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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214539/lumbee-traditional-medicine-neuroprotective-activities-of-medicinal-plants-used-to-treat-parkinson-s-disease-related-symptoms
#1
Aurélie de Rus Jacquet, Michael Timmers, Sin Ying Ma, Andrew Thieme, George P McCabe, Jay Hansford C Vest, Mary Ann Lila, Jean-Christophe Rochet
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence in surviving neurons of Lewy body inclusions enriched with aggregated forms of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (aSyn). Although current therapies provide temporary symptomatic relief, they do not slow the underlying neurodegeneration in the midbrain. In this study, we analyzed contemporary herbal medicinal practices used by members of the Lumbee tribe to treat PD-related symptoms, in an effort to identify safe and effective herbal medicines to treat PD...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213435/genetics-of-synucleinopathies
#2
Robert L Nussbaum
Parkinson's disease (PD), diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) constitute the three major neurodegenerative disorders referred to as synucleinopathies because both genetic and pathological results implicate the α-synuclein protein in their pathogenesis. PD and DLBD are recognized as closely related diseases with substantial clinical and pathological overlap. MSA, on the other hand, has a distinctive clinical presentation and neuropathological profile. In this review, we will summarize the evidence linking α-synuclein to these three disorders...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213071/pla2g6-accumulates-in-lewy-bodies-in-park14-and-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Yasuo Miki, Kunikazu Tanji, Fumiaki Mori, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hitoshi Takahashi, Koichi Wakabayashi
The histopathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the occurrence of insoluble fibrillary aggregates known as Lewy bodies, in which phosphorylated α-synuclein (α-syn) is a major component. To date, familial PD-linked gene products, including α-syn, parkin, PINK-1, DJ-1 and LRRK2, are known to be involved in Lewy body formation. Phospholipase A2, group VI (PLA2G6) is the causative gene for PARK14-linked parkinsonism (PARK14), a familial form of juvenile-onset dystonia parkinsonism...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212814/human-striatal-dopaminergic-and-regional-serotonergic-synaptic-degeneration-with-lewy-body-disease-and-inheritance-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54
#4
Nadia Postupna, Caitlin S Latimer, Eric B Larson, Emily Sherfield, Julie Paladin, Carol A Shively, Matthew J Jorgensen, Rachel N Andrews, Jay R Kaplan, Paul K Crane, Kathleen S Montine, Suzanne Craft, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine
Cognitive impairment in older individuals is a complex trait that in population-based studies most commonly derives from an individually varying mixture of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular brain injury. We investigated the molecular composition of synaptic particles from three sources: consecutive rapid autopsy brains from the adult changes in thought study, a population-based cohort; four aged nonhuman primate brains optimally processed for molecular investigation; and targeted replacement transgenic mice homozygous for APOE ε4...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212433/elevated-gm3-plasma-concentration-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-a-lipidomic-analysis
#5
Robin B Chan, Adler J Perotte, Bowen Zhou, Christopher Liong, Evan J Shorr, Karen S Marder, Un J Kang, Cheryl H Waters, Oren A Levy, Yimeng Xu, Hong Bin Shim, Itsik Pe'er, Gilbert Di Paolo, Roy N Alcalay
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease whose pathological hallmark is the accumulation of intracellular α-synuclein aggregates in Lewy bodies. Lipid metabolism dysregulation may play a significant role in PD pathogenesis; however, large plasma lipidomic studies in PD are lacking. In the current study, we analyzed the lipidomic profile of plasma obtained from 150 idiopathic PD patients and 100 controls, taken from the 'Spot' study at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. Our mass spectrometry based analytical panel consisted of 520 lipid species from 39 lipid subclasses including all major classes of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycerolipids and sterols...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211814/are-major-dementias-triggered-by-poor-blood-flow-to-the-brain-theoretical-considerations
#6
Jack C de la Torre
There is growing evidence that chronic brain hypoperfusion plays a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before dyscognitive symptoms or amyloid-β accumulation in the brain appear. This commentary proposes that dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) may also develop from chronic brain hypoperfusion following a similar but not identical neurometabolic breakdown as AD. The argument to support this conclusion is that chronic brain hypoperfusion, which is found at the early stages of the three dementias reviewed here, will reduce oxygen delivery and lower oxidative phosphorylation promoting a steady decline in the synthesis of the cell energy fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210978/future-directions-in-imaging-neurodegeneration
#7
REVIEW
Joseph C Masdeu
