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Varicella zoster virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929964/-investigation-of-bacterial-and-viral-etiology-in-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infections-with-molecular-methods
#1
Hasip Kahraman, Alper Tünger, Şebnem Şenol, Hörü Gazi, Meltem Avcı, Bahar Örmen, Nesrin Türker, Sabri Atalay, Şükran Köse, Sercan Ulusoy, Meltem Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Oğuz Reşat Sipahi, Tansu Yamazhan, Zeynep Gülay, Sema Alp Çavuş, Hüsnü Pullukçu
In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of the patients were examined by standart bacteriological culture methods, bacterial multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-B ACE Detection (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Group B streptococci) and viral multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-V1 ACE Detection kits herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6)) (Seeplex meningitis-V2 ACE Detection kit (enteroviruses))...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916114/-scleritis-and-episcleritis
#2
REVIEW
E Héron, T Bourcier
Episcleritis is generally a benign disease with a self-limited course, while scleritis is a severe ocular condition due to a risk of impaired vision in one-fifth of patients and its association with systemic diseases in one third of them. Infectious scleritis, representing 8 % of the etiologies, is mainly of herpetic origin (varicella zoster and herpes simplex viruses). A systemic autoimmune disease is observed in roughly 30 % of scleritis patients: inflammatory rheumatisms (15 %), firstly rheumatoid polyarthritis, systemic vasculitides (8 %), mainly granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) and polychondritis, and less often inflammatory bowel disease and systemic lupus erythematosus...
September 12, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911798/development-and-evaluation-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-diagnosis-of-hsv-1-vzv-cmv-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-patients-with-infectious-uveitis
#3
Archit Kumar, Mini P Singh, Reema Bansal, Amod Gupta, Jagat Ram, Radha Kanta Ratho
Infectious uveitis is a vision threatening inflammatory ocular disease wherein early diagnosis may prevent the loss of vision. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Herpes simplex virus-1, Varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii in patients with suspected infectious uveitis. A total of 126 intraocular samples (aqueous and vitreous humor) were collected and subjected to multiplex real-time PCR. Overall 26.2% (33/126) patients were found to be positive for one or more of the pathogens tested...
August 9, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910710/outer-nuclear-membrane-fusion-of-adjacent-nuclei-in-varicella-zoster-virus-induced-syncytia
#4
Wei Wang, Lianwei Yang, Xiumin Huang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Ningshao Xia, Tong Cheng, Hua Zhu
Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo...
September 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905216/slowly-progressing-varicella-zoster-brainstem-encephalitis-complicating-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Vito A G Ricigliano, Lorenzo Saraceno, Michele Cavalli, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giovanni Meola
A 56-year-old immunocompetent male developed brainstem encephalitis complicating Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The disease had a slowly progressing course of months after the triggering infection, much longer than previously reported. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging, physical-chemical, and cell count analyses on cerebrospinal fluid were normal, whereas polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus DNA was positive. The simultaneous negativity of both imaging and basic CSF exams is very rare, although possible event which confirms the irreplaceable role of viral screening on CSF...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902907/pcr-detection-of-human-herpesviruses-in-colonic-mucosa-of-individuals-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-comparison-with-individuals-with-immunocompetency-and-hiv-infection
#6
Takayuki Shimada, Naoyoshi Nagata, Koki Okahara, Akane Joya, Tsunefusa Hayashida, Shinichi Oka, Toshiyuki Sakurai, Junichi Akiyama, Naomi Uemura, Hiroyuki Gatanaga
BACKGROUND: Detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) other than cytomegalovirus (CMV) in colonic mucosa of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. This study identified eight HHVs in the colonic mucosa of individuals with IBD and compared the results with immunocompetent and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. METHODS: A total of 89 individuals who had colorectal ulcer on colonoscopy were enrolled: 26 with immunocompetency (n = 26), 41 with IBD, and 22 with HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901902/simian-varicella-virus-inhibits-the-interferon-gamma-signalling-pathway
#7
Werner J D Ouwendijk, Suzanne van Veen, Ravi Mahalingam, Georges M G M Verjans
The alphaherpesvirus simian varicella virus (SVV) causes varicella and zoster in nonhuman primates. Herpesviruses evolved elaborate mechanisms to escape host immunity, but the immune evasion strategies employed by SVV remain ill-defined. We analysed whether SVV impairs the cellular response to key antiviral cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ). SVV infection inhibited the expression of IFNγ-induced genes like C-X-C motif chemokine 10 and interferon regulatory factor 1. Phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) was blocked in SVV-infected cells, which did not involve cellular and viral phosphatases...
