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Glymphatics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754206/convective-influx-glymphatic-system-tracers-injected-into-the-csf-enter-and-leave-the-brain-along-separate-periarterial-basement-membrane-pathways
#1
Nazira J Albargothy, David A Johnston, Matthew MacGregor-Sharp, Roy O Weller, Ajay Verma, Cheryl A Hawkes, Roxana O Carare
Tracers injected into CSF pass into the brain alongside arteries and out again. This has been recently termed the "glymphatic system" that proposes tracers enter the brain along periarterial "spaces" and leave the brain along the walls of veins. The object of the present study is to test the hypothesis that: (1) tracers from the CSF enter the cerebral cortex along pial-glial basement membranes as there are no perivascular "spaces" around cortical arteries, (2) tracers leave the brain along smooth muscle cell basement membranes that form the Intramural Peri-Arterial Drainage (IPAD) pathways for the elimination of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain...
May 12, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740121/magnetic-resonance-imaging-provides-evidence-of-glymphatic-drainage-from-human-brain-to-cervical-lymph-nodes
#2
Per Kristian Eide, Svein Are Sirirud Vatnehol, Kyrre Eeg Emblem, Geir Ringstad
Pre-clinical research in rodents provides evidence that the central nervous system (CNS) has functional lymphatic vessels. In-vivo observations in humans, however, are not demonstrated. We here show data on CNS lymphatic drainage to cervical lymph nodes in-vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhanced with an intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer. Standardized MRI of the intracranial compartment and the neck were acquired before and up to 24-48 hours following intrathecal contrast agent administration in 19 individuals...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677372/author-response-the-ocular-glymphatic-system-an-important-missing-piece-in-the-puzzle-of-optic-disc-edema-in-astronauts
#3
Yeni Yucel, Emily Mathieu, Neeru Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677371/the-ocular-glymphatic-system-an-important-missing-piece-in-the-puzzle-of-optic-disc-edema-in-astronauts
#4
Peter Wostyn, Peter Paul De Deyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652699/impact-of-the-glymphatic-system-on-the-kinetic-and-distribution-of-gadodiamide-in-the-rat-brain-observations-by-dynamic-mri-and-effect-of-circadian-rhythm-on-tissue-gadolinium-concentrations
#5
Toshiaki Taoka, Gregor Jost, Thomas Frenzel, Shinji Naganawa, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVES: The glymphatic system is a recently hypothesized waste clearance system of the brain in which perivascular space constitutes a pathway similar to the lymphatic system in other body regions. Sleep and anesthesia are reported to influence the activity of the glymphatic system. Because rats are nocturnal animals, the glymphatic system is expected to be more active during the day. We attempted to elucidate the influence of the glymphatic system for intravenously injected gadodiamide in the rat brain by 2 experiments...
April 12, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610928/brain-drains-new-insights-into-brain-clearance-pathways-from-lymphatic-biology
#6
REVIEW
Neil I Bower, Benjamin M Hogan
The lymphatic vasculature act as the drainage system for most of our tissues and organs, clearing interstitial fluid and waste and returning them to the blood circulation. This is not the case for the central nervous system (CNS), which is devoid of parenchymal lymphatic vessels. Nevertheless, the brain is responsible for 25% of the body's metabolism and only compromises 2% of the body's mass. This high metabolic load requires an efficient system to remove waste products and maintain homeostasis. Well-described mechanisms of waste clearance include phagocytic immune cell functions as well as perivascular fluid flow; however, the need for active drainage of waste from the brain is becoming increasingly appreciated...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608988/interaction-between-blood-brain-barrier-and-glymphatic-system-in-solute-clearance
#7
REVIEW
I C M Verheggen, M P J Van Boxtel, F R J Verhey, J F A Jansen, W H Backes
Neurovascular pathology concurs with protein accumulation, as the brain vasculature is important for waste clearance. Interstitial solutes, such as amyloid-β, were previously thought to be primarily cleared from the brain by blood-brain barrier transport. Recently, the glymphatic system was discovered, in which cerebrospinal fluid is exchanged with interstitial fluid, facilitated by the aquaporin-4 water channels on the astroglial endfeet. Glymphatic flow can clear solutes from the interstitial space. Blood-brain barrier transport and glymphatic clearance likely serve complementary roles with partially overlapping mechanisms providing a well-conditioned neuronal environment...
