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Agent orange

Cherukuri Sowmya, Vuppalapati Lavakumar, Narayanan Venkateshan, Velayutham Ravichandiran, D V R Saigopal
In our present investigation, synthesis of nontoxic, eco friendly and cost effective silver nanoparticles, Phyllanthus acidus (P. acidus) was used as starting material. The influence of phyto-constituents present in aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus acidus was found to be effective in reduction of silver nitrate to free silver nanoparticles (PA-AgNPs). HPTLC finger print analysis reveals the presence of flavonoid, quercetin in aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus acidus. Surface plasmon racemonance exhibited λ max at 462 nm through UV-Vis spectroscopy...
April 20, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Marzia Sultana, Suraia Nusrin, Nur A Hasan, Abdus Sadique, Kabir U Ahmed, Atiqul Islam, Anwar Hossain, Ira Longini, Azhar Nizam, Anwar Huq, Abul K Siddique, David A Sack, Richard B Sack, Rita R Colwell, Munirul Alam
Vibrio cholerae , an estuarine bacterium, is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease that demonstrates seasonal incidence in Bangladesh. In an extensive study of V. cholerae occurrence in a natural aquatic environment, water and plankton samples were collected biweekly between December 2005 and November 2006 from Mathbaria, an estuarine village of Bangladesh near the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans. Toxigenic V. cholerae exhibited two seasonal growth peaks, one in spring (March to May) and another in autumn (September to November), corresponding to the two annual seasonal outbreaks of cholera in this region...
April 17, 2018: MBio
Ramya Tokala, Swarna Bale, Ingle Pavan Janrao, Aluri Vennela, Niggula Praveen Kumar, Kishna Ram Senwar, Chandraiah Godugu, Nagula Shankaraiah
A new series of 1,2,4-triazole-linked urea and thiourea conjugates have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against selected human cancer cell lines namely, breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), lung (A549) prostate (DU145) and one mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cell line and compared with reference drug. The compound 5t showed significant cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with a IC50 value of 7.22 ± 0.47 µM among all the tested compounds. Notably, induction of apoptosis by compound 5t on MCF-7 cells was evaluated using different staining techniques such as acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB), annexin V-FITC/PI, and DAPI...
March 28, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yi Qian, Qing-Hua Han, Li-Chao Wang, Qiang Guo, Xu-Da Wang, Peng-Fei Tu, Ke-Wu Zeng, Hong Liang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Albiziae Cortex (AC) is a widely used traditional medicine in China. It is possess various properties to treat insomnia, traumatic injuries, diuresis, sthenia, and confusion. Total saponins of Albiziae Cortex (TSAC) are the most abundant bioactive components of AC, which were reported to show significant anti-tumor effects in vivo and in vitro. But the underlying mechanism of TSAC remained to be revealed. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, we investigated the anti- hepatoma carcinoma effects and the potential mechanism of TSAC in vivo and in vitro...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Bahareh Movafegh, Razieh Jalal, Zobeideh Mohammadi
OBJECTIVE: Cell resistance to doxorubicin and its toxicity to healthy tissue reduce its efficiency. The use of cell penetrating peptides as drug delivery system along with doxorubicin is a strategy to reduce its side effects. In this study, the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, its cellular uptake and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis on human prostate cancer DU145 cells are assessed. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and poly-L-arginine, alone and in combination, in DU145 cells was evaluated at different exposure times using MTT assay...
April 11, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Vitor Hugo Beloti, Gustavo Alves, Helvécio Coletta-Filho, Pedro Yamamoto
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri, vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), is controlled by application of insecticides, which, although effective, has resulted in serious biological imbalances. New management tools are needed, and the technique known as 'trap crop' has been attracting attention. A potential plant for use as a trap crop in the management of the ACP is Murraya koenigii (curry leaf). However, for this plant to be used in the field, it needs to be attractive for the vector and must not harbor CLas...
