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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893874/association-of-perivascular-localization-of-aquaporin-4-with-cognition-and-alzheimer-disease-in-aging-brains
#1
Douglas M Zeppenfeld, Matthew Simon, J Douglas Haswell, Daryl D'Abreo, Charles Murchison, Joseph F Quinn, Marjorie R Grafe, Randall L Woltjer, Jeffrey Kaye, Jeffrey J Iliff
Importance: Cognitive impairment and dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD), are common within the aging population, yet the factors that render the aging brain vulnerable to these processes are unknown. Perivascular localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid-β, through the brainwide network of perivascular pathways termed the glymphatic system, which may be compromised in the aging brain. Objectives: To determine whether alterations in AQP4 expression or loss of perivascular AQP4 localization are features of the aging human brain and to define their association with AD pathology...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850369/731-assessment-of-glymphatic-flux-in-a-pediatric-rodent-model-of-intracranial-hypertension
#2
Michael Wolf, Yaming Chen, Dennis Simon, Mioara Manole, Lee New, Henry Alexander, Patrick Kochanek, Robert Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837334/mechanism-of-depression-as-a-risk-factor-in-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-the-function-of-aqp4-and-the-glymphatic-system
#3
Maosheng Xia, Li Yang, Guangfeng Sun, Shuang Qi, Baoman Li
BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that a history of depression increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the potential pathogenestic mechanism by which depression functions as a high risk factor for AD remains unknown. Recently, a "cerebral lymphatic system" referred to as "glymphatic system" has been demonstrated to be responsible for neuronal extracellular waste protein clearance via a paravascular pathway. However, the function of glymphatic pathway has not been determined in depressive disorders...
November 12, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836940/spatial-model-of-convective-solute-transport-in-brain-extracellular-space-does-not-support-a-glymphatic-mechanism
#4
Byung-Ju Jin, Alex J Smith, Alan S Verkman
A "glymphatic system," which involves convective fluid transport from para-arterial to paravenous cerebrospinal fluid through brain extracellular space (ECS), has been proposed to account for solute clearance in brain, and aquaporin-4 water channels in astrocyte endfeet may have a role in this process. Here, we investigate the major predictions of the glymphatic mechanism by modeling diffusive and convective transport in brain ECS and by solving the Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations, using realistic ECS geometry for short-range transport between para-arterial and paravenous spaces...
December 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789520/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-promote-amyloid-%C3%AE-clearance-from-the-brain-through-mediating-the-function-of-the-glymphatic-system
#5
Huixia Ren, Chuanming Luo, Yanqing Feng, Xiaoli Yao, Zhe Shi, Fengyin Liang, Jing X Kang, Jian-Bo Wan, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su
Impairment of amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance leads to Aβ accumulation in the brain during the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Strategies that can restore or improve the clearance function hold great promise in delaying or preventing the onset of AD. Here, we show that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), by use of fat-1 transgenic mice and oral administration of fish oil, significantly promote interstitial Aβ clearance from the brain and resist Aβ injury. Such beneficial effects were abolished in Aqp4-knockout mice, suggesting that the AQP4-dependent glymphatic system is actively involved in the promoting the effects of n-3 PUFAs on the clearance of extracellular Aβ...
October 7, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781195/intracerebral-distribution-of-the-oncometabolite-d-2-hydroxyglutarate-in-mice-bearing-mutant-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-brain-tumors-implications-for-tumorigenesis
#6
Amanda J Pickard, Albert S W Sohn, Thomas F Bartenstein, Shan He, Yi Zhang, James M Gallo
The prevalence of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) brain tumors has generated significant efforts to understand the role of the mutated enzyme product d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG), an oncometabolite, in tumorigenesis, as well as means to eliminate it. Glymphatic clearance was proposed as a pathway that could be manipulated to accelerate D2HG clearance and dictated the study design that consisted of two cohorts of mice bearing U87/mutant IDH1 intracerebral tumors that underwent two microdialysis - providing D2HG interstitial fluid concentrations - sampling periods of awake and asleep (activate glymphatic clearance) in a crossover manner...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768787/-black-holes-and-the-ocular-glymphatic-system-author-response-to-the-glymphatic-system-a-new-player-in-ocular-diseases
#7
Alastair K Denniston, Pearse A Keane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768786/the-glymphatic-system-a-new-player-in-ocular-diseases
#8
Peter Wostyn, Veva De Groot, Debby Van Dam, Kurt Audenaert, Peter Paul De Deyn, Hanspeter Esriel Killer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755154/intrathecal-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-related-brain-signal-changes-residual-gadolinium-deposition
#9
Ali Yusuf Öner, Berrak Barutcu, Şükrü Aykol, Emin Turgut Tali
OBJECTIVES: There have been recent studies evaluating brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with normal renal function, after intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Their findings were supported by histological evidence as well and brought a new vision concerning what needs to be learned to provide better patient care. In this report, we aim to present brain magnetic resonance imaging changes after intrathecal administration of a linear ionic agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine)...
