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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562876/the-revised-definition-and-classification-of-epilepsy-for-neurodiagnostic-technologists
#1
Robert S Fisher, Anna M Bonner
The definition of who has epilepsy, classification of seizure types, and types of epilepsy have all recently been revised. The classical definition of epilepsy as a person having two or more unprovoked seizures more than 24 hours apart has been expanded also to include those with one seizure and a high likelihood (more than 60%) of having another. In the new definition, epilepsy is considered to be resolved when a person is seizure-free for 10 years, the terminal 5 being off seizure medicines, or when an age-dependent syndrome has been outgrown...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534018/eyeing-up-the-future-of-the-pupillary-light-reflex-in-neurodiagnostics
#2
REVIEW
Charlotte A Hall, Robert P Chilcott
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) describes the constriction and subsequent dilation of the pupil in response to light as a result of the antagonistic actions of the iris sphincter and dilator muscles. Since these muscles are innervated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, respectively, different parameters of the PLR can be used as indicators for either sympathetic or parasympathetic modulation. Thus, the PLR provides an important metric of autonomic nervous system function that has been exploited for a wide range of clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493557/motor-development-and-delay-advances-in-assessment-of-motor-skills-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Rujuta B Wilson, Peter G Enticott, Nicole J Rinehart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Motor impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are prevalent and pervasive. Moreover, motor impairments may be the first sign of atypical development in ASD and likely contribute to abnormalities in social communication. However, measurement of motor function in ASD has lagged behind other behavioral phenotyping. Quantitative and neurodiagnostic measures of motor function can help identify specific motor impairments in ASD and the underlying neural mechanisms that might be implicated...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476891/post-arrest-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-pediatric-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#4
Henry H Cheng, Satish K Rajagopal, Arnold J Sansevere, Erica McDavitt, Daniel Wigmore, Jessica Mecklosky, Kristofer Andren, Kathryn A Williams, Amy Danehy, Janet S Soul
BACKGROUND: While therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an effective neuroprotective therapy for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, TH has not been demonstrated to improve outcome in other pediatric populations. Patients with acquired or congenital heart disease (CHD) are at high risk of both cardiac arrest and neurodevelopmental impairments, and therapies are needed to improve neurologic outcome. The primary goal of our study was to compare safety/efficacy outcomes in post-arrest CHD patients treated with TH versus controls not treated with TH...
February 21, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236600/benefit-of-intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-spinal-dysmorphism-split-cord-malformation-and-scoliosis
#5
Faisal R Jahangiri, Samir Al Sayegh, Moutasem Azzubi, Abdulrahