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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543415/the-anatomy-of-research-scandals
#1
Carl Elliott
For the past two years, I have taught a seminar on medical research scandals. The syllabus looks like a highlight reel of exploitation and abuse: children fed plutonium-laced breakfast cereal, prisoners dosed with the active ingredient in Agent Orange, mental patients given psychedelic drugs and massive electroconvulsive therapy before being sent into curare-induced paralysis and a coma. I designed the seminar to crush the idealism of future physicians by illuminating the dark patterns that research scandals typically follow...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537028/enhanced-larvicidal-antibacterial-and-photocatalytic-efficacy-of-tio2-nanohybrids-green-synthesized-using-the-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-parthenium-hysterophorus
#2
Keerthika Thandapani, Manikandan Kathiravan, Elangovan Namasivayam, Indira Arulselvi Padiksan, Geetha Natesan, Manish Tiwari, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are emerging as a biocompatible nanomaterial with multipurpose bioactivities. In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were effectively synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus prepared by microwave irradiation. TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by treating the P. hysterophorus leaf extracts with the TiO4 solution. Biologically active compounds such as alcohols, phenols, alkanes, and fluoroalkanes were involved in bioreduction of TiO4 into TiO2...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532075/can-pei-microgels-become-biocompatible-upon-betainization
#3
Nurettin Sahiner, Sahin Demirci
Polyethylene imine (PEI) microgels prepared via micro emulsion polymerization technique were treated with 1,3-propane sultone to obtained betainized PEI (b-PEI) microgels. The betainization reaction generated zwitterions on PEI microgel that are positive charges from quarternized amine groups of PEI, and the newly formed negative charges from SO3(-) groups from the modifying agent, 1,3-propane sultone offered interesting properties. The smaller size of b-PEI microgels that are obtained by simple filtration were increased with betainization from 512±14 to 1114±86nm...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527418/atmospheric-pcdd-f-concentration-and-source-apportionment-in-typical-rural-agent-orange-hotspots-and-industrial-areas-in-vietnam
#4
Tuan Hung Ngo, To Thi Hien, Ngo Thi Thuan, Nguyen Hung Minh, Kai Hsien Chi
Vietnam has a double burden of dioxin from both industrial sources and historical sources. To evaluate the concentration of PCDD/Fs in ambient air in different areas of Vietnam and their possible sources, atmospheric samples were collected from three areas namely Son La (rural area) and Da Nang (harbor - Agent Orange hotspot area), and Ho Chi Minh City (metropolitan - industrial city). Vapor and solid phases of PCDD/Fs were collected and analyzed following the TO-9A sampling method. Principal Component Analysis and Positive Matrix Factorization model were applied to characterize the possible source...
May 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503738/targeting-human-telomeric-g-quadruplex-dna-with-antitumour-natural-alkaloid-aristololactam-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-and-its-comparison-with-daunomycin
#5
Abhi Das, Sabyasachi Chatterjee, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
Study on anticancer agents that act via stabilization of telomeric G-quadruplex DNA has emerged as novel and exciting field for anticancer drug discovery. The interaction of carbohydrate containing anticancer alkaloid aristololactam-β-D-glucoside (ADG) with human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA sequence was characterized by different biophysical techniques. The binding parameters were compared with daunomycin (DAN), a well-known chemotherapeutic drug. The Scatchard binding isotherms revealed noncooperative binding for both with the binding affinity values of (1...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493190/preparation-of-a-new-fenton-like-catalyst-from-red-mud-using-molasses-wastewater-as-partial-acidifying-agent
#6
Guangtao Wei, Luhua Shao, Jihua Mo, Zhongmin Li, Linye Zhang
Using molasses wastewater as partial acidifying agent, a new Fenton-like catalyst (ACRM sm ) was prepared through a simple process of acidification and calcination using red mud as main material. With molasses wastewater, both the free alkali and the chemically bonded alkali in red mud were effectively removed under the action of H2SO4 and molasses wastewater, and the prepared ACRM sm was a near-neutral catalyst. The ACRM sm preparation conditions were as follows: for 3 g of red mud, 9 mL of 0.7 mol/L H2SO4 plus 2 g of molasses wastewater as the acidifying agent, calcination temperature 573 K, and calcination time 1 h...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479722/influence-of-capsaicin-on-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-myoblast-cells-under-in-vitro-environment
#7
Ke Shang, Touseef Amna, Musarat Amina, Nawal M Al-Musayeib, Salem S Al-Deyab, Inho Hwang
BACKGROUND: ellular damage initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the main cause of numerous severe diseases and therefore for this reason, the natural antioxidants have note worthy significance in human health. Capsaicin possesses noteworthy analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It also possesses healing effects for treatment of arthritis, diabetic neuropathy, gastric lesions, and cardiac excitability that is why it is incorporated in creams and gels. OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to estimate the in vitro antioxidant and ROS scavenging activities of capsaicin against muscle precursor cells...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462492/interaction-of-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles-in-mammalian-cancer-as-real-topical-bullet-for-wound-healing-a-comparative-study
#8
Allur Subramaniyan Sivakumar, Chandran Krishnaraj, Sunirmal Sheet, Dileep Reddy Rampa, Da Rae Kang, Shah Ahmed Belal, Abhay Kumar, In Ho Hwang, Soon-Il Yun, Yang Soo Lee, Kwan Seob Shim
The present study evaluates in vitro cytotoxic effects and the mode of interaction of biologically synthesized Ag and Au nanoparticles (NPs) using Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra (BOL) against HT-1080 cancer cells and bacterial cells as well as their wound healing efficacy using a mouse model. UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis have ascertained the formation of nano-sized Ag and Au particles...
