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microarrays and genetics syndromes

Heather M Byers, Margaret P Adam, Amy LaCroix, Sarah E S Leary, Bonnie Cole, William B Dobyns, Heather C Mefford
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare, highly malignant, embryonal tumors most often occurring in children under age 3 years. Most are due to a somatic change in tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 followed by a second-hit, typically loss of heterozygosity, best detected on immunohistochemical staining. Despite the noteworthy genetic homogeneity of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, relatively little is known about the oncogenic mechanisms that lead to biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Eric Segal, Helio Pedro, Karen Valdez-Gonzalez, Sarah Parisotto, Felicia Gliksman, Stephen Thompson, Jomard Sabri, Evan Fertig
BACKGROUND: When no chromosomal variations are identified, patients with suspected genetic etiologies can be tested using next-generation sequencing utilizing epilepsy panels. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the diagnostic yield of next-generation sequencing epilepsy panels in medication-resistant epilepsy subjects with non-clinically significant comparative genomic hybridization microarray results. METHODS: We completed a single-center retrospective review of the diagnostic yield of next-generation sequencing epilepsy panels in medication-resistant epilepsy subjects aged 18 years or less who had non-clinically significant comparative genomic hybridization microarray results from January 2011 to December 2014...
July 1, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Anne S Bassett, Gregory Costain, Christian R Marshall
Most major neuropsychiatric outcomes of concern to families are not detectable by prenatal ultrasound. The introduction of genome-wide chromosomal microarray analysis to prenatal clinical diagnostic testing has increased the detection of pathogenic 22q11.2 deletions, which cause the most common genomic disorder. The recent addition of this and other microdeletions to non-invasive prenatal screening methods using cell-free fetal DNA has further propelled interest in outcomes. Conditions associated with 22q11...
October 8, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Matthew J Hill, Richard Killick, Katherinne Navarrete, Aleksandra Maruszak, Gemma M McLaughlin, Brenda P Williams, Nicholas J Bray
BACKGROUND: Common variants in the TCF4 gene are among the most robustly supported genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Rare TCF4 deletions and loss-of-function point mutations cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, a developmental disorder associated with severe intellectual disability. METHODS: To explore molecular and cellular mechanisms by which TCF4 perturbation could interfere with human cortical development, we experimentally reduced the endogenous expression of TCF4 in a neural progenitor cell line derived from the developing human cerebral cortex using RNA interference...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Hai-Yun Dong, Hui Zeng, Yi-Qiao Hu, Li Xie, Jian Wang, Xiu-Ying Wang, Yi-Feng Yang, Zhi-Ping Tan
BACKGROUND: Overgrowth syndromes represent clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions characterized by a wide spectrum of malformations, tall stature, intellectual disability and/or macrocephaly. RESULTS: In a cohort of four clinically characterized patients with overgrowth syndrome without known causative gene mutation, we performed an Illumina SNP-array analysis to identify the pathogenic copy number variations. We identified two rare copy number variations harboring overgrowth syndrome related genes...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Maaz Hassan, Merlin G Butler
We report a 20 year follow up on a Caucasian female, now 26 years of age, with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) harboring an atypical 15q11-q13 submicroscopic deletion of 100-200 kb in size first detected in 1996 involving the imprinting center, SNRPN gene and surrounding region. PWS is a rare complex disorder caused by the loss of paternally expressed genes in the 15q11-q13 region. With high resolution chromosomal microarray and methylation - specific MLPA analysis, we updated the genetic findings on our patient and found a 209,819bp deletion including the SNURF-SNRPN gene complex which includes the imprinting center and the SNORD116 region...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Gerasimos Kolaitis, Christian G Bouwkamp, Alexia Papakonstantinou, Ioanna Otheiti, Maria Belivanaki, Styliani Haritaki, Terpsihori Korpa, Zinovia Albani, Elena Terzioglou, Polyxeni Apostola, Aggeliki Skamnaki, Athena Xaidara, Konstantina Kosma, Sophia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
BACKGROUND: This is a case with multiple chromosomal aberrations which are likely etiological for the observed psychiatric phenotype consisting of attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorders. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on an 11 year-old boy, admitted to the pediatric hospital for behavioral difficulties and a delayed neurodevelopmental trajectory. A cytogenetic analysis and high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Rebecca J Gordon, Jennifer Bell, Wendy K Chung, Raphael David, Sharon E Oberfield, Sharon L Wardlaw
PURPOSE: Acromegaly in infancy is extremely rare. We describe a 32 year old woman who presented at 6 months of age with isolated macrocephaly, followed by accelerated linear growth. At 21 months of age, her head circumference was 55 cm (+5.5 SD), height was 97.6 cm (+4.4 SD) and weight was 20.6 kg (+6.2 SD). She had markedly elevated levels of growth hormone (GH) (135 ng/ml), IGF-1 (1540 ng/ml) and prolactin (370 ng/ml). A pituitary macroadenoma was surgically resected. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for GH...
