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Varicella zoster virus

Koh-Hei Yamada, Ryuichi Majima, Toyofumi Yamaguchi, Naoki Inoue
Background Previously, we established a reporter cell line for human cytomegalovirus and screened anti-human cytomegalovirus compounds using the cell line. In this study, we characterized one of the identified compounds, 2,4-diamino-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (coded as 35C10). Methods 50% Effective concentrations (EC50s) and 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50s) of 35C10 and its derivatives in human fibroblasts were determined by X-gal staining of the cells infected with human cytomegalovirus Towne strain expressing β-galactosidase...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
Jolanda D F De Groot-Mijnes, Anita S Y Chan, Soon-Phaik Chee, Georges M G M Verjans
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. The infections differ in that the herpes viruses cause an acute lytic infection and inflammation, whereas rubella virus is a chronic low-grade infection with slowly progressing immunopathological responses...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Steven Abrams, Andreas Wienke, Niel Hens
Frailty models are often used in survival analysis to model multivariate time-to-event data. In infectious disease epidemiology, frailty models have been proposed to model heterogeneity in the acquisition of infection and to accommodate association in the occurrence of multiple types of infection. Although traditional frailty models rely on the assumption of lifelong immunity after recovery, refinements have been made to account for reinfections with the same pathogen. Recently, Abrams and Hens quantified the effect of misspecifying the underlying infection process on the basic and effective reproduction number in the context of bivariate current status data on parvovirus B19 and varicella zoster virus...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied Statistics
Tetsuo Koshizuka, Takahiro Kobayashi, Ken Ishioka, Tatsuo Suzutani
Nedd4 is a family of ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate numerous cellular processes. In this report, we showed that alpha- and beta-herpesviruses have membrane proteins that regulate the function of the Nedd4 family members. Although the homology search score was quite low, UL56 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, ORF0 of varicella-zoster virus, UL42 of human cytomegalovirus, and U24 of human herpesvirus 6A, 6B, and 7 all possess at least one PPxY (PY) motif in their cytoplasmic domain, and are able to bind with Itch, a member of the Nedd4 family...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
João Ferreira, Ana Franco, Tiago Teodoro, Miguel Coelho, Luísa Albuquerque
Vernet syndrome is a unilateral palsy of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has rarely been described as a possible cause. A 76-year-old man presented with 1-week-long symptoms of dysphonia, dysphagia, and weakness of the right shoulder elevation, accompanied by a mild right temporal parietal headache with radiation to the ipsilateral ear. Physical examination showed signs compatible with a right XI, X, and XI cranial nerves involvement and also several vesicular lesions in the right ear's concha...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Bassant Meligy, Dalia Kadry, Iman H Draz, Huda Marzouk, Nevine R El Baroudy, Amira Sayed El Rifay
INTRODUCTION: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a considerable public health problem. AIM: This study was designed to describe the aetiology, demographic features, clinical picture, short-term outcome and risk factors of mortality of children with viral encephalitis in Egyptian children. METHODS: PCR detection of viruses in the CSF of pediatric patients admitted to the pediatric unit or ICU Cairo University Pediatric hospital presenting with encephalitis syndrome...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Anthony L Cunningham, Thomas C Heineman, Himal Lal, Olivier Godeaux, Roman Chlibek, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Janet E McElhaney, Timo Vesikari, Charles Andrews, Won Suk Choi, Meral Esen, Hideyuki Ikematsu, Martina Kovac Choma, Karlis Pauksens, Stéphanie Ravault, Bruno Salaun, Tino F Schwarz, Jan Smetana, Carline Vanden Abeele, Peter Van den Steen, Ilse Vastiau, Lily Yin Weckx, Myron J Levin
Background: The herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su), consisting of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) and AS01B Adjuvant System, was highly efficacious in preventing herpes zoster in the ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 trials ( NCT01165177; NCT01165229). We present immunogenicity results from those trials. Methods: Participants (ZOE-50: ≥50; ZOE-70: ≥70 years of age) received 2 doses of HZ/su or placebo, 2 months (M) apart. Serum anti-gE antibodies and CD4 T cells expressing ≥2 of the 4 activation markers assessed (CD42+) after stimulation with gE-peptides were measured in sub-cohorts for humoral (n=3293) and cell-mediated (n=466) immunogenicity...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Amro Ali, Malka Davina Kirschenbaum, Sansar Sharma, Thaddeus L Wandel
PURPOSE: To the best of our knowledge, we present a rare case report describing an occurrence of acute retinal necrosis in an otherwise healthy individual who received the shingles vaccine. METHODS: Observational case report. PATIENT: A 63-year-old healthy and immunocompetent white man presented with change of vision in the left eye after blunt trauma. A diagnosis of corneal abrasion was made. During follow-up, a detailed history discovered a progressive deterioration in vision over the past few weeks...
