wang et al., 2002). We report for the first time cerebral perfusion changes during an acute episode of hemiparesis in a 9 year old child with GLUT1DS...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Rani A Sarkis, Scott McGinnis, Sara N Rushia, Suna Park, Emile E Ansari, Kim C Willment
We aimed to investigate the cognitive and psychosocial outcomes of patients older than 50 with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy as compared to a younger cohort. One hundred and thirty-one patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (47% age ≥ 50) who underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing were retrospectively identified. A comparison of percentage of Z scores < - 1.5 between the older and younger cohort on Trail Making Tests A and B, Boston Naming Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) delayed recall, and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test delayed recall was performed as well as the presence of disability due to epilepsy and depression scores...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Bertrand Mathon, Pierre Lévy, Anne Bertrand, Karima Mokhtari, Séverine Samson, Valérie Thuriès, Virginie Lambrecq, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Sophie Dupont, Claude Adam, Michel Baulac, Stéphane Clémenceau, Charles Duyckaerts, Vincent Navarro, Franck Bielle
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a heterogeneous syndrome. Surgery results in seizure freedom for most pharmacoresistant patients, but the epileptic and cognitive prognosis remains variable. The 2013 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) histopathological classification of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) has fostered research to understand MTLE-HS heterogeneity. We investigated the associations between histopathological features (ILAE types, hypertrophic CA4 neurons, granule cell layer alterations, CD34 immunopositive cells) and clinical features (presurgical history, postsurgical outcome) in a monocentric series of 247 MTLE-HS patients treated by surgery...
February 24, 2018: Brain Pathology
Lin Jiang, Tijiang Zhang, Fajin Lv, Shiguang Li, Heng Liu, Zhiwei Zhang, Tianyou Luo
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is associated with cognitive and language problems. According to recent studies, disruptions in brain structure and function in children with BECTS are beyond a Rolandic focus, suggesting atypical cortical development. However, previous studies utilizing surface-based metrics (e.g., cortical gyrification) and their structural covariance networks at high resolution in children with BECTS are limited. Twenty-six children with BECTS (15 males/11 females; 10...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Prashant Jauhari, Pratibha Singhi, Naveen Sankhyan, Prahbhjot Malhi, Sameer Vyas, Niranjan Khandelwal
This study compared the risk factors and clinical and radiologic profile of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy born at term (≥37 weeks) with those born preterm. Children (2-14 years) with cerebral palsy meeting the study criteria for spastic diplegia were enrolled. Antecedent risk factors, clinical profile, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were recorded. Spasticity, functional ability, intellectual ability, and social quotient were assessed using standard scales. Ninety-three children met the study inclusion criteria (45 term, 48 preterm)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Michael D Staudt, Sarita Maturu, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation of epileptogenic foci via stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) electrodes has been suggested as a treatment for medically intractable epilepsy, but reported outcomes have been suboptimal, possibly because lesions generated using conventional high-energy radiofrequency parameters are relatively small. OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique of delivering low energy across separate SEEG electrodes in order to create large confluent radiofrequency lesions...
February 16, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
G K Kundu, S Ahmed, S Akhter, M T Islam, T Dwa, A M Sabbir
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a common neurocutaneous disorder characterized by hamartomatous changes in the lungs, brain, kidneys, skin, heart, and other organs. This retrospective study was done to see the clinical presentation and neuro imaging pattern of TSC in a tertiary care centre of Bangladesh and was conducted at Pediatric Neurology Unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2013 to December 2013. Among total 10 patients male-female ratio was 3:2...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
R Kouadria, M Derkaoui
INTRODUCTION: Dermoid cysts of central nervous system are very rare. The usual clinical presentation is dominated by intracranial hypertension, epilepsy and cranial palsy. The revelation mode could be recurrent aseptic meningitis. AIM: The aim of this case report is to consider the dermoid cyst as regards the differential diagnosis in children treated for recurrent aseptic meningitis to avoid misdiagnosis and ice qui a orienté le diagnostic à une méningitnadequate treatment...
February 14, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
Hsiu-Fen Lee, Ching-Shiang Chi
PURPOSE: To understand the long-term neurological outcomes and chronological changes of brain MRIs in patients with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). METHODS: From December 2000 to May 2016, 29 patients diagnosed with FIRES were collected retrospectively. The demographic distribution, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and treatment methodology were described. Follow-up clinical outcomes and chronological evolution of neuroimaging findings were analyzed...
February 6, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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