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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150293/a-unique-and-promising-combination-of-medications-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
James D Weinstein
At present there is no therapy for Alzheimer's Disease which completely stops the progressive dementia effecting late onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. It is felt that the main reason for this failure is that AD appears to be a disease caused by four major pathological processes. To date, efforts to develop treatments have addressed only one or another of these four etiologies. However, even a partially effective therapy against one cause allows the others, untreated, to continue their inexorable destruction of the neurons of the brain...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148107/pediatric-drug-information-available-at-the-time-of-new-drug-approvals-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#2
Joel D Hudgins, Matthew A Bacho, Karen L Olsen, Florence T Bourgeois
PURPOSE: Greater than 50% of drugs lack pediatric labeling information, resulting in widespread "off-label" use in children. To increase pediatric prescribing information, the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) was passed in 2003, requiring new drug applications to include pediatric assessments. We evaluated the study of new drugs in children since PREA was implemented. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of new drug applications submitted to the FDA from December 2003 to July 2012, using publicly available documents at Drugs@FDA...
November 17, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146289/off-label-treatments-were-not-consistently-better-or-worse-than-approved-drug-treatments-in-randomized-trials
#3
Aviv Ladanie, John P A Ioannidis, Randall S Stafford, Hannah Ewald, Heiner C Bucher, Lars G Hemkens
BACKGROUND: Off-label drug use is highly prevalent, but controversial and often discouraged assuming generally inferior medical effects associated with off-label use. METHODS: We searched Medline, PubMed Health and the Cochrane Library up to May 2015 for systematic reviews including meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing off-label and approved drugs head-to-head in any population and on any medical outcome. We combined the comparative effects in meta-analyses providing summary odds ratios (sOR) for each treatment comparison and outcome, and then calculated an overall summary of the sOR across all comparisons (ssOR)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146027/medication-for-behavior-modification-in-birds
#4
REVIEW
Yvonne van Zeeland
The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145074/ratiometric-electrochemical-assay-for-sensitive-detecting-microrna-based-on-dual-amplification-mechanism-of-duplex-specific-nuclease-and-hybridization-chain-reaction
#5
Yan-Hong Yuan, Bao-Zhu Chi, Shao-Hua Wen, Ru-Ping Liang, Zhi-Mei Li, Jian-Ding Qiu
We propose a ratiometric electrochemical assay for detecting microRNA (miRNA) on the basis of dual-amplification mechanism by using distinguishable electrochemical signals from thionine (Thi) and ferrocene (Fc). The thiol-modified and ferrocene-labeled hairpin capture probes (CP) are first immobilized on an Au electrode via Au-S reaction. The target miRNA hybridizes with CP and unfolding the hairpin structure of CP to form miRNA-DNA duplexes. Then, kamchatka crab duplex specific nuclease (DSN) specifically cleaves the DNA in miRNA-DNA duplexes, leading to the release of miRNA and another cleaves cycle, meanwhile, numerous Fc leaves away from the electrode surface and leads to the signal-off of Fc...
November 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144720/cost-effectiveness-of-gammacore-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-acute-treatment-of-episodic-cluster-headache
#6
Mkaya Mwamburi, Eric J Liebler, Andrew T Tenaglia
Cluster headache is a debilitating disease characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks that affects 0.15% to 0.4% of the US population. Episodic cluster headache manifests as circadian and circannual seasonal bouts of attacks, each lasting 15 to 180 minutes, with periods of remission. In chronic cluster headache, the attacks occur throughout the year with no periods of remission. While existing treatments are effective for some patients, many patients continue to suffer. There are only 2 FDA-approved medications for episodic cluster headache in the United States, while others, such as high-flow oxygen, are used off-label...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144717/review-of-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-gammacore-efficacy-safety-potential-impact-on-comorbidities-and-economic-burden-for-episodic-and-chronic-cluster-headache
#7
Mkaya Mwamburi, Eric J Liebler, Andrew T Tenaglia
The FDA has cleared gammaCore (non-invasive vagus nerve stimulator [nVNS]) for the treatment of episodic cluster headache (eCH). With the exception of subcutaneous sumatriptan, all other treatments are used off label and have many limitations. The FDA approval process for devices differs from that of drugs. We performed a review of the literature to evaluate new evidence on various aspects of gammaCore treatment and impact. The ACute Treatment of Cluster Headache Studies (ACT1 and ACT2), both double-blind sham-controlled randomized trials, did not meet the primary endpoints of the trials but each demonstrated significant superiority of gammaCore among patients with eCH...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143948/label-free-nmr-based-dissociation-kinetics-determination