September 8, 2016: Pituitary
Petra Cela, Marek Hampl, Katherine K Fu, Michaela Kunova Bosakova, Pavel Krejci, Joy M Richman, Marcela Buchtova
MORN5 (MORN repeat containing 5) is encoded by a locus positioned on chromosome 17 in the chicken genome. The MORN motif is found in multiple copies in several proteins including junctophilins or phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase family and the MORN proteins themselves are found across the animal and plant kingdoms. MORN5 protein has a characteristic punctate pattern in the cytoplasm in immunofluorescence imaging. Previously, MORN5 was found among differentially expressed genes in a microarray profiling experiment of the chicken embryo head...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Su-Jin Lee, Youn-Sang Jung, Min-Ho Yoon, So-Mi Kang, Ah-Young Oh, Jee-Hyun Lee, So-Young Jun, Tae-Gyun Woo, Ho-Young Chun, Sang Kyum Kim, Kyu Jin Chung, Ho-Young Lee, Kyeong Lee, Guanghai Jin, Min-Kyun Na, Nam Chul Ha, Clea Bárcena, José M P Freije, Carlos López-Otín, Gyu Yong Song, Bum-Joon Park
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease that is caused by a silent mutation of the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C (lamin A/C). The G608G mutation generates a more accessible splicing donor site than does WT and produces an alternatively spliced product of LMNA called progerin, which is also expressed in normal aged cells. In this study, we determined that progerin binds directly to lamin A/C and induces profound nuclear aberrations. Given this observation, we performed a random screening of a chemical library and identified 3 compounds (JH1, JH4, and JH13) that efficiently block progerin-lamin A/C binding...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Karin Artursson, Robert Söderlund, Lihong Liu, Stefan Monecke, Jenny Schelin
Reducing the prevalence of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is essential to improve animal health and reduce economic losses for farmers. The clinical outcome of acute mastitis and risk of progression to persistent mastitis can, at least to some extent, be related to genetic variants of the strain causing the infection. In the present study we have used microarrays to investigate the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates from dairy cows with acute clinical mastitis (n=70) and correlated the findings to other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Christina Kehrer, Alexander Hoischen, Ralf Menkhaus, Eva Schwab, Andreas Müller, Sarah Kim, Martina Kreiß, Valerie Weitensteiner, Alina Hilger, Christoph Berg, Anne Geipel, Heiko Reutter, Ulrich Gembruch
OBJECTIVE: Simpson-Golabi-Behmel (SGBS) syndrome type 1 and type 2 represent rare X-linked prenatal overgrowth disorders. The aim of our study is to describe the prenatal sonographic features as well as the genetic work-up. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of four cases with a pre- or postnatal diagnosis of SGBS in a single tertiary referral center within a period of 4 years. RESULTS: In the study period, four male fetuses with SGBS were detected...
October 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Yi Liu, Rui Dong, Kaihui Zhang, Ying Wang, Haiyan Zhang, Yanqing Zhang, Dongmei Zhao, Zhongtao Gai
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic cause for a boy featuring mainly with mental retardation. METHODS: G-banding karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were carried out for the child and his parents. The child was also analyzed with chromosome microarray (CMA). Suspected microdeletion was validated with quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The proband was found to have a 47,XYY karyotype by both chromosome and FISH analyses, while both of his parents had a normal karyotype...