March 8, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
D Y W Chan, W J Edmunds, H L Chan, V Chan, Y C K Lam, S L Thomas, A J van Hoek, S Flasche
In Hong Kong, universal varicella vaccination started in July 2014. Before this, children could receive varicella vaccine via the private market. We analysed the epidemiology of varicella and zoster before universal vaccination. We estimated varicella vaccination coverage through surveys in preschool children. We estimated the burden of varicella and zoster with varicella notifications from 1999/00 to 2013/14, Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) attendance and inpatient admissions to public hospitals from 2004/05 to 2013/14...
March 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Isaac R Melamed, Michael Borte, Laurenz Trawnicek, Ai-Lan Kobayashi, Roger H Kobayashi, Alan Knutsen, Sudhir Gupta, William Smits, Anna Pituch-Noworolska, Magdalena Strach, Grazyna Pulka, Hans D Ochs, James N Moy
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is commonly used to treat patients with primary antibody deficiency. This prospective, open-label, non-randomised, multicentre, phase III trial investigated the pharmacokinetics of a new 10% liquid IVIG product (panzyga®; Octapharma) in 51 patients aged 2-75 years with common variable immunodeficiency (n = 43) or X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (n = 8). Patients were treated with IVIG 10% every 3 (n = 21) or 4 weeks (n = 30) at a dose of 200-800 mg/kg for 12 months...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Adriana S Lopez, Bethany LaClair, Vicki Buttery, Yufang Zhang, Jennifer Rosen, Elizabeth Taggert, Sara Robinson, Mychal Davis, Catherine Waters, Carrie A Thomas, Carmen Rodriguez, Ebony Thomas, Jessica Tuttle, Tamara Brantley, Dana Perella, Maria Del Rosario, Mona Marin
Background: In 2007, a routine second dose of varicella vaccine was recommended in the United States for children aged 4 to 6 years to better control varicella-zoster virus circulation and outbreaks. Sentinel varicella outbreak surveillance was established to assess feasibility of surveillance and describe outbreaks that are occurring. Methods: Through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemiology Laboratory Capacity funding, health departments conducted active surveillance for varicella outbreaks in schools from 2012 to 2015...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Marianthi Papagianni, Symeon Metallidis, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Accumulating evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) represents an important risk factor for both herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia. Moreover, post-herpetic neuralgia appears to be more severe and persistent in diabetic patients. On the other hand, a novel vaccine against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was recently introduced in clinical practice. Given the increased risk and severity of herpes zoster infection in patients with DM, this vaccine might be useful in this population. However, there are limited data regarding the efficacy and safety of vaccination against herpes zoster in the diabetic population...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Nobuo Yamashiro, Takamura Nagasaka, Naoki Ooishi, Mai Tsuchiya, Ryusuke Takaki, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Kazumasa Shindo, Yoshihisa Takiyama
We report here the clinical presentation and subsequent autopsy of a 90-year-old man who developed small papules with pain and swelling in his right ear. On admission, he exhibited right facial nerve paralysis, neck stiffness and Kernig's sign. The cell count was elevated and the varicella-zoster virus-PCR was positive in the CSF. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in the left pons and left temporal lobe, in FLAIR images. We diagnosed the patient with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and meningoencephalitis due to varicella-zoster virus...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Elsam Koshy, Lu Mengting, Hanasha Kumar, Wu Jianbo
Herpes zoster is a major health burden that can affect individuals of any age. It is seen more commonly among individuals aged ≥50 years, those with immunocompromised status, and those on immunosuppressant drugs. It is caused by a reactivation of varicella zoster virus infection. Cell-mediated immunity plays a role in this reactivation. Fever, pain, and itch are common symptoms before the onset of rash. Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most common complication associated with herpes zoster. Risk factors and complications associated with herpes zoster depend on the age, immune status, and the time of initializing treatment...
