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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#1
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343297/association-of-the-cx3cr1-v249i-variant-with-neurofibrillary-pathology-progression-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Alan López-López, Ellen Gelpi, Diana Maria Lopategui, Jose M Vidal-Taboada
Neuroinflammation and microglial dysfunction have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). CX3CR1 is a microglia-specific gene involved in microglia-neuron crosstalk and neuroinflammation. Numerous evidence show the involvement of CX3CR1 in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate if some functional genetic variants of this gene could influence on LOAD's outcome, in a neuropathologically confirmed Spanish cohort. We designed an open, pragmatic, case-control retrospective study including a total of 475 subjects (205 pathologically confirmed AD cases and 270 controls)...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342649/the-prognosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#3
REVIEW
Christoph Mueller, Clive Ballard, Anne Corbett, Dag Aarsland
Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia, yet scarce evidence is available about its prognosis and natural history, which are crucial to inform clinical practice and research. Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies might have a less favourable prognosis, with accelerated cognitive decline, shorter lifespan, and increased admission to residential care than patients with Alzheimer's disease. Health-care costs and, importantly, caregiver burden, are also reported to be higher in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Alzheimer's disease...
March 22, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341600/metabolic-disorder-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-bioenergetics-redox-homeostasis-and-central-carbon-metabolism
#4
Annadurai Anandhan, Maria S Jacome, Shulei Lei, Pablo Hernandez-Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Robert Powers, Rodrigo Franco
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic process in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival...
March 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337172/bone-marrow-derived-cell-accumulation-in-the-spinal-cord-is-independent-of-peripheral-mobilization-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Kyle Peake, John Manning, Coral-Ann Lewis, Kevin Tran, Fabio Rossi, Charles Krieger
Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) are capable of migrating across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and accumulating in the central nervous system (CNS) when transplanted into recipients conditioned with whole-body irradiation or chemotherapy. We used the chemotherapeutic agents busulfan and treosulfan to condition recipient mice for transplantation with bone marrow (BM) cells isolated from donor mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein. We attempted to increase the accumulation of BMDCs in the CNS by mobilization of BMDCs using either, or both, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) or plerixafor (AMD3100)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333238/clustering-of-pcos-like-traits-in-naturally-hyperandrogenic-female-rhesus-monkeys
#6
D H Abbott, B H Rayome, D A Dumesic, K C Lewis, A K Edwards, K Wallen, M E Wilson, S E Appt, J E Levine
STUDY QUESTION: Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332630/pml-nuclear-bodies-contribute-to-the-basal-expression-of-the-mtor-inhibitor-ddit4
#7
Jayme Salsman, Alex Stathakis, Ellen Parker, Dudley Chung, Livia E Anthes, Kara L Koskowich, Sara Lahsaee, Daniel Gaston, Kimberly R Kukurba, Kevin S Smith, Ian C Chute, Daniel Léger, Laura D Frost, Stephen B Montgomery, Stephen M Lewis, Christopher Eskiw, Graham Dellaire
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is an essential component of PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs) frequently lost in cancer. PML NBs coordinate chromosomal regions via modification of nuclear proteins that in turn may regulate genes in the vicinity of these bodies. However, few PML NB-associated genes have been identified. PML and PML NBs can also regulate mTOR and cell fate decisions in response to cellular stresses. We now demonstrate that PML depletion in U2OS cells or TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts results in decreased expression of the mTOR inhibitor DDIT4 (REDD1)...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331948/erratum-to-diagnostic-imaging-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-by-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-of-nigrosomes-versus-striatal-dopamine-transporter-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-a-retrospective-observational-study
#8
Koji Kamagata, Tomoya Nakatsuka, Ryuji Sakakibara, Yohei Tsuyusaki, Tomohiro Takamura, Kanako Sato, Michimasa Suzuki, Masaaki Hori, Kanako K Kumamaru, Tsutomu Inaoka, Shigeki Aoki, Hitoshi Terada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330542/-lewy-body-dementias
#9
Annemette Løkkegaard, Lise Korbo
Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal management. In this article, diagnostic criteria combined with imaging and other biomarkers as well as current treatment recommendations are summarized, and some of the challenges for the future are outlined. Refinement of diagnosis and clarification of the pathogenesis are required in search for disease-modifying treatments...