October 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Renata Caroline Costa de Freitas, Raul Hernandes Bortolin, Mariana Borges Lopes, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo Hirata, Vivian Nogueira Silbiger, André Ducati Luchessi
Genetic and epigenetic variability may influence the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapies, including clopidogrel. Therefore, the miRNA-mRNA interactions and drug toxicity were investigated in silico using available microarray data. Expressions profiles of platelet miRNA (GSE59488) from acute coronary syndrome and mRNA in peripheral blood cells (GSE32226) from coronary artery disease patients were used to miRNA-target mRNA integrated analysis by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis 6 software (IPA). Results showed that ST13 mRNA is regulated by hsa-miR-107 (miR-103-3p); BTNL3 and CFD mRNAs are regulated by hsa-miR-4701-3p (miR-1262); SLC7A8 is regulated by hsa-miR-145-5p (miR-145-5p); and SENP5 mRNA is regulated by hsa-miR-15b-5p (miR-16-5p) and hsa-miR-26a-5p (miR-26a-5p)...
November 15, 2016: Gene
Merlin G Butler
This review summarizes the status of genetic laboratory testing in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) with different genetic subtypes, most often a paternally derived 15q11-q13 deletion and discusses benefits and limitations related to prenatal screening. Medical literature was searched for prenatal screening and genetic laboratory testing methods in use or under development and discussed in relationship to PWS. Genetic testing includes six established laboratory diagnostic approaches for PWS with direct application to prenatal screening...
August 18, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Woori Jang, Hyojin Chae, Jiyeon Kim, Jung-Ok Son, Seok Chan Kim, Bo Kyung Koo, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, In Yang Park, In Kyung Sung
BACKGROUND: Marker chromosomes are small supernumerary chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by chromosome banding techniques alone. However, the precise characterization of marker chromosomes is important for prenatal diagnosis and proper genetic counseling. In this study, we evaluated the chromosomal origin of marker chromosomes using a combination of banding cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetic techniques including diverse fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH)...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Ping Wang, Wei Zhou, Weiming Yuan, Longguang Huang, Ning Zhao, Xiaowen Chen
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome is a rare genetic abnormality that can be challenging to diagnose early, but for which early interventions improve prognosis. METHODS: To improve understanding of Prader-Willi syndrome in neonates in Asia, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of 20 affected newborns diagnosed in the Department of Neonatology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou, China from January 2007 to December 2014 and performed a review of the relevant literature...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Jing Liu, Hao Hu, Na Ma, Zhengjun Jia, Yuchun Zhou, Jiancheng Hu, Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Partial duplications of the distal 9q have been rarely reported in literatures. The key features included characteristic facial appearance, long fingers and toes, slight psychomotor retardation, heart murmur et al. But rare severe congenital heart defects (CHD) such as TOF were reported to be associated with 9qter duplications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23-year-old woman was referred for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis at 25(3/7) weeks of gestation due to her male fetus, diagnosed as Tetralogy of Fallot Syndrome (TOF) by prenatal ultrasound...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Hanhui Ye, Jinjin Yuan, Zhengwu Wang, Aiqiong Huang, Xiaolong Liu, Xiao Han, Yahong Chen
Human immunodeficiency virus causes a severe disease in humans, referred to as immune deficiency syndrome. Studies on the interaction between host genetic factors and the virus have revealed dozens of genes that impact diverse processes in the AIDS disease. To resolve more genetic factors related to AIDS, a canonical correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between AIDS restriction and metabolic pathway gene expression. The results show that HIV-1 postentry cellular viral cofactors from AIDS restriction genes are coexpressed in human transcriptome microarray datasets...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Rania Naoufal, Marine Legendre, Dominique Couet, Brigitte Gilbert-Dussardier, Alain Kitzis, Frederic Bilan, Radu Harbuz
Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is now widely adopted as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test for patients with developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders, and multiple congenital anomalies. Nevertheless, classic karyotyping still has its impact in diagnosing genetic diseases, particularly mosaic cases. We report on a 30 year old patient with syndromic intellectual disability, a 22q13.2 microdeletion and mosaic trisomy 22. The patient had the following clinical features: intrauterine growth retardation at birth, hypotonia, cryptorchidism, facial asymmetry, enophthalmus, mild prognathism, bifid uvula, hypoplastic upper limb phalanges, DD including speech delay, and ID...
September 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
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