September 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900551/appendicitis-caused-by-primary-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-in-a-child-with-digeorge-syndrome
#8
Lotte Møller Smedegaard, Claus Bohn Christiansen, Linea Cecilie Melchior, Anja Poulsen
INTRODUCTION: Chickenpox is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Although predominantly a mild disease, it can cause considerable morbidity and in rare occasions even mortality in healthy children as well as increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aetiology of appendicitis is largely unknown but is thought to be multifactorial. Appendicitis is a suspected, but not well documented, complication from varicella zoster virus infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A five-year-old girl diagnosed with DiGeorge syndrome and a prolonged primary VZV infection was admitted due to abdominal pain, increasing diarrhoea, vomiting, and poor general condition...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895088/prevalence-of-a-history-of-prior-varicella-herpes-zoster-infection-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Ali Manouchehrinia, Radu Tanasescu, Huner Kareem, Oltita P Jerca, Fouzia Jabeen, Rachelle Shafei, Judith Breuer, Keith Neal, William Irving, Cris S Constantinescu
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), but direct causal involvement has been disputed. Nevertheless, knowledge of VZV exposure is important, given the risk of serious complications of first exposure while undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, in particular with fingolimod. We distributed questionnaires to MS clinic patients, requesting information about history of chickenpox, sibling/household/occupational exposure, history of zoster (shingles), and disease-modifying treatment...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894977/varicella-coinfection-in-patients-with-active-monkeypox-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#10
Nicole A Hoff, Douglas S Morier, Neville K Kisalu, Sara C Johnston, Reena H Doshi, Lisa E Hensley, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Jean Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, James O Lloyd-Smith, Anne W Rimoin
From 2006 to 2007, an active surveillance program for human monkeypox (MPX) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo identified 151 cases of coinfection with monkeypox virus and varicella zoster virus from 1158 suspected cases of human MPX (13%). Using clinical and socio-demographic data collected with standardized instruments by trained, local nurse supervisors, we examined a variety of hypotheses to explain the unexpectedly high proportion of coinfections among the sample, including the hypothesis that the two viruses occur independently...
September 11, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892474/enhancing-case-definitions-for-surveillance-of-human-monkeypox-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#11
Lynda Osadebe, Christine M Hughes, Robert Shongo Lushima, Joelle Kabamba, Beatrice Nguete, Jean Malekani, Elisabeth Pukuta, Stomy Karhemere, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Emile Wemakoy Okitolonda, Mary G Reynolds, Andrea M McCollum
BACKGROUND: Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from a cohort of suspect MPX cases (identified by surveillance over the course of a 42 month period during 2009-2014) from DRC were used; real-time PCR diagnostic test results were used to establish MPX and VZV diagnoses...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886462/genetic-polymorphism-of-thymidine-kinase-tk-and-dna-polymerase-pol-of-clinical-varicella-zoster-virus-vzv-isolates-collected-over-three-decades
#12
Anja Hoffmann, Kristin Döring, Natalja Tatjana Seeger, Martina Bühler, Michael Schacke, Andi Krumbholz, Andreas Sauerbrei
BACKGROUND: Genotypic resistance testing of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains to antivirals is of high relevance in immunocompromised patients with VZV reactivations unresponsive to therapy. However, the knowledge on mutations associated with natural gene polymorphism or resistance is limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine the genotype of the thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (pol) of unselected clinical VZV isolates collected between 1984 and 2014 and to verify the phenotype related to novel amino acid (aa) substitutions...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874322/prevaccination-epidemiology-of-herpes-zoster-in-denmark-quantification-of-occurrence-and-risk-factors
#13
Sigrun A J Schmidt, Mogens Vestergaard, Lisbeth M Baggesen, Lars Pedersen, Henrik C Schønheyder, Henrik T Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. Unfortunately, formulation of recommendations on routine immunization is hampered by a lack of data on disease burden, since most countries do not record cases of HZ in the general population. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify HZ based on routinely collected registry data and used it to quantify HZ occurrence and risk factors in Denmark prior to marketing of the HZ vaccine...