April 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Hamed Memariani, Mojtaba Memariani, Mohammad Reza Pourmand
During the past decade, cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have gained particular interest among researchers, since they often display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and low possibility of resistance emergence. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro effectiveness of Mastoparan-1 (MP-1), a tetradecapeptide CAP from hornet venom, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. MP-1 had a high propensity to form alpha-helix based on structural predictions. MP-1 was found to possess strong antimicrobial activities and weak cytotoxic effects...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Caio Henrique Nasi de Barros, Guilherme Crispim Faria Cruz, Willian Mayrink, Ljubica Tasic
Purpose: Despite the numerous reports on biological syntheses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), little is known about the composition of their capping agents, protein corona of plant extract-mediated synthesis, and their influence on the properties of AgNPs. Here, orange ( Citrus sinensis ) waste was utilized as a source of an extract for AgNP synthesis (the protein corona composition of which was elucidated), and also as a starting material for hesperidin and nanocellulose extraction, which were used for bio-based AgNP synthesis...
2018: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Bhavana Sharma, Renu Deswal
A facile one-pot green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different geometries was achieved using an underutilized Himalayan bioresource Hippophae rhamnoides. Aqueous leaf (LE) and berry extracts (BE) showed rapid synthesis of monodispersed spherical LEAuNPs (27 ± 3.2 nm) and anisotropic BEAuNPs (55 ± 4.5 nm) within 2 and 15 min, respectively. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed involvement of polyphenolics/flavonoids in AuNPs reduction. LE AuNPs (IC50 49 µg) exhibited higher antioxidant potential than BE AuNPs (IC50 57 µg)...
April 4, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Maroua Gdoura-Ben Amor, Mariam Siala, Mariem Zayani, Noël Grosset, Salma Smaoui, Feriele Messadi-Akrout, Florence Baron, Sophie Jan, Michel Gautier, Radhouane Gdoura
Bacillus cereus group is widespread in nature and foods. Several members of this group are recognized as causing food spoilage and/or health issues. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the B. cereus group strains isolated in Tunisia from different foods (cereals, spices, cooked food, fresh-cut vegetables, raw and cooked poultry meats, seafood, canned, pastry, and dairy products). In total, 687 different samples were collected and searched for the presence of the B. cereus group after selective plating on MYP agar and enumeration of each sample...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah M Bartsch, Susan S Huang, James A McKinnell, Kim F Wong, Leslie E Mueller, Loren G Miller, Bruce Y Lee
OBJECTIVE While previous work showed that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention toolkit for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) can reduce spread regionally, these interventions are costly, and decisions makers want to know whether and when economic benefits occur. DESIGN Economic analysis SETTING Orange County, California METHODS Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA)-generated agent-based model of all inpatient healthcare facilities, we simulated the implementation of the CRE toolkit (active screening of interfacility transfers) in different ways and estimated their economic impacts under various circumstances...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Xuefeng Guo, Chao Yu, Zhouyang Yin, Shouheng Sun, Christopher Takakazu Seto
We report a Ni30Pd70/nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) catalyst that hydrodehalogenates halogenated aromatics under mild reaction conditions. It reduces mono- or dichloroarenes to the corresponding dehalogenated arenes in >90% yield in 10% aqueous isopropanol solvent at or below 50C within 5 hours. Tests on a variety of substrates containing various functional groups show that the catalyst is selective for reduction of C-Cl and C-Br bonds. In addition, this catalyst completely hydrodehalogenates high concentration solutions of dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chloroaromatic constituents of the defoliant agent orange, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 12 hours...
March 14, 2018: ChemSusChem
Vikas H Malojirao, V Vigneshwaran, Prabhu Thirusangu, Riaz Mahmood, B T Prabhakar
Aim Deformity in the cellular homeostatic event associated with cell survival and apoptosis are committing factors for carcinogenesis. Interventions of these events by pharmacologically active agent gain predominance in cancer treatment. In current investigation Solanidine, a steroidal alkaloid was evaluated on tumorigenesis by targeting death signal using multiple tumor cells and model systems. MAIN METHODS: Anti-proliferative effect was evaluated using cytotoxic studies. Prolonged cytotoxic effect of Solanidine was examined by colony formation assay...
