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Mri and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331847/longitudinal-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-microstructural-and-macrostructural-changes-following-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#1
Cameron A Elliott, Donald W Gross, B Matt Wheatley, Christian Beaulieu, Tejas Sankar
OBJECTIVES: 1) Characterize the evolution of microstructural changes in the contralateral, non-operated hippocampus-using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2) Characterize the downstream extra-hippocampal volumetric changes of the fornix and mammillary bodies after TLE surgery. 3) Examine the relationship between these measures and seizure/cognitive outcome. METHODS: Serial structural and DTI brain MRI scans were collected in 25 TLE patients pre- and post-surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy, ATL - 13; selective amygdalohippocampectomy, SelAH - 12) and in 12 healthy controls...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324398/epilepsy-in-patients-with-pineal-gland-cyst
#2
Jelena Bosnjak, Silva Soldo Butkovic, Snjezana Miskov, Lejla Coric, Ana Jadrijevic-Tomas, Vlatka Mejaski-Bosnjak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to describe types of epileptic seizures in patients with pineal gland cyst (PGC) and their outcome during follow up period (6-10 years). We wanted to determine whether patients with epilepsy differ in PGC volume and compression of the PGC on surrounding brain structures compared to patients with PGC, without epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed prospectivelly 92 patients with PGC detected on magnetic resonance (MR) of the brain due to various neurological symptoms during the period 2006-2010...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322880/reversible-splenial-lesion-syndrome-due-to-oxcarbazepine-withdrawal-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Chaoyang Jing, Lichao Sun, Zhuo Wang, Chaojia Chu, Weihong Lin
Background Reversible splenial lesion syndrome is a distinct entity radiologically characterized by a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. According to previous reports, this condition may be associated with antiepileptic drug use or withdrawal. We herein report a case of reversible splenial lesion syndrome associated with oxcarbazepine withdrawal. Case Report A 39-year-old man presented with an 8-year history of epileptic seizures. During the previous 3 years, he had taken oxcarbazepine irregularly...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320526/temporal-and-spectral-characteristics-of-dynamic-functional-connectivity-between-resting-state-networks-reveal-information-beyond-static-connectivity
#4
Sharon Chiang, Emilian R Vankov, Hsiang J Yeh, Michele Guindani, Marina Vannucci, Zulfi Haneef, John M Stern
Estimation of functional connectivity (FC) has become an increasingly powerful tool for investigating healthy and abnormal brain function. Static connectivity, in particular, has played a large part in guiding conclusions from the majority of resting-state functional MRI studies. However, accumulating evidence points to the presence of temporal fluctuations in FC, leading to increasing interest in estimating FC as a dynamic quantity. One central issue that has arisen in this new view of connectivity is the dramatic increase in complexity caused by dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) estimation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319202/analysis-of-brain-spect-images-coregistered-with-mri-in-patients-with-epilepsy-comparison-of-three-methods
#5
Zaiyang Long, Dennis P Hanson, Brian P Mullan, Christopher H Hunt, David R Holmes, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Michael K O'Connor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SISCOM and STATISCOM were clinically proved to be effective for ictal/inter-ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for seizure localization. Recently, a software package also became available for this analysis. This study aimed to investigate and compare the performance of these analysis methods for seizure localization. METHODS: A total of 378 patients who underwent 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT scans were retrospectively reviewed and 28 remained after applying exclusion criteria...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318973/relevance-of-follow-up-in-patients-with-core-clinical-criteria-for-alzheimer-disease-and-normal-csf-biomarkers
#6
Olivier Vercruysse, Claire Paquet, Audrey Gabelle, Xavier Delbeuck, Frederic Blanc, David Wallon, Julien Dumurgier, Eloi Magnin, Olivier Martinaud, Barbara Jung, Olivier Bousiges, Sylvain Lehmann, Constance Delaby, Muriel Quillard-Murain, Katell Peoc'h, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Elodie Bouaziz-Amar, Didier Hannequin, Bernard Sablonniere, Luc Buee, Jacques Hugon, Susanna Schraen, Florence Pasquier, Stephanie Bombois
BACKGROUND: Few patients with a normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile fulfill the clinical criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of misdiagnoses for these patients. METHOD: Patients from the e-PLM centers fulfilling the core clinical criteria for probable AD dementia or mild cognitive impairment due to AD (AD-MCI), with normal CSF A1-42, T-tau and P-tau biomarkers and clinical follow-up, were included...