March 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605446/characterizing-the-glymphatic-influx-by-utilizing-intracisternal-infusion-of-fluorescently-conjugated-cadaverine
#8
Cui Zhang, Jun Lin, Fang Wei, Jian Song, Wenyue Chen, Lidong Shan, Rong Xue, Guoqing Wang, Jin Tao, Guoxing Zhang, Guang-Yin Xu, Linhui Wang
AIMS: Accumulating evidence supports that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space (SAS) could reenter the brain parenchyma via the glymphatic influx. The present study was designed to characterize the detailed pathway of subarachnoid CSF influx by using a novel CSF tracer. MAIN METHODS: Fluorescently conjugated cadaverine (A488-ca), for the first time, was employed to investigate CSF movement in the brain. Following intracisternal infusion of CSF tracers, mice brain was sliced and prepared for fluorescence imaging...
May 15, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532195/the-big-cgrp-flood-sources-sinks-and-signalling-sites-in-the-trigeminovascular-system
#9
REVIEW
Karl Messlinger
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has long been a focus of migraine research, since it turned out that inhibition of CGRP or CGRP receptors by antagonists or monoclonal IgG antibodies was therapeutic in frequent and chronic migraine. This contribution deals with the questions, from which sites CGRP is released, where it is drained and where it acts to cause its headache proliferating effects in the trigeminovascular system. RESULTS: The available literature suggests that the bulk of CGRP is released from trigeminal afferents both in meningeal tissues and at the first synapse in the spinal trigeminal nucleus...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492515/-the-glymphatic-system-concept-function-and-research-progresses
#10
Lin-Hui Wang, Zi-Lan Wang, Wen-Yue Chen, Ming-Jia Chen, Guang-Yin Xu
The glymphatic system is a cerebrospinal fluid-interstitial fluid exchange system dependent on the water channel aquaporin-4 polarized on astrocyte endfeet, which is proposed to account for the clearance of abnormal proteins (e.g. β-amyloid) and metabolites (e.g. lactate) from the brain. Accumulating studies have revealed that glymphatic activity during sleep and general anesthesia is dramatically enhanced, while its function is significantly damaged during aging, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and diabetes...
February 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485341/delayed-clearance-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-tracer-from-entorhinal-cortex-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-glymphatic-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#11
Per K Eide, Geir Ringstad
The glymphatic system plays a key role for clearance of waste solutes from the rodent brain. We recently found evidence of glymphatic circulation in the human brain when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer in conjunction with multiple MRI acquisitions (gMRI). The present study explored the hypothesis that reduced glymphatic clearance in entorhinal cortex (ERC) may be instrumental in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) dementia. gMRI acquisitions were obtained over a 24-48 h time span in cognitively affected iNPH patients and non-cognitively affected patients with suspected CSF leaks...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481527/aquaporin-4-facilitator-tgn-073-promotes-interstitial-fluid-circulation-within-the-blood-brain-barrier-17o-h2o-jjvcpe-mri-study
#12
Vincent J Huber, Hironaka Igarashi, Satoshi Ueki, Ingrid L Kwee, Tsutomu Nakada
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which imposes significant water permeability restriction, effectively isolates the brain from the systemic circulation. Seemingly paradoxical, the abundance of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on the inside of the BBB strongly indicates the presence of unique water dynamics essential for brain function. On the basis of the highly specific localization of AQP-4, namely, astrocyte end feet at the glia limitans externa and pericapillary Virchow-Robin space, we hypothesized that the AQP-4 system serves as an interstitial fluid circulator, moving interstitial fluid from the glia limitans externa to pericapillary Virchow-Robin space to ensure proper glymphatic flow draining into the cerebrospinal fluid...
March 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479071/genetic-variation-in-aquaporin-4-moderates-the-relationship-between-sleep-and-brain-a%C3%AE-amyloid-burden
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Gavin N Mazzucchelli, Victor L Villemagne, Belinda M Brown, Tenielle Porter, Michael Weinborn, Romola S Bucks, Lidija Milicic, Hamid R Sohrabi, Kevin Taddei, David Ames, Paul Maruff, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe, Olivier Salvado, Ralph N Martins, Simon M Laws
The glymphatic system is postulated to be a mechanism of brain Aβ-amyloid clearance and to be most effective during sleep. Ablation of the astrocytic end-feet expressed water-channel protein, Aquaporin-4, in mice, results in impairment of this clearance mechanism and increased brain Aβ-amyloid deposition, suggesting that Aquaporin-4 plays a pivotal role in glymphatic function. Currently there is a paucity of literature regarding the impact of AQP4 genetic variation on sleep, brain Aβ-amyloid burden and their relationship to each other in humans...