#8
Pablo Trigo-Mouriño, Christian Griesinger, Donghan Lee
Understanding the dissociation of molecules is the basis to modulate interactions of biomedical interest. Optimizing drugs for dissociation rates is found to be important for their efficacy, selectivity, and safety. Here, we show an application of the high-power relaxation dispersion (RD) method to the determination of the dissociation rates of weak binding ligands from receptors. The experiment probes proton RD on the ligand and, therefore, avoids the need for any isotopic labeling. The large ligand excess eases the detection significantly...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143688/investigating-management-choices-for-canine-heartworm-disease-in-northern-mississippi
#9
Tobi N Ku
BACKGROUND: There are concerns that the chronic use of macrocyclic lactone preventives to kill adult heartworms ("soft-" or "slow-kill") may have contributed to the development of macrocyclic lactone resistance. This prospective analysis was designed to expand our understanding of currently employed treatment decisions, protocols utilized in a "slow-kill" methodology, and trends in heartworm prevention in a region with concerns about macrocyclic lactone resistance. We tested the hypothesis that practitioners underestimate the actual percentage of heartworm-positive dogs treated with "slow-kill" therapy...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143529/hexavalent-chromium-as-an-electrocatalyst-in-dna-sensing
#10
Hamid R Lotfi Zadeh Zhad, Rebecca Y Lai
We report for the first time the use of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) as an electrocatalyst in electrochemical DNA sensing. For both stem-loop probe and linear probe electrochemical DNA sensors, the increase in probe rigidity upon target hybridization alters the accessibility of Cr(VI) to the methylene blue label on the surface-immobilized DNA probes. This change results in an enhancement in the electrocatalytic current when the sensors are interrogated using cyclic voltammetry at a slow scan rate. The incorporation of this electrocatalyst does not affect the normal "signal-off" sensing behavior observed in alternating current voltammetry; instead it enables simultaneous "signal-on" and "signal-off" detection of the target, while maintaining noted attributes of this class of folding- and dynamics-based sensors such as reusability and high selectivity...
November 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143356/on-the-ground-application-of-the-temporary-recommendation-for-use-regulatory-measure-on-off-label-use-of-baclofen-for-alcohol-dependence-in-france-a-regional-survey-of-community-pharmacies
#11
Marine Auffret, Benjamin Rolland, Anne-Sylvie Caous, Louise Gaboriau, Sylvie Deheul, Régis Bordet, Sophie Gautier
The "temporary recommendation for use" (TRU) is a French novel regulatory measure for off-label drug. The first TRU to be issued by the French drug agency (in March 2014) pertained to the off-label use of baclofen for alcohol dependence (AD). We performed a questionnaire-based survey of the on-the-ground application of the baclofen TRU among community pharmacies in northern France. A pharmacist from 70 of the 219 pharmacies contacted (response rate: 32.0%) completed the questionnaire. The mean ± standard deviation number of off-label baclofen prescriptions for AD was 2...
November 15, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141882/transparent-anemone-shrimp-ancylomenes-pedersoni-become-opaque-after-exercise-and-physiological-stress-in-correlation-with-increased-hemolymph-perfusion
#12
Laura E Bagge, Stephen T Kinsey, Justin Gladman, Sönke Johnsen
Whole-body transparency, an effective camouflage strategy in many aquatic species, can be disrupted by environmental and/or physiological stressors. We found that tail-flip escape responses temporarily disrupt the transparency of the anemone shrimp Ancylomenes pedersoni After as few as three tail flips, the previously transparent abdominal muscle became cloudy. Eliciting additional tail flips to the point of exhaustion (16±1 s.e.m.; n=23) resulted in complete opacity, though the original transparency returned after 20-60 min of inactivity...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140568/crispr-cas9-based-safe-harbor-gene-editing-in-rhesus-ipscs
#13
Ravi Chandra Yada, John W Ostrominski, Ilker Tunc, So Gun Hong, Jizhong Zou, Cynthia E Dunbar
NHP iPSCs provide a unique opportunity to test safety and efficacy of iPSC-derived therapies in clinically relevant NHP models. To monitor these cells in vivo, there is a need for safe and efficient labeling methods. Gene insertion into genomic safe harbors (GSHs) supports reliable transgene expression while minimizing the risk the modification poses to the host genome or target cell. Specifically, this protocol demonstrates targeting of the adeno-associated virus site 1 (AAVS1), one of the most widely used GSH loci in the human genome, with CRISPR/Cas9, allowing targeted marker or therapeutic gene insertion in rhesus macaque induced pluripotent stem cells (RhiPSCs)...