March 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329228/gender-differences-in-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-drugs
#10
J Tamargo, G Rosano, W Thomas, J Duarte, A Niessner, J C Kaski, C Cecconi, H Drexel, K Kjeldsen, G Savarese, C Torp-Pedersen, D Atar, B S Lewis, S Agewall
Although sex-specific differences in cardiovascular medicine are well-known, the exact influences of sex on the effect of cardiovascular drugs remain unclear. Women and men differ in body composition and physiology (hormonal influences during the menstrual cycle, menopause and pregnancy) and they present differences in drug pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and pharmacodynamics, so that is not rare that they may respond differently to cardiovascular drugs. Furthermore, women are also less often treated with evidence-based drugs thereby preventing optimization of therapeutics for women of all ages, experience more relevant adverse drug reactions than men, and remain under-represented in most clinical trials...
February 28, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328536/neurotransmission-systems-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Ameneh Zare-Shahabadi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is histologically characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein particles, known as Lewy bodies. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder, PD is widely known because of the typical motor manifestations of active tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, while several prodromal non-motor symptoms including REM sleep behavior disorders, depression, autonomic disturbances, and cognitive decline are being more extensively recognized. Motor symptoms most commonly arise from synucleinopathy of nigrostriatal pathway...
March 22, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324300/%C3%AE-synuclein-and-parkinsonism-updates-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Kaie Rosborough, Neha Patel, Lorraine V Kalia
Mutations in the SNCA gene, which encodes the α-synuclein protein, were the first discovered genetic causes of familial parkinsonism with Lewy pathology. To date, six different SNCA missense mutations as well as multiplications are known to cause parkinsonism. For this review, we performed a literature search to identify all published cases of SNCA-related parkinsonism to provide an updated summary of the clinical and neuropathological features of parkinsonism due to SNCA mutations. Familial parkinsonism associated with SNCA is rare, but α-synuclein aggregation is a core feature of sporadic parkinsonism, including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323683/genetic-alzheimer-disease-and-sporadic-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-comorbidity-presenting-as-primary-progressive-aphasia
#13
Tereza Picková, Radoslav Matěj, Ondrej Bezdicek, Jiří Keller, Julie van der Zee, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Zsolt Cséfalvay, Robert Rusina
We report a 44-year-old woman, with a family history of early-onset dementia, presenting with primary progressive aphasia. This clinically variable syndrome has multiple underlying pathologies, and correlations between clinical manifestations and postmortem neuropathologic findings are controversial. Our patient suffered worsening language impairment with major word-finding difficulties but preserved comprehension. She also developed episodic memory impairment. Her condition progressed to dementia with behavioral changes...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322283/susceptibility-to-neurofibrillary-tangles-role-of-the-ptprd-locus-and-limited-pleiotropy-with-other-neuropathologies
#14
L B Chibnik, C C White, S Mukherjee, T Raj, L Yu, E B Larson, T J Montine, C D Keene, J Sonnen, J A Schneider, P K Crane, J M Shulman, D A Bennett, P L De Jager
Tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative conditions, are defined by a pathological hallmark: neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). NFT accumulation is thought to be closely linked to cognitive decline in AD. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study for NFT pathologic burden and report the association of the PTPRD locus (rs560380, P=3.8 × 10(-8)) in 909 prospective autopsies. The association is replicated in an independent data set of 369 autopsies. The association of PTPRD with NFT is not dependent on the accumulation of amyloid pathology...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321951/transcriptional-network-analysis-in-frontal-cortex-in-lewy-body-diseases-with-focus-on-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#15
Gabriel Santpere, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Pol Andres-Benito, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Arcadi Navarro, Isidro Ferrer
The present study investigates global transcriptional changes in frontal cortex area 8 in incidental Lewy Body disease (iLBD), Parkinson disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We identified different co-expressed gene sets associated with disease stages, and gene ontology categories enriched in gene modules and differentially expressed genes including modules or gene clusters correlated to iLBD comprising upregulated dynein genes and taste receptors, and down-regulated innate inflammation. Focusing on DLB, we found modules with genes significantly enriched in functions related to RNA and DNA production, mitochondria and energy metabolism, purine metabolism, chaperone and protein folding system, and synapses and neurotransmission (particularly the GABAergic system)...
