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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690952/refinement-of-perioperative-feeding-in-a-mouse-model-of-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy
#1
Carolyn M Doerning, Lisa A Burlingame, Alfor G Lewis, Andriy Myronovych, Randy J Seeley, Patrick A Lester
Provision of liquid enteral nutrition (LEN) during the perioperative period is standard practice for rodents undergoingbariatric surgery, yet these diets are associated with several challenges, including coagulation of the liquid diet within thedelivery system and decreased postoperative consumption. We investigated the use of a commercially available high-caloriedietary gel supplement (DG) as an alternative food source for mice during the perioperative period. C57BL/6J male mice werefed high-fat diet for 8 to 10 wk prior to surgery...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689247/old-wines-in-new-bottles-repurposing-opportunities-for-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Ashish Kumar Kakkar, Harmanjit Singh, Bikash Medhi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurological disorder characterized by accumulation of Lewy bodies and profound loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. PD symptomatology is now recognized to include both cardinal motor as well as clinically significant non-motor symptoms. Despite intensive research, the current understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in PD is limited and has hampered the development of novel symptomatic and disease modifying therapies. The currently available treatment options are only partially or transiently effective and fail to restore the lost dopaminergic neurons or retard disease progression...
April 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686602/advancing-stem-cell-models-of-alpha-synuclein-gene-regulation-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#3
REVIEW
Desiree A Piper, Danuta Sastre, Birgitt Schüle
Alpha-synuclein ( non A4 component of amyloid precursor, SNCA, NM_000345.3 ) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related Lewy body disorders such as Parkinson's disease dementia, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy. Since its discovery as a disease-causing gene in 1997, alpha-synuclein has been a central point of scientific interest both at the protein and gene level. Mutations, including copy number variants, missense mutations, short structural variants, and single nucleotide polymorphisms, can be causative for PD and affect conformational changes of the protein, can contribute to changes in expression of alpha-synuclein and its isoforms, and can influence regulation of temporal as well as spatial levels of alpha-synuclein in different tissues and cell types...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684335/emergence-of-breath-testing-as-a-new-non-invasive-diagnostic-modality-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
REVIEW
N Siva Subramaniam, C S Bawden, H Waldvogel, R M L Faull, G S Howarth, R G Snell
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are incapacitating disorders that result in progressive motor and cognitive impairment. These disease include Alzheimer's disease the most common cause of dementia, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Friedreich's ataxia, and prion disease. Dementia causing NDDs impose a high social and economic burden on communities around the world. Rapid growth in knowledge regarding the pathogenic mechanisms and disease-associated biomarkers of these diseases in the past few decades have accelerated the development of new diagnostic methods and therapeutic opportunities...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681884/glutathione-s-transferase-alpha-4-prevents-dopamine-neurodegeneration-in-a-rat-alpha-synuclein-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Michael Jewett, Elna Dickson, Kajsa Brolin, Matilde Negrini, Itzia Jimenez-Ferrer, Maria Swanberg
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, progressive neurodegenerative disease, which typically presents itself with a range of motor symptoms, like resting tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity, but also non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, constipation, and sleep disturbance. Neuropathologically, PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and Lewy bodies, neuronal inclusions containing α-synuclein (α-syn). Mutations and copy number variations of SNCA , the gene encoding α-syn, are linked to familial PD and common SNCA gene variants are associated to idiopathic PD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673784/visual-texture-agnosia-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Yuka Oishi, Toru Imamura, Tatsuo Shimomura, Kyoko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging and some clinical studies have reported that the ventral visual pathway is relevant for visual texture recognition. Although a variety of visual deficits have been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), visual material identification and texture recognition have not been thoroughly examined. OBJECTIVES: To investigate visual texture recognition in patients with AD and DLB and to clarify the relationship between visual texture recognition and various visuoperceptual functions...
March 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672930/clinical-and-imaging-correlates-of-amyloid-deposition-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#7
Paul C Donaghy, Michael J Firbank, Alan J Thomas, Jim Lloyd, George Petrides, Nicola Barnett, Kirsty Olsen, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Amyloid deposition is common in dementia with Lewy bodies, but its pathophysiological significance is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between amyloid deposition and clinical profile, gray matter volume, and brain perfusion in dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: Dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 37), Alzheimer's disease (n = 20), and controls (n = 20) underwent a thorough clinical assessment, 3T MRI, and early- and late-phase 18 F-Florbetapir PET-CT to assess cortical perfusion and amyloid deposition, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669601/potent-prion-like-behaviors-of-pathogenic-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-evaluation-of-inactivation-methods
#8
Airi Tarutani, Tetsuaki Arai, Shigeo Murayama, Shin-Ichi Hisanaga, Masato Hasegawa
The concept that abnormal protein aggregates show prion-like propagation between cells has been considered to explain the onset and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, both synthetic amyloid-like fibrils and pathogenic proteins extracted from patients' brains induce self-templated amplification and cell-to-cell transmission in vitro and in vivo. However, it is unclear whether exposure to exogenous prion-like proteins can potentially cause these diseases in humans. Here, we investigated in detail the prion-like seeding activities of several kinds of pathogenic α-synuclein (α-syn), including synthetic fibrils and detergent-insoluble fractions extracted from brains of patients with α-synucleinopathies...