March 8, 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Tilman Hottenrott, Elisabeth Schorb, Kristina Fritsch, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Daniela Huzly, Sebastian Rauer, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Dominique Endres, Oliver Stich
Some patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) may initially present with similar clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings as those observed in multiple sclerosis (MS). The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three respective antibody indices (AIs) against measles, rubella, and varicella zoster virus, appears to be the most specific CSF marker for MS. This study aimed to determine whether a positive MRZR and other routine CSF markers help differentiate between MS and PCNSL...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Ami Schattner, Shilo Voichanski, Livnat Uliel
A healthy 38-year-old woman developed sudden unilateral vision loss due to retrobulbar optic neuritis in the wake of varicella-zoster virus infection. She had no further central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies were found, consistent with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Later, serial MRIs showed dynamic short-segment and long-segment myelitis lesions, ANA titre increased and additional autoantibodies were found including anti-dsDNA, anti-chromatin/nucleosome and antiphospholipid antibodies...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Alberto Donzelli, Vittorio Demicheli
The Italian Parliament has recently introduced 10 mandatory immunisations, including the one against varicella. For this vaccination, the obligation starts with the birth cohort of 2017, but it is offered free of charge to subjects with a negative history and not previously vaccinated. This paper presents up-to-date evidence on this issue and illustrates a number of critical arguments that may question the opportunity of this choice. Particularly, while the disease is relatively mild in children aged between 1 and 9 years, the risk of worsening its consequences is progressive with age, becoming worst in the elderly, so the vaccination of children may increase the age of the cases...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Snežana Medić, Michalis Katsilieris, Zagorka Lozanov-Crvenković, Constantinos I Siettos, Vladimir Petrović, Vesna Milošević, Snežana Brkić, Nick Andrews, Milan Ubavić, Cleo Anastassopoulou
This study aimed at establishing baseline key epidemiological parameters for varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in Vojvodina, Serbia, with the ultimate goal to quantify the VZV transmission potential in the population. Seroprevalence data generated during the first large cross-sectional VZV serosurvey were modelled, using a two-tiered modelling approach to calculate age-specific forces of infection (FOI), the basic reproduction number (R0) and herd immunity threshold (H). Seroprevalence and modelling data were compared with corresponding pre-vaccination epidemiological parameters from 11 countries participating in the European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2 (ESEN2) project...
2018: PloS One
Christopher D Conrady, Richard M Feist, Alison Crum
Purpose: Orbital myositis is characterized by pain with eye movements, gaze restriction, diplopia, and enlargement of extraocular muscles on imaging. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an extremely rare cause of the disease in the elderly and has never been reported in a patient younger than forty-five years old such as the adolescent described herein. We present this case to raise awareness of an entity that will likely become more prevalent due to current vaccine strategies. Observation: We present the case of a 13-year-old girl with VZV-associated orbital myositis and meningitis that had a quick and complete recovery following IV acyclovir and oral steroids...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Fabian Speth, Claas H Hinze, Susanne Andel, Thomas Mertens, Johannes-Peter Haas
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to apply the varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine to patients with pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD) at risk for severe chickenpox, without interrupting their current immunosuppression, including biological agents, using an immunological-based pre-vaccination checklist to assure safety. A pre-vaccination checklist was implemented to ensure adequate immune competence prior to immunization. METHODS: This prospective study included seronegative patients (VZV-IgG ≤200 mIU/ml) and patients who had previously received only a single dose of VZV vaccine...
March 2, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
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