January 9, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313510/need-for-surgical-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-excision-of-tumors-and-post-traumatic-epileptogenic-lesions-in-kinshasa-rdc
#7
G Ntsambi-Eba, A Beltchika Kalubye, J P Kalala Okito
Surgery is a treatment to consider in epilepsy when the condition is refractory or epileptic events are related to a clearly identified brain abnormality. The tropical climate of the DRC explains the high risk of epilepsy and the potentially large number of refractory cases. The number of patients with epilepsy in Kinshasa is estimated to be at least 120 000, and almost one third may be refractory. Hence, the need to integrate the use of surgery in the treatment of this disease. Most neurosurgical techniques used for treating epilepsy are practiced with a neurosurgical microscope and neuronavigation...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307027/does-restricted-diffusion-in-the-splenium-indicate-an-acute-infarct
#8
Zeynep Ezgi Balcik, Songül Senadim, Aslı Keskek, Ayşe Ozudogru, Ayhan Koksal, Aysun Soysal, Dilek Atakli
OBJECTIVE: Although splenial lesions are rare, they are frequently associated with ischemic infarcts, antiepileptic drug toxicity or abrupt discontinuation, viral encephalitis, and metabolic disturbances. In this study, we evaluated clinical and imaging findings and aetiology in 16 patients with splenium lesions. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2017, patients with splenium lesions were examined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 1.5-T unit with fluid attenuation inversion recovery sequences...
January 6, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306849/verbal-learning-and-memory-outcome-in-selective-amygdalohippocampectomy-versus-temporal-lobe-resection-in-patients-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#9
Mette Thrane Foged, Kirsten Vinter, Louise Stauning, Troels W Kjær, Brice Ozenne, Sándor Beniczky, Olaf B Paulson, Flemming Find Madsen, Lars H Pinborg
PURPOSE: With the advent of new very selective techniques like thermal laser ablation to treat drug-resistant focal epilepsy, the controversy of resection size in relation to seizure outcome versus cognitive deficits has gained new relevance. The purpose of this study was to test the influence of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) versus nonselective temporal lobe resection (TLR) on seizure outcome and cognition in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and histopathological verified hippocampal sclerosis (HS)...
January 4, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303866/pet-and-ictal-spect-can-be-helpful-for-localizing-epileptic-foci
#10
Tim J von Oertzen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional neuroimaging with PET and SPECT is a commonly used tool in presurgical evaluation. The following article reviews the literature of PET and SPECT in presurgical assessment of epilepsies published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET adds concomitant information in temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. The pattern of hypometabolism in FDG-PET is a good additional predictor or seizure outcome in TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis or negative MRI...
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289531/epileptic-seizures-are-reduced-by-autonomic-biofeedback-therapy-through-enhancement-of-fronto-limbic-connectivity-a-controlled-trial-and-neuroimaging-study
#11
Yoko Nagai, Julia Aram, Matthias Koepp, Louis Lemieux, Marco Mula, Hugo Critchley, Sanjay Sisodiya, Mara Cercignani
BACKGROUND: Thirty-percent of patients with epilepsy are drug-resistant, and might benefit from effective noninvasive therapeutic interventions. Evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of autonomic biofeedback therapy using galvanic skin response (GSR; an index of sympathetic arousal) in treating epileptic seizures. This study aimed to extend previous controlled clinical trials of autonomic biofeedback therapy with a larger homogeneous sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, we used neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of change in seizure frequency following the therapy...
December 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278548/the-current-place-of-epilepsy-surgery
#12
Jerome Engel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three randomized controlled trials demonstrate that surgical treatment is safe and effective for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), yet fewer than 1% of patients are referred for surgery. This is a review of recent trends in surgical referral for DRE, and advances in the field. Reasons for continued underutilization are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent series indicate no increase in surgical referral for DRE over the past two decades. One study suggests that decreased referrals to major epilepsy centers can be accounted for by increased referrals to low-volume nonacademic hospitals where results are poorer, and complication rates higher...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275588/-impairments-of-gray-matter-in-mri-negative-epileptic-patients-with-different-seizure-types
#13
W Quan, Q Xu, F Yang, G H Chen, Z X Lin, Q R Zhang, J H Xiao, G M Lu, Z Q Zhang
Objective: To investigate the damage of gray matter structure in MRI-negative epilepsy patients with different symptoms by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: From June, 2009 to October, 2016, ninety MRI-negative epilepsy patients and thirty-five healthy volunteers underwent the 3T magnetic resonance imaging scan in Nanjing General Hospital. The patients were divided into three groups, including idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (I-GTCS), secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (S-GTCS), and partial seizure (PS) according to different symptoms...