November 15, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137710/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-using-self-avoiding-molecular-recognition-systems-and-antarctic-thermal-sensitive-uracil-dna-glycosylase-for-detection-of-nucleic-acid-with-prevention-of-carryover-contamination
#14
Yi Wang, Dongxin Liu, Jianping Deng, Yan Wang, Jianguo Xu, Changyun Ye
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is the most popular technique to amplify nucleic acid sequence without the use of temperature cycling. However, LAMP is often confounded by false-positive results, arising from interactions between (hetero-dimer) or within (self-dimerization) primers, off-target hybrids and carryover contaminants. Here, we devised a new LAMP technique that is self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS) components and antarctic thermal sensitive uracil-DNA-glycosylase (AUDG) enzyme-assisted, termed AUDG-SAMRS-LAMP...
December 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137347/antiandrogenic-and-antimineralocorticoid-health-benefits-of-coc-containing-newer-progestogens-dienogest-and-drospirenone
#15
REVIEW
Pedro-Antonio Regidor, Adolf E Schindler
Data have demonstrated that COCs, besides offering a satisfactory and safe contraception, offer a variety of non-contraceptive health benefits and therapeutic positive aspects. Many prescribes and users, however, do not realize these positive aspects especially the non-contraceptive health benefits. While the contraceptive use is the primary indication for COC use for most women, these users should be advised in regard of the non-contraceptive benefits when contraception is discussed and prescribed. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is an off-label use in many clinical situations (only some exceptions as e...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134440/ki67-labeling-index-assessment-and-prognostic-role-in-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#16
REVIEW
Günter Klöppel, Stefano La Rosa
In 1983, a monoclonal antibody, Ki67, was generated, that labeled the nuclei of proliferating non-neoplastic and neoplastic cells. The name Ki67 derived from the city of Kiel (Ki) where the antibody was produced in the university department of pathology and refers to the number of the original clone (67). Systematic assessment of the proliferative activity of tumors using Ki67 started in the 1990s, when Ki67, which only worked on frozen tissue, was complemented by the antibody MIB-1 that also worked in formalin-fixed tissues...
November 13, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133846/large-scale-matching-of-function-to-the-genetic-identity-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#17
Filippo Pisano, Erin Zampaglione, Niall McAlinden, Jennifer Roebber, Martin D Dawson, Keith Mathieson, Alexander Sher
Understanding the role of neurons in encoding and transmitting information is a major goal in neuroscience. This requires insight on the data-rich neuronal spiking patterns combined, ideally, with morphology and genetic identity. Electrophysiologists have long experienced the trade-offs between anatomically-accurate single-cell recording techniques and high-density multi-cellular recording methods with poor anatomical correlations. In this study, we present a novel technique that combines large-scale micro-electrode array recordings with genetic identification and the anatomical location of the retinal ganglion cell soma...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131778/adventures-and-misadventures-in-plastic-surgery-and-soft-tissue-implants
#18
Dana J Lin, Tony T Wong, Gina A Ciavarra, Jonathan K Kazam
Soft-tissue augmentation and implants are increasingly seen by the radiologist as more techniques emerge for a variety of indications and locations. Some surgical and implant procedures are performed for purely cosmetic reasons in otherwise healthy patients seeking to improve their body image, and some are performed for reconstruction after cancer or other chronic illnesses. Abdominoplasty, liposuction, and autologous fat grafting can be performed for abdominal and gluteal contouring. Injection of liquid injectable silicone has historically been fraught with legal issues, although it continues to be used for augmentation in a variety of anatomic locations...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131677/methylphenidate-has-superior-efficacy-over-parent-child-interaction-therapy-for-preschool-children-with-disruptive-behaviors
#19
Lianne van der Veen-Mulders, Barbara J van den Hoofdakker, Maaike H Nauta, Paul Emmelkamp, Pieter J Hoekstra
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness between parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) and methylphenidate in preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and disruptive behaviors who had remaining significant behavior problems after previous behavioral parent training. METHODS: We included 35 preschool children, ranging in age between 3.4 and 6.0 years. Participants were randomized to PCIT (n = 18) or methylphenidate (n = 17)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131655/psychotropic-drug-prescription-in-adolescents-a-retrospective-study-in-a-swiss-psychiatric-university-hospital
#20
Nicolas Ansermot, Véronique Jordanov, Michal Smogur, Laurent Holzer, Chin B Eap
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study aims to evaluate off-label prescriptions and administrations of psychotropic medications in adolescents in a university psychiatric hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: Data were collected during the entire stays from the electronic database for 76 inpatients in 2008 and 76 inpatients in 2014. Data collected included gender, age, psychiatric diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and psychotropic drug prescriptions and administrations...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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