March 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Sandra Rojas-Moreno, Guillermo Osorio-Revilla, Tzayhrí Gallardo-Velázquez, Fernando Cárdenas-Bailón, Gabriela Meza-Márquez
Orange essential oil was microencapsulated by complex coacervation with whey protein isolate (WPI):carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), WPI:sodium alginate (SA) and WPI:chitosan (CH). Effect of pH, protein:polysaccharide ratio and solid concentration on coacervation efficiency were selected for the best coacervation conditions. Tannic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate, oxidized tannic acid and transglutaminase enzyme were used as cross-linking agents. Highest encapsulation efficiency (EE) for wet coacervated microcapsules ranged from 88-94%...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Mustafa Aziz Hatiboglu, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Eray Metin Guler, Kerime Akdur, Arife Nalli, Ersin Karatas, Saffet Tuzgen
BACKGROUND: Prognosis of patients with melanoma brain metastasis is poor despite various chemotherapeutic agents. Researchers focus on finding effective treatment with low risk of toxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ) has been found to be effective on different types of cancer. However, no data exists on the effect of TQ in intracerebral melanoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of TQ in B16-F10 melanoma cell in vitro and intracerebral melanoma in vivo. METHODS: The mechanisms of efficacy were investigated by ATP assay for cytotoxicity, flow cytometry and Acridine-orange staining for apoptosis, Comet assay for genotoxicity, CM-H2 DCF-DA (2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein) for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ELISA methods for inflammatory cytokines...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
V Guarnaccia, J Z Groenewald, G Polizzi, P W Crous
Species of Colletotrichum are considered important plant pathogens, saprobes, and endophytes on a wide range of plant hosts. Several species are well-known on citrus, either as agents of pre- or post-harvest infections, such as anthracnose, postbloom fruit drop, tear stain and stem-end rot on fruit, or as wither-tip of twigs. In this study we explored the occurrence, diversity and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. associated with Citrus and allied genera in European orchards, nurseries and gardens. Surveys were carried out during 2015 and 2016 in Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain...
December 2017: Persoonia
Jun-Jin Deng, Wei-Qian Huang, Zhi-Wei Li, De-Lin Lu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiao-Chun Luo
The use of cell wall degrading enzymes of Trichoderma is a promising alternative for improving food storage. The aspartic protease P6281 secreted by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum plays an important role in mycoparasitism on phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, recombinant P6281 (rP6281) expressed in Pichia pastoris showed high activity of 321.8 U/mL. Maximum activity was observed at pH 2.5 and 40 °C, and the enzyme was stable in the pH range of 2.5-6.0. rP6281 significantly inhibited spore germination and growth of plant and animal pathogenic fungi such as Botrytis cinerea, Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia solani, and Candida albicans...
May 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Jayalalitha Sathiyamoorthy, Natarajan Sudhakar
Background: Ficus hispida Linn. (Family Moraceae ), well-known beneficial medicinal shrub, has been traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases such as leukoderma. Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of F. hispida ethanolic leaves extract for antiproliferative, apoptotic, cell cycle blockade, and wound healing. Materials and Methods: F. hispida leaves extract was treated with colorectal adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HT29 for 24 h with control...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Ya-Yu Chen, Chia-Fang Tsai, Ming-Chu Tsai, Wen-Kang Chen, Yu-Wen Hsu, Fung-Jou Lu
AIM: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) in pterygium epithelial cells (PECs) to determine if RA is a potent agent for treating pterygium. METHODS: The PECs (1×104 cells/mL) were treated with 100 µmol/L of RA for 1, 3 and 6h. After RA treatment, the cell viability was determined by staining with acridine orange/DAPI and analysis via a NucleoCounter NC-3000. The protein expression levels of type I collagen, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βRII), p-Smad1/5, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, and Smad4 of the cell lysates were measured by Western blot analysis...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Eun Hee Lee, Imran Khan, Deog-Hwan Oh
The current study aimed to fabricate nisin-loaded chitosan (N-CS) nanoparticles through ionic interactions between positive amino groups of chitosan and negatively charged tripolyphosphate ions in the presence of nisin and to evaluate their efficacy against foodborne pathogens in orange juice. The synthesized nanoparticles were sphere-shaped and homogenous with an average size of 64.34 ± 2.1 and 147.93 ± 2.9 for chitosan and N-CS nanoparticles, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of nisin into nanoparticles was 67...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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