Neuroimaging comprises a powerful set of instruments to diagnose various neurodegenerative disorders, clarifies their neurobiology, and monitors their treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging depicts volume changes, as well as abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the quantification of regional cerebral metabolism, characteristically altered in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diffuse Lewy-body disease, and the frontotemporal dementias...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205015/self-management-of-dietary-intake-using-mindful-eating-to-improve-dietary-intake-for-individuals-with-early-stage-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Gayle M Timmerman, Muna J Tahir, Richard M Lewis, Deborah Samoson, Holli Temple, Michele R Forman
Using mindful eating to improve specific dietary recommendations has not been adequately studied. This feasibility study examined an intervention, self-management of dietary intake using mindful eating, with 19 participants that had mild to moderate chronic kidney disease, using a prospective, single group, pretest-posttest design. The intervention had six weekly classes focused on self-management using mindful eating, goal-setting, problem-solving, and food label reading. Weight, body mass index (BMI), 3-day 24-h dietary recalls and fasting blood samples were measured...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205009/mixed-pathologies-including-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-account-for-dementia-in-retired-association-football-soccer-players
#9
Helen Ling, Huw R Morris, James W Neal, Andrew J Lees, John Hardy, Janice L Holton, Tamas Revesz, David D R Williams
In retired professional association football (soccer) players with a past history of repetitive head impacts, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a potential neurodegenerative cause of dementia and motor impairments. From 1980 to 2010, 14 retired footballers with dementia were followed up regularly until death. Their clinical data, playing career, and concussion history were prospectively collected. Next-of-kin provided consent for six to have post-mortem brain examination. Of the 14 male participants, 13 were professional and 1 was a committed amateur...
February 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202694/pure-autonomic-failure-predictors-of-conversion-to-clinical-cns-involvement
#10
Wolfgang Singer, Sarah E Berini, Paola Sandroni, Robert D Fealey, Elizabeth A Coon, Mariana D Suarez, Eduardo E Benarroch, Phillip A Low
OBJECTIVE: Based on the observation that a subset of patients originally diagnosed with pure autonomic failure (PAF) eventually develops extrapyramidal or cerebellar involvement consistent with multiple system atrophy (MSA), Parkinson disease (PD), or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), we aimed to identify predictors of progression of PAF to more sinister synucleinopathies. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed patients seen at Mayo Clinic Rochester by autonomic specialists between 2001 and 2011 and during initial evaluation diagnosed with orthostatic hypotension consistent with PAF (possible PAF)...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193887/tmem175-deficiency-impairs-lysosomal-and-mitochondrial-function-and-increases-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation
#11
Sarah Jinn, Robert E Drolet, Paige E Cramer, Andus Hon-Kit Wong, Dawn M Toolan, Cheryl A Gretzula, Bhavya Voleti, Galya Vassileva, Jyoti Disa, Marija Tadin-Strapps, David J Stone
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss and the postmortem presence of Lewy bodies, depositions of insoluble α-synuclein, and other proteins that likely contribute to cellular toxicity and death during the disease. Genetic and biochemical studies have implicated impaired lysosomal and mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of PD. Transmembrane protein 175 (TMEM175), the lysosomal K(+) channel, is centered under a major genome-wide association studies peak for PD, making it a potential candidate risk factor for the disease...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190674/neuronal-loss-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology-in-the-superior-colliculus-and-its-relationship-to-visual-hallucinations-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#12
Daniel Erskine, Alan J Thomas, John-Paul Taylor, Michael A Savage, Johannes Attems, Ian G McKeith, Christopher M Morris, Ahmad A Khundakar
OBJECTIVE: Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) often experience visual hallucinations, which are related to decreased quality of life for patients and increased caregiver distress. The pathologic changes that contribute to visual hallucinations are not known, but several hypotheses implicate deficient attentional processing. The superior colliculus has a role in visual attention and planning eye movements and has been directly implicated in several models of visual hallucinations...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188691/zebrafish-transgenic-constructs-label-specific-neurons-in-xenopus-laevis-spinal-cord-and-identify-frog-v0v-spinal-neurons
#13
José L Juárez-Morales, Reyna I Martinez-De Luna, Michael E Zuber, Alan Roberts, Katharine E Lewis
A correctly functioning spinal cord is crucial for locomotion and communication between body and brain but there are fundamental gaps in our knowledge of how spinal neuronal circuitry is established and functions. To understand the genetic program that regulates specification and functions of this circuitry, we need to connect neuronal molecular phenotypes with physiological analyses. Studies using Xenopus laevis tadpoles have increased our understanding of spinal cord neuronal physiology and function, particularly in locomotor circuitry...