March 21, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317651/clinical-validity-of-presynaptic-dopaminergic-imaging-with%C3%A2-123-i-ioflupane%C3%A2-and-noradrenergic-imaging-with-123-i-mibg-in-the-differential-diagnosis-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development
#16
REVIEW
Ida Sonni, Osman Ratib, Marina Boccardi, Agnese Picco, Karl Herholz, Flavio Nobili, Andrea Varrone
The use of biomarkers (BMs) for accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed by recent diagnostic criteria; however, their maturity is not sufficient to grant implementation in the clinical routine. A proper diagnostic process requires not only confirmation of the disease but also the exclusion of similar disorders entering differential diagnosis, like dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). This review is aimed at evaluating the clinical validity of (123)I-ioflupane brain single photon emission tomography and (123)I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy as imaging BMs for DLB...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315409/in-vivo-tau-pet-imaging-in-dementia-pathophysiology-radiotracer-quantification-and-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-findings
#17
REVIEW
Benjamin Hall, Elijah Mak, Simon Cervenka, Franklin I Aigbirhio, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
In addition to the deposition of β-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Until now, our understanding about the natural history and topography of tau deposition has only been based on post-mortem and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and evidence continues to implicate tau as a central driver of downstream neurodegenerative processes and cognitive decline. Recently, it has become possible to assess the regional distribution and severity of tau burden in vivo with the development of novel radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging...
March 15, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304294/long-term-cognitive-decline-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-in-a-large-multicenter-international-cohort
#18
Milica G Kramberger, Bjørn Auestad, Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Carla Abdelnour, Josep Garre Olmo, Zuzana Walker, Afina W Lemstra, Elisabet Londos, Frederic Blanc, Laura Bonanni, Ian McKeith, Bengt Winblad, Frank Jan de Jong, Flavio Nobili, Elka Stefanova, Maria Petrova, Cristian Falup-Pecurariu, Irena Rektorova, Sevasti Bostantjopoulou, Roberta Biundo, Daniel Weintraub, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the rate and clinical predictors of cognitive decline in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and compare the findings with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) patients. METHODS: Longitudinal scores for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 1,290 patients (835 DLB, 198 PDD, and 257 AD) were available from 18 centers with up to three years longitudinal data. Linear mixed effects analyses with appropriate covariates were used to model MMSE decline over time...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303599/impact-of-surface-ozone-interactions-on-indoor-air-chemistry-a-modelling-study
#19
Magdalena Kruza, Alastair C Lewis, Glenn Morrison, Nicola Carslaw
An INdoor air Detailed Chemical Model (INDCM) was developed to investigate the impact of ozone reactions with indoor surfaces (including occupants), on indoor air chemistry in simulated apartments subject to ambient air pollution. The results are consistent with experimental studies showing that approximately 80% of ozone indoors is lost through deposition to surfaces. The human body removes ozone most effectively from indoor air per square meter of surface, but the most significant surfaces for C6 -C10 aldehyde formation are soft furniture and painted walls owing to their large internal surfaces...
March 17, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302161/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#20
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Catherine Demuynck, Timothée Albasser, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine Schmidt-Mutter, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date. METHODS: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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