February 26, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458189/impact-of-time-of-day-on-diffusivity-measures-of-brain-tissue-derived-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#14
Cibu Thomas, Neda Sadeghi, Amrita Nayak, Aaron Trefler, Joelle Sarlls, Chris I Baker, Carlo Pierpaoli
Diurnal fluctuations in MRI measures of structural and functional properties of the brain have been reported recently. These fluctuations may have a physiological origin, since they have been detected using different MRI modalities, and cannot be explained by factors that are typically known to confound MRI measures. While preliminary evidence suggests that measures of structural properties of the brain based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fluctuate as a function of time-of-day (TOD), the underlying mechanism has not been investigated...
June 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428972/the-role-of-brain-barriers-in-fluid-movement-in-the-cns-is-there-a-glymphatic-system
#15
REVIEW
N Joan Abbott, Michelle E Pizzo, Jane E Preston, Damir Janigro, Robert G Thorne
Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K+ , Ca2+ , and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or 'glymphatic' system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces...
March 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396480/beneficial-effects-of-low-alcohol-exposure-but-adverse-effects-of-high-alcohol-intake-on-glymphatic-function
#16
Iben Lundgaard, Wei Wang, Allison Eberhardt, Hanna Sophia Vinitsky, Benjamin Cameron Reeves, Sisi Peng, Nanhong Lou, Rashad Hussain, Maiken Nedergaard
Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg ethanol increased GFAP expression and induced mislocation of the astrocyte-specific water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but decreased the levels of several cytokines...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391404/perivascular-spaces-segmentation-in-brain-mri-using-optimal-3d-filtering
#17
Lucia Ballerini, Ruggiero Lovreglio, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Joel Ramirez, Bradley J MacIntosh, Sandra E Black, Joanna M Wardlaw
Perivascular Spaces (PVS) are a feature of Small Vessel Disease (SVD), and are an important part of the brain's circulation and glymphatic drainage system. Quantitative analysis of PVS on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is important for understanding their relationship with neurological diseases. In this work, we propose a segmentation technique based on the 3D Frangi filtering for extraction of PVS from MRI. We used ordered logit models and visual rating scales as alternative ground truth for Frangi filter parameter optimization and evaluation...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389023/innate-immunity-and-cellular-senescence-the-good-and-the-bad-in-the-developmental-and-aged-brain
#18
REVIEW
Antonietta Santoro, Chiara Carmela Spinelli, Stefania Martucciello, Stefania Lucia Nori, Mario Capunzo, Annibale Alessandro Puca, Elena Ciaglia
Ongoing studies evidence cellular senescence in undifferentiated and specialized cells from tissues of all ages. Although it is believed that senescence plays a wider role in several stress responses in the mature age, its participation in certain physiological and pathological processes throughout life is coming to light. The "senescence machinery" has been observed in all brain cell populations, including components of innate immunity (e.g., microglia and astrocytes). As the beneficial versus detrimental implications of senescence is an open question, we aimed to analyze the contribution of immune responses in regulatory mechanisms governing its distinct functions in healthy (development, organogenesis, danger patrolling events) and diseased brain (glioma, neuroinflammation, neurodeneration), and the putative connection between cellular and molecular events governing the 2 states...
March 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367513/gadolinium-based-contrast-media-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-the-glymphatic-system-possible-mechanisms-for-the-deposition-of-gadolinium-in-the-brain
#19
Toshiaki Taoka, Shinji Naganawa
After Kanda's first report in 2014 on gadolinium (Gd) deposition in brain tissue, a considerable number of studies have investigated the explanation for the observation. Gd deposition in brain tissue after repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM) has been histologically proven, and chelate stability has been shown to affect the deposition. However, the mechanism for this deposition has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a hypothesis was introduced that involves the 'glymphatic system', which is a coined word that combines 'gl' for glia cell and 'lymphatic' system...
January 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344300/general-anesthesia-inhibits-the-activity-of-the-glymphatic-system
#20
Clement Gakuba, Thomas Gaberel, Suzanne Goursaud, Jennifer Bourges, Camille Di Palma, Aurélien Quenault, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Denis Vivien, Maxime Gauberti
INTRODUCTION: According to the "glymphatic system" hypothesis, brain waste clearance is mediated by a continuous replacement of the interstitial milieu by a bulk flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Previous reports suggested that this cerebral CSF circulation is only active during general anesthesia or sleep, an effect mediated by the dilatation of the extracellular space. Given the controversies regarding the plausibility of this phenomenon and the limitations of currently available methods to image the glymphatic system, we developed original whole-brain in vivo imaging methods to investigate the effects of general anesthesia on the brain CSF circulation...
2018: Theranostics
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