February 11, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188385/pure-autonomic-failure-without-synucleinopathy
#14
Risa Isonaka, Courtney Holmes, Glen A Cook, Patti Sullivan, Yehonatan Sharabi, David S Goldstein
Pure autonomic failure is a rare form of chronic autonomic failure manifesting with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and evidence of sympathetic noradrenergic denervation unaccompanied by signs of central neurodegeneration. It has been proposed that pure autonomic failure is a Lewy body disease characterized by intra-neuronal deposition of the protein alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neurites. A middle-aged man with previously diagnosed pure autonomic failure experienced a sudden, fatal cardiac arrest. He was autopsied, and tissues were harvested for neurochemical and immunofluorescence studies...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187014/delayed-donor-bone-marrow-infusion-induces-liver-transplant-tolerance
#15
Yan Xie, Yang Wu, Kang Xin, Jiao-Jing Wang, Hong Xu, Suzanne T Ildstad, Joseph Leventhal, Guang-Yu Yang, Zheng Zhang, Josh Levitsky
BACKGROUND: Nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by donor bone marrow infusion (BMI) to induce tolerance has not been robustly tested in liver transplantation (LT) and may be unsafe at the time of LT. We hypothesized T cell depleted BMI is effective in inducing tolerance when delayed after LT, resulting in potentially safer future clinical applications. METHODS: Nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic (Lewis to Lewis) and allogeneic (ACI to Lewis) rat LT transplants were initially performed as controls...
February 10, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181068/laminar-degeneration-of-frontal-and-temporal-cortex-in-parkinson-disease-dementia
#16
Richard A Armstrong
To investigate cortical laminar degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) with dementia (PDD). Changes in density of α-synuclein-immunoreactive Lewy bodies (LB), Lewy neurites (LN), and Lewy grains (LG) together with surviving neurons, abnormally enlarged neurons (EN), vacuoles, and glial cell nuclei were measured across cortical laminae of frontal and temporal cortex in fifteen cases of PDD using quantitative methods and polynomial curve-fitting. Most frequently, LB and LN were distributed across all laminae, while LG were distributed in upper cortical laminae...
February 8, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180061/kinase-suppressor-of-ras-2-ksr2-expression-in-the-brain-regulates-energy-balance-and-glucose-homeostasis
#17
Lili Guo, Diane L Costanzo-Garvey, Deandra R Smith, Beth K Neilsen, Richard G MacDonald, Robert E Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) is a molecular scaffold coordinating Raf/MEK/ERK signaling that is expressed at high levels in the brain. KSR2 disruption in humans and mice causes obesity and insulin resistance. Understanding the anatomical location and mechanism of KSR2 function should lead to a better understanding of physiological regulation over energy balance. METHODS: Mice bearing floxed alleles of KSR2 (KSR2(fl/fl)) were crossed with mice expressing the Cre recombinase expressed by the Nestin promoter (Nes-Cre) to produce Nes-CreKSR2(fl/fl) mice...
February 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177387/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-prenatal-transportation-stress-on-gnrh-stimulated-luteinizing-hormone-and-testosterone-secretion-in-sexually-mature-brahman-bulls
#18
B P Littlejohn, M C Roberts, M N Bedenbaugh, A W Lewis, D A Neuendorff, D G Riley, J A Carroll, R C Vann, M Amstalden, R D Randel, T H Welsh
This study examined the relationship of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) with exogenous GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls. Brahman cows (n = 96; 48 were stressed by transportation at 5 stages of gestation and 48 were controls) produced a calf crop of 85 calves. All bulls (n = 46) from this calf crop were electroejaculated every 2 wk beginning at a scrotal circumference of 24 cm until sexual maturity (SM; i.e., 500 million sperm/ejaculate). The initial 11 control and 12 PNS bulls to reach SM were selected for the experiment...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177178/association-of-premorbid-personality-with-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-comparison-with-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#19
Kazuki Tabata, Yasuaki Saijo, Fumiyoshi Morikawa, Juichiro Naoe, Eiji Yoshioka, Yasuyuki Kawanishi, Yoshihiko Nakagi, Takahiko Yoshida
AIM: The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between premorbid personality traits and behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. METHODS: Forty-one DLB patients and 98 AD patients were assessed for BPSD using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Each patient's midlife personality traits were rated by a family member using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) questionnaire...
February 8, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171705/endothelin-converting-enzymes-degrade-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-are-reduced-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#20
J Scott Miners, Seth Love
We have examined the roles of the endothelin-converting enzyme-1 and -2 (ECE-1 and ECE-2) in the homeostasis of α-synuclein (α-syn) and pathogenesis of Lewy body disease. The ECEs are named for their ability to convert inactive big endothelin to the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (EDN1). We have found that ECE-1 and ECE-2 cleave and degrade α-syn in vitro and siRNA-mediated knockdown of ECE-1 and ECE-2 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells significantly increased α-syn both intracellularly (within the cell lysate) (P < 0...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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