May 1, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460327/decolorization-of-reactive-dyes-in-solar-pond-reactors-perspectives-and-challenges-for-the-textile-industry
#9
L C Chavaco, C A Arcos, D Prato-Garcia
In the past three decades, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes have been the subject of a large number of research studies aimed at developing a low-cost and robust alternative to treat complex wastewater. Aspects such as installation and operating costs and technical complexity of reactors have limited the commercial applications of Fenton processes. In this study, we evaluated the potential of solar pond reactors to carry out degradation of the dye reactive orange 16 (RO16). Decolorization (D = 99 ± 0...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433718/three-new-piscidins-from-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-phylogeny-expression-and-functional-characterization
#10
Ze-Rui Zhuang, Xiao-Dong Yang, Xia-Zi Huang, Hui-Xian Gu, Han-Yin Wei, Yi-Jun He, Li Deng
The present study reports the identification, and characterization of three new putative piscidin paralogues, ecPis-2, ecPis-3 and ecPis-4, from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA of the three piscidins with the 207, 216, and 231 nt open reading frame encoded respectively a 68-, 71-, and 76-amino acid preprotein consisting of the predicted signal peptide, and putative mature peptide and prodomain. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that multiple piscidin paralogues in one fish species are highly diversified, the analysis suggested that the piscidins should be a family belonging to the superfamily of ancient cationic, linear, and amphipathic host defence peptides widespread across invertebrate and vertebrate taxa comprising insect cecropins and ceratotoxins, and the amphibian dermaseptins...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419504/sensory-and-rheological-characteristics-of-thickened-liquids-differing-concentrations-of-a-xanthan-gum-based-thickener
#11
Hyeri Kim, Han-Im Hwang, Ki-Won Song, Jeehyun Lee
The objectives of this study were to develop and compare sensory characteristics of beverages and soups thickened with different concentrations of a xanthan gum-based thickener, and to examine, using rheological measurement, whether the viscosity of the thickened liquids conformed to the recommendations of the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force. Beverages tested included water, plum juice, apple juice, orange juice, milk, soymilk, and Yakult. The thickening agent was added to samples at concentrations of 1%, 2%, or 3%...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408800/rutin-protects-against-neuronal-damage-in-vitro-and-ameliorates-doxorubicin-induced-memory-deficits-in-vivo-in-wistar-rats
#12
Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Rekha Shenoy, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Nandakumar Krishnadas
Doxorubicin (DOX) is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors' quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT) for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32) cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392783/agro-industrial-wastes-for-production-of-biosurfactant-by-bacillus-subtilis-anr-88-and-its-application-in-synthesis-of-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles
#13
Ashwini N Rane, Vishakha V Baikar, D V Ravi Kumar, Rajendra L Deopurkar
Biosurfactants, surface-active amphiphilic compounds, despite having a wide range of applications, have a high cost of production, which severely restricts their use. For cheaper production of biosurfactant, we investigated the potential of the indigenously isolated biosurfactant producing organism, Bacillus subtilis ANR 88, to grow on different cheap carbon sources (molasses, whey, and extracts of potato peels, orange peels, banana peels, and bagasse). We found that, B. subtilis ANR 88 used significant amounts of total sugar to produce cell biomass and biosurfactant...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392162/oncolytic-virotherapy-a-contest-between-apples-and-oranges
#14
REVIEW
Stephen J Russell, Kah-Whye Peng
Viruses can be engineered or adapted for selective propagation in neoplastic tissues and further modified for therapeutic transgene expression to enhance their antitumor potency and druggability. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can be administered locally or intravenously and spread to a variable degree at sites of tumor growth. OV-infected tumor cells die in situ, releasing viral and tumor antigens that are phagocytosed by macrophages, transported to regional lymph nodes, and presented to antigen-reactive T cells, which proliferate before dispersing to kill uninfected tumor cells at distant sites...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378916/cdse-and-cdse-cds-core-shell-qds-new-approach-for-synthesis-investigating-optical-properties-and-application-in-pollutant-degradation
#15
S Abbasi, M Molaei, M Karimipour
In this work, CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a simple and rapid microwave activated approach using CdSO4 , Na2 SeO3 as precursors and thioglycolic acid (TGA) as capping agent molecule. A novel photochemical approach was introduced for the growth of CdS QDs and this approach was used to grow a CdS shell around CdSe cores for the formation of a CdSe/CdS core-shell structure. The core-shells were structurally verified using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR)) spectroscopy...