December 5, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274430/divergent-brain-changes-in-two-audiogenic-rat-strains-a-voxel-based-morphometry-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-comparison-of-the-genetically-epilepsy-prone-rat-gepr-3-and-the-wistar-audiogenic-rat-war
#14
Yichien Lee, Olga C Rodriguez, Chris Albanese, Victor Rodrigues Santos, José Antônio Cortes de Oliveira, Ana Luiza Ferreira Donatti, Artur Fernandes, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Prosper N'Gouemo, Patrick A Forcelli
Acoustically evoked seizures (e.g., audiogenic seizures or AGS) are common in models of inherited epilepsy and occur in a variety of species including rat, mouse, and hamster. Two models that have been particularly well studied are the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strains. Acute and repeated AGS, as well as comorbid conditions, displays a close phenotypic overlap in these models. Whether these similarities arise from convergent or divergent structural changes in the brain remains unknown...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260614/neuroimaging-findings-in-pallister-killian-syndrome
#15
Emil Jernstedt Barkovich, Tarannum Musvee Lateef, Matthew T Whitehead
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare chromosomal duplication disorder caused by additional copies of the short arm of chromosome 12 (12p). Clinically PKS is characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism with neonatal frontotemporal alopecia, hypertelorism, and low-set ears as well as kyphoscoliosis, severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and abnormal muscle tone. Comprehensive high-resolution brain MR findings of PKS in childhood have not been previously illustrated in the medical literature. We present detailed neuroimaging findings from a child with PKS and thoroughly review previously reported structural brain abnormalities in this patient population...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260356/brain-diffusion-tensor-imaging-changes-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-reversed-with-treatment
#16
Claudia B Catarino, Christian Vollmar, Clemens Küpper, Klaus Seelos, Constanze Gallenmüller, Joanna Bartkiewicz, Saskia Biskup, Konstanze Hörtnagel, Thomas Klopstock
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX, MIM 213700) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by CYP27A1 mutations. Treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) may slow the progression of the disease and reverse some symptoms in a proportion of patients. In a non-consanguineous Caucasian family, two siblings with CTX were evaluated before treatment and prospectively followed-up every 6 months after starting CDCA therapy, using systematic clinical examination, neuropsychological tests, laboratory tests, electroencephalography (EEG) and brain MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260011/isolated-pons-involvement-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Mariangela Ferrara, Pietro Di Viesti, Vincenzo Inchingolo, Raffaela Rita Latino, Teresa Popolizio, Salvatore Angelo De Cosmo, Flavia Pugliese, Maurizio Angelo Leone
Background: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome, usually reversible and with a favorable prognosis, which recognizes a variety of etiologies and clinical patterns and is likely due to an impairment in cerebral blood flow autoregulation. It is typically characterized by subcortical, predominantly parieto-occipital, vasogenic brain oedema in patients with acute-subacute neurological symptoms. Infratentorial oedema on neuroimaging has been mostly described in association with the typical supratentorial pattern and seldom as isolated...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258968/refractory-chronic-epilepsy-associated-with-neuronal-auto-antibodies-could-perisylvian-semiology-be-a-clue
#18
Lisa Gillinder, Linda Tjoa, Basil Mantzioris, Stefan Blum, Sasha Dionisio
We report a case series of 10 patients with chronic medically refractory antibody-positive autoimmune epilepsy and assess their common clinical features. Immune-mediated seizures are most commonly reported in the context of encephalitis or encephalopathy, with few reports focusing on lone, chronic epilepsy in the outpatient setting. Our aim was to define the potential diagnostic clues that might be present in these cases, leading to consideration of an autoimmune cause of the epilepsy. We performed a retrospective review of all patients presenting to the outpatient department of our unit who underwent autoimmune screening...
December 20, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258718/different-mri-defined-tuber-types-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-quantitative-evaluation-and-association-with-disease-manifestations
#19
Simonas Jesmanas, Kristina Norvainytė, Rymantė Gleiznienė, Renata Šimoliūnienė, Milda Endzinienė
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder with multisystem involvement. A magnetic-resonance (MRI) based classification of tubers into types A, B and C has been proposed. However, the relationship between different tuber types and their quantitative characteristics, also the non-neurological manifestations of TSC remains unknown. AIMS: To quantitatively evaluate different MRI-defined tuber types and to explore their relationships with major disease manifestations in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex...
December 16, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250844/intractable-epilepsy-due-to-a-rosette-forming-glioneuronal-tumor-with-a-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-background
#20
Noriko Sumitomo, Akihiko Ishiyama, Makoto Shibuya, Eiji Nakagawa, Yu Kaneko, Akio Takahashi, Taisuke Otsuki, Akiyoshi Kakita, Yuko Saito, Noriko Sato, Kenji Sugai, Masayuki Sasaki
A rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) was initially reported as an infratentorial tumor that comprised both small neurocytic rosettes and astrocytic components. However, a few studies have reported supratentorial RGNTs arising in the cerebral hemispheres. Here, we report an unusual case involving a 9-year-old boy with a supratentorial RGNT who presented with intractable epilepsy and behavioral changes. Brain MRI revealed a well-circumscribed space-occupying lesion with septae in the right inferomedial parietal lobe...
December 18, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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