September 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862190/seroprevalence-of-cytomegalovirus-in-donors-opportunistic-viral-infections-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#14
Joy Varghese, S Subramanian, Mettu Srinivas Reddy, Naresh Shanmugam, G Balajee, Vijaya Srinivasan, Jayanthi Venkataraman, Rela Mohamed
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Opportunistic virus infections are common in liver transplant (LT) recipients. There is a risk of developing infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes-related viruses such as herpes simplex virus-1 and 2 (HSV-1 & 2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Varicella Zoster virus (VZV), reactivation of infection and recurrent infection. This study was conducted to determine CMV seropositivity in donors and its influence on LT recipients and seropositivity of CMV, HSV-1 and 2, EB viral capsid antigen (EBVCA) and VZV in LT recipients and their reactivation...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859668/cerebrospinal-fluid-cxcl13-as-a-diagnostic-marker-of-neuroborreliosis-in-children-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#15
M M Remy, N Schöbi, L Kottanattu, S Pfister, A Duppenthaler, F Suter-Riniker
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease in children and its current diagnosis has limitations. The elevation of the chemokine CXCL13 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult patients with LNB has been demonstrated and suggested as a new diagnostic marker. Our aim was to evaluate this marker in the CSF of children with suspected LNB and to determine a CXCL13 cut-off concentration that would discriminate between LNB and other central nervous system (CNS) infections...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854791/pcr-based-approach-for-qualitative-molecular-analysis-of-six-neurotropic-pathogens
#16
R Ferese, L Scorzolini, R Campopiano, V Albano, A M Griguoli, E Giardina, S Scala, L Ryskalin, C D'Alessio, S Zampatti, R Fantozzi, M Storto, F Fornai, S Gambardella
In the last few years, polymerase chain reaction analysis is frequently required to improve the detection of pathogen infections in central nervous system as a potential cause of neurological disorders and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The goal of this paper is to set up a fast, cheap and reliable molecular approach for qualitative detection of six neurotropic pathogens. A method based on PCR has been designed and implemented to guarantee the qualitative DNA detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSVI/II), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubella virus (RUBV) and Toxoplasma gondii in the cerebrospinal fluid, where otherwise they are barely detectable...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851393/pattern-ii-and-pattern-iii-ms-are-entities-distinct-from-pattern-i-ms-evidence-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis
#17
S Jarius, F B König, I Metz, K Ruprecht, F Paul, W Brück, B Wildemann
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently based solely on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features. However, histopathological studies have revealed four different patterns of lesion pathology in patients diagnosed with MS, suggesting that MS may be a pathologically heterogeneous syndrome rather than a single disease entity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with pattern I MS differ from patients with pattern II or III MS with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, especially with reference to intrathecal IgG synthesis, which is found in most patients with MS but is frequently missing in MS mimics such as aquaporin-4-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG-positive encephalomyelitis...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845577/the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-live-zoster-vaccination-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-before-starting-tofacitinib-a-randomized-phase-ii-trial
#18
Kevin L Winthrop, Ann G Wouters, Ernest H Choy, Koshika Soma, Jennifer A Hodge, Chudy I Nduaka, Pinaki Biswas, Elie Needle, Sherry Passador, Christopher F Mojcik, William F Rigby
OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of herpes zoster, and vaccination is recommended for patients ages 50 years and older, prior to starting treatment with biologic agents or tofacitinib. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of RA. We evaluated its effect on the immune response and safety of live zoster vaccine (LZV). METHODS: In this phase II, 14-week, placebo-controlled trial, patients ages 50 years and older who had active RA and were receiving background methotrexate were given LZV and randomized to receive tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily or placebo 2-3 weeks postvaccination...
August 28, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839425/ramsay-hunt-syndrome-a-diagnostic-challenge-for-general-dental-practitioners
#19
Gautham Singh, V Subhalakshmi, S Balasubramanian, Madhvika Patidar, Kranti Kiran Reddy Ealla
Ramsay hunt syndrome is not just a syndrome but it's rather an infectious disease caused by reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus in geniculate ganglion. This was first explained by J. Ramsay Hunt as a triad of complications like otalgia, mucosal and cutaneous rashes with or without trigeminal facial palsy. The facial palsy can occur with characteristic vesicles along the path of nerve. We present a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome in a 48-year-old male. The unilateral pattern of facial involvement and presence of vesicles assisted us for early diagnosis, distinguishing the syndrome with diseases mimicking other severe neurological illnesses and prompt treatment...
April 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838148/serum-c-reactive-protein-and-congestive-heart-failure-as-significant-predictors-of-herpes-zoster-vaccine-response-in-elderly-nursing-home-residents
#20
Chris P Verschoor, Alina Lelic, Robin Parsons, Carole Evelegh, Jonathan L Bramson, Jennie Johnstone, Mark B Loeb, Dawn M E Bowdish
Background: Elderly long-term care residents often exhibit a myriad of risk factors for immune dysfunction, including chronic inflammation and multiple comorbid conditions, which undoubtedly contribute to their enhanced susceptibility to infection. Hence, understanding the factors required for optimal vaccine responsiveness is critical. Methods: We examined 187 elderly nursing home residents (aged 80-102 years) and 50 community-dwelling seniors (aged 60-75 years) immunized with the live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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