October 13, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739621/african-trypanosomes-and-brain-infection%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-unsolved-question
#10
Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699236/glymphatic-fluid-transport-controls-paravascular-clearance-of-aav-vectors-from-the-brain
#11
Giridhar Murlidharan, Andrew Crowther, Rebecca A Reardon, Juan Song, Aravind Asokan
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for gene therapy of CNS disorders. However, host factors that influence the spread, clearance, and transduction efficiency of AAV vectors in the brain are not well understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that fluid flow mediated by aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels located on astroglial end feet is essential for exchange of solutes between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. This phenomenon, which is essential for interstitial clearance of solutes from the CNS, has been termed glial-associated lymphatic transport or glymphatic transport...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583670/sleep-deprivation-a-mind-body-approach
#12
Claudia C Aguirre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the impact sleep disturbances have on our health, with particular focus on the brain. The present review considers the influence of sleep disturbance on the neurovascular unit; the role of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative diseases; and relevant strategies of neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions that likely contribute to the restorative power of sleep. Given the latest discoveries about the brain's waste clearance system and its relationship to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, this review gives a brief overview on the molecular mechanisms behind sleep loss-related impairments...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570637/dilated-virchow-robin-spaces-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-a-biomarker-of-glymphatic-waste-clearance-dysfunction
#13
Peter Wostyn, Veva De Groot, Debby Van Dam, Kurt Audenaert, Hanspeter Esriel Killer, Peter Paul De Deyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430361/gd-based-contrast-enhancement-of-the-perivascular-spaces-in-the-basal-ganglia
#14
Shinji Naganawa, Toshiki Nakane, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiaki Taoka
PURPOSE: In textbooks, the perivascular space (PVS) is described as non-enhancing after the intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agent (IV-GBCA). We noticed that the PVS sometimes has high signal intensity (SI) on heavily T2-weighted 3D-FLAIR (hT2-FL) images obtained 4 h after IV-GBCA. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the contrast enhancement of the PVS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 8 healthy subjects and 19 patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops, magnetic resonance cisternography (MRC) and hT2-FL images were obtained before and 4 h after a single dose of IV-GBCA...
July 12, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422503/associations-between-sleep-cortisol-regulation-and-diet-possible-implications-for-the-risk-of-alzheimer-disease
#15
REVIEW
Francesca Pistollato, Sandra Sumalla Cano, Iñaki Elio, Manuel Masias Vergara, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Accumulation of proteinaceous amyloid β plaques and tau oligomers may occur several years before the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). Under normal circumstances, misfolded proteins get cleared by proteasome degradation, autophagy, and the recently discovered brain glymphatic system, an astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid bulk flow. It has been shown that the activity of the glymphatic system is higher during sleep and disengaged or low during wakefulness. As a consequence, poor sleep quality, which is associated with dementia, might negatively affect glymphatic system activity, thus contributing to amyloid accumulation...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374823/new-insights-into-coupling-and-uncoupling-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-metabolism-in-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Jieli Chen
The brain has high metabolic and energy needs and requires continuous cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is facilitated by a tight coupling between neuronal activity, CBF, and metabolism. Upon neuronal activation, there is an increase in energy demand, which is then met by a hemodynamic response that increases CBF. Such regional CBF increase in response to neuronal activation is observed using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The mechanisms and mediators (eg, nitric oxide, astrocytes, and ion channels) that regulate CBF-metabolism coupling have been extensively studied...
June 30, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306755/impairment-of-the-glymphatic-system-after-diabetes
#17
Quan Jiang, Li Zhang, Guangliang Ding, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Qingjiang Li, Lian Li, Neema Sadry, Maiken Nedergaard, Michael Chopp, Zhenggang Zhang
The glymphatic system has recently been shown to clear brain extracellular solutes and abnormalities in glymphatic clearance system may contribute to both initiation and progression of neurological diseases. Despite that diabetes is known as a risk factor for vascular diseases, little is known how diabetes affects the glymphatic system. The current study is the first investigation of the effect of diabetes on the glymphatic system and the link between alteration of glymphatic clearance and cognitive impairment in Type-2 diabetes mellitus rats...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234656/suppression-of-glymphatic-fluid-transport-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Weiguo Peng, Thiyagarajan M Achariyar, Baoman Li, Yonghong Liao, Humberto Mestre, Emi Hitomi, Sean Regan, Tristan Kasper, Sisi Peng, Fengfei Ding, Helene Benveniste, Maiken Nedergaard, Rashid Deane
Glymphatic transport, defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) peri-arterial inflow into brain, and interstitial fluid (ISF) clearance, is reduced in the aging brain. However, it is unclear whether glymphatic transport affects the distribution of soluble Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In wild type mice, we show that Aβ40 (fluorescently labeled Aβ40 or unlabeled Aβ40), was distributed from CSF to brain, via the peri-arterial space, and associated with neurons. In contrast, Aβ42 was mostly restricted to the peri-arterial space due mainly to its greater propensity to oligomerize when compared to Aβ40...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129429/obstructive-sleep-apnea-decreases-central-nervous-system-derived-proteins-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid
#19
Yo-El S Ju, Mary Beth Finn, Courtney L Sutphen, Elizabeth M Herries, Gina M Jerome, Jack H Ladenson, Daniel L Crimmins, Anne M Fagan, David M Holtzman
We hypothesized that one mechanism underlying the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease is OSA leading to decreased slow wave activity (SWA), increased synaptic activity, decreased glymphatic clearance, and increased amyloid-β. Polysomnography and lumbar puncture were performed in OSA and control groups. SWA negatively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β-40 among controls and was decreased in the OSA group. Unexpectedly, amyloid-β-40 was decreased in the OSA group...
July 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031957/paravascular-pathways-contribute-to-vasculitis-and-neuroinflammation-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-independently-of-glymphatic-control
#20
C Luo, X Yao, J Li, B He, Q Liu, H Ren, F Liang, M Li, H Lin, J Peng, T F Yuan, Z Pei, H Su
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality. The mechanisms underlying its pathological complications have not been fully identified. Here, we investigate the potential involvement of the glymphatic system in the neuropathology of SAH. We demonstrate that blood components rapidly enter the paravascular space following SAH and penetrate into the perivascular parenchyma throughout the brain, causing disastrous events such as cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, microcirculation dysfunction and widespread perivascular neuroinflammation...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
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