April 5, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343961/protein-depletion-using-the-arabinose-promoter-in-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri
#16
Lilian A Lacerda, Lucia B Cavalca, Paula M M Martins, José S Govone, Maurício Bacci, Henrique Ferreira
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is a plant pathogen and the etiological agent of citrus canker, a severe disease that affects all the commercially important citrus varieties, and has worldwide distribution. Citrus canker cannot be healed, and the best method known to control the spread of X. citri in the orchards is the eradication of symptomatic and asymptomatic plants in the field. However, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the main orange producing area in the world, control is evolving to an integrated management system (IMS) in which growers have to use less susceptible plants, windshields to prevent bacterial spread out and sprays of cupric bactericidal formulations...
March 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335646/synthesis-of-an-acridine-orange-sulfonamide-derivative-with-potent-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-inhibitory-action
#17
Marco Bragagni, Fabrizio Carta, Sameh M Osman, Zeid AlOthman, Claudiu T Supuran
Acridine orange (AO) a fluorescent cationic dye used for the management of human musculoskeletal sarcomas, due to its strong tumoricidal action and accumulation in the acidic environment typical of hypoxic tumors, was used for the preparation of a primary sulfonamide derivative. The rationale behind the drug design is the fact that hypoxic, acidic tumors overexpress carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, such as CA IX, which is involved in pH regulation, proliferation, cell migration and invasion, and this enzyme is strongly inhibited by primary sulfonamides...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331912/effect-of-visible-range-electromagnetic-radiations-on-escherichia-coli
#18
Samina T Yousuf Azeemi, Saleem Farooq Shaukat, Khawaja Shamsuddin Azeemi, Idrees Khan, Khalid Mahmood, Farah Naz
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is the agent responsible for a range of clinical diseases. With emerging antimicrobial resistance, other treatment options including solar/photo-therapy are becoming increasingly common. Visible Range Radiation Therapy/Colour Therapy is an emerging technique in the field of energy/vibrational medicine that uses visible spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiations to cure different diseases. In this study, our goal was to understand the effect of Visible Range Electromagnetic Radiations on E...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303540/exploiting-fruit-byproducts-for-eco-friendly-nanosynthesis-citrus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-clementina-peel-extract-mediated-fabrication-of-silver-nanoparticles-with-high-efficacy-against-microbial-pathogens-and-rat-glial-tumor-c6-cells
#19
Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Han-Seung Shin, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Giovanni Benelli, Gajanan S Ghodake, Yuan Yuan Jiang, Dong Su Kim, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
Process byproducts from the fruit industry may represent a cheap and reliable source of green reducing agents to be used in current bio-nanosynthesis. This study reports the use of orange (Citrus × clementina) peel aqueous extract (OPE) for one-pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with high effectiveness against various microbial pathogens as well as rat glial tumor C6 cells. The effects of various operational parameters on the synthesis of AgNPs were systematically investigated. The morphology, particle size, and properties of synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288376/facile-fabrication-of-dy-2-sn-2-o-7-sno-2-nanocomposites-as-an-effective-photocatalyst-for-degradation-and-removal-of-organic-contaminants
#20
Sahar Zinatloo-Ajabshir, Maryam Sadat Morassaei, Masoud Salavati-Niasari
Dy2Sn2O7-SnO2 nanocomposites were synthesized through a facile way utilizing propane-1,2-diol as novel polymerization agent and trimesic acid as new stabilization agent. Effects of different polymerization agents, calcination temperature and various stabilization agents on the size and shape of the Dy2Sn2O7-SnO2 nanocomposites were investigated. It was found that changing these synthesis factors has great role in controlling size and shape of Dy2Sn2O7-SnO2 nanocomposites. The as-produced Dy2Sn2O7-SnO2 nanostructures were analyzed using FT-IR, HRTEM, DR-UV-vis, EDS, XRD, and FESEM...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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