April 18, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667565/longitudinal-associations-between-different-dementia-diagnoses-and-medication-use-jointly-accounting-for-dropout
#9
George O Agogo, Christine M Ramsey, Danijela Gnjidic, Daniela C Moga, Heather Allore
ABSTRACTBackground:Longitudinal studies of older adults are characterized by high dropout rates, multimorbid conditions, and multiple medication use, especially proximal to death. We studied the association between multiple medication use and incident dementia diagnoses including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and Lewy-body dementia (LBD), simultaneously accounting for dropout. METHODS: Using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data with three years of follow-up, a set of covariate-adjusted models that ignore dropout was fit to complete-case data, and to the whole-cohort data...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666938/multigene-phylogeny-and-cell-evolution-of-chromist-infrakingdom-rhizaria-contrasting-cell-organisation-of-sister-phyla-cercozoa-and-retaria
#10
Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema E Chao, Rhodri Lewis
Infrakingdom Rhizaria is one of four major subgroups with distinct cell body plans that comprise eukaryotic kingdom Chromista. Unlike other chromists, Rhizaria are mostly heterotrophic flagellates, amoebae or amoeboflagellates, commonly with reticulose (net-like) or filose (thread-like) feeding pseudopodia; uniquely for eukaryotes, cilia have proximal ciliary transition-zone hub-lattices. They comprise predominantly flagellate phylum Cercozoa and reticulopodial phylum Retaria, whose exact phylogenetic relationship has been uncertain...
April 17, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666134/adoption-of-a-novel-surgical-innovation-into-clinical-practice-protocol-for-a-qualitative-systematic-review-examining-surgeon-views
#11
Thomas L Lewis, Hugh N Furness, George W Miller, Nicholas Parsons, Kate Seers, Martin Underwood, Andrew J Metcalfe
INTRODUCTION: Efficient adoption of clinically effective novel surgical innovations has great potential benefits for patients. Factors affecting the adoption of surgical innovation are not well understood and proposed models of adoption do not accurately correlate with historical evidence. This protocol is for a systematic review that aims to identify the qualitative evidence relating to surgeon views regarding the adoption of novel surgical innovation into clinical practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance will be performed...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665124/how-does-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-start-prodromal-cognitive-changes-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#12
Daphné Génier Marchand, Ronald B Postuma, Frédérique Escudier, Jessie De Roy, Amélie Pelletier, Jacques Montplaisir, Jean-François Gagnon
Objective We describe the progression of cognitive decline and identify the predictive values of cognitive tests in three groups of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients classified at their last follow-up as having Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or still-idiopathic. Methods Patients (n=109) underwent polysomnographic, neurological, and neuropsychological assessments. We used linear mixed-model analyses to compare the progression of cognitive test performance between the three groups over a three-year prodromal period, and performed linear regressions for a six-year prodromal period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664058/relationships-between-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-assessments-biomarkers-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Min Li, Li Wang, Jiang-Hong Liu, Shu-Qin Zhan
Objective: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and loss of muscle atonia during rapid eye movement sleep. RBD is closely related to α-synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Many studies have investigated the markers of imaging and neurophysiological, genetic, cognitive, autonomic function of RBD and their predictive value for neurodegenerative diseases. This report reviewed the progress of these studies and discussed their limitations and future research directions...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663541/eccentric-exercise-increases-circulating-fibroblast-activation-protein-but-not-bioactive-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-healthy-humans
#14
Biraj Parmar, Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Francis J P Ebling, Christine C Cheng, Andrew C Adams, Joanne Mallinson, Scott Cooper, Tariq Taylor, Reza Ghasemi, Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The role of FGF21 as an exercise-induced myokine remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether eccentric exercise would augment the release of FGF21 and/or its regulatory enzyme Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) from skeletal muscle tissue into the systemic circulation of healthy human volunteers. What is the main finding and its importance? Eccentric exercise does not release total or bioactive FGF21 from human skeletal muscle...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662651/p27-kip1-regulates-alpha-synuclein-expression
#15
Edurne Gallastegui, Carla Domuro, Joan Serratosa, Alejandra Larrieux, Laura Sin, Jonatan Martinez, Arnaud Besson, José Manuel Morante-Redolat, Serena Orlando, Rosa Aligue, Isabel Fariñas, María Jesús Pujol, Oriol Bachs
Alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) is the main component of anomalous protein aggregates (Lewy bodies) that play a crucial role in several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies) like Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. However, the mechanisms involved in its transcriptional regulation are poorly understood. We investigated here the role of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor and transcriptional regulator p27Kip1 (p27) in the regulation of α-SYN expression. We observed that selective deletion of p27 by CRISPR/Cas9 technology in neural cells resulted in increased levels of α-SYN...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662465/the-length-of-snca-rep1-microsatellite-may-influence-cognitive-evolution-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Lucia Corrado, Fabiola De Marchi, Sara Tunesi, Gaia Donata Oggioni, Miryam Carecchio, Luca Magistrelli, Silvana Tesei, Giulio Riboldazzi, Alessio Di Fonzo, Clarissa Locci, Ilaria Trezzi, Roberta Zangaglia, Cristina Cereda, Sandra D'Alfonso, Corrado Magnani, Giacomo P Comi, Giorgio Bono, Claudio Pacchetti, Roberto Cantello, Stefano Goldwurm, Cristoforo Comi
Background: Alpha-synuclein is a constituent of Lewy bodies and mutations of its gene cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD). A previous study showed that a variant of the alpha-synuclein gene ( SNCA ), namely the 263 bp allele of Rep1 was associated with faster motor progression in PD. On the contrary, a recent report failed to detect a detrimental effect of Rep1 263 on both motor and cognitive outcomes in PD. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Rep1 variants on disease progression in PD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661694/descriptive-epidemiology-of-parkinsonism-in-the-canton-of-geneva-switzerland
#17
Vanessa Fleury, Pauline Brindel, Nicolas Nicastro, Pierre R Burkhard
OBJECTIVES: A large descriptive cross-sectional population-based prevalence study as well as a retrospective incidence study were undertaken to ascertain the frequency of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and other types of degenerative and non-degenerative parkinsonism in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. METHODS: An extensive case-finding approach including records from public hospitals, private neurologists and nursing homes was utilized. All patients with a diagnosis of parkinsonism established between 2003 and 2012 were included...
April 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658429/color-vision-impairment-differentiates-alzheimer-dementia-from-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#18
Patrick M Flanigan, Mitra A Khosravi, James B Leverenz, Babak Tousi
OBJECTIVE: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is frequently misdiagnosed for Alzheimer dementia (AD), especially in its earlier stages. We characterized color vision impairment (CVI) in patients with DLB versus patients with AD to determine its usefulness in improving accuracy of early diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients with AD, DLB, and patients with mild cognitive impairment suspected to be in the prodromal phase of DLB (pro-DLB) or prodromal phase of AD (pro-AD)...
March 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657900/occipital-and-cingulate-hypometabolism-are-significantly-under-reported-on-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-scans-of-patients-with-lewy-body-dementia
#19
Moath Hamed, Frank Schraml, Jeffrey Wilson, James Galvin, Marwan N Sabbagh
Objective: To determine whether occipital and cingulate hypometabolism is being under-reported or missed on 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) CT scans in patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Background: Recent studies have reported higher sensitivity and specificity for occipital and cingulate hypometabolism on FDG-PET of DLB patients. Methods: This retrospective chart review looked at regions of interest (ROI's) in FDG-PET CT scan reports in 35 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable, possible, or definite DLB as defined by the latest DLB Consortium Report...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656189/quantitative-electroencephalography-as-a-marker-of-cognitive-fluctuations-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-an-aid-to-differential-diagnosis
#20
Myrto Stylianou, Nicholas Murphy, Luis R Peraza, Sara Graziadio, Ruth Cromarty, Alison Killen, John T O' Brien, Alan J Thomas, Fiona E N LeBeau, John-Paul Taylor
OBJECTIVE: We investigated for quantitative EEG (QEEG) differences between Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) patients and healthy controls, and for QEEG signatures of cognitive fluctuations (CFs) in DLB. METHODS: We analysed eyes-closed, resting state EEGs from 18 AD, 17 DLB and 17 PDD patients with mild dementia, and 21 age-matched controls. Measures included spectral power, dominant frequency (DF), frequency prevalence (FP), and temporal DF variability (DFV), within defined EEG frequency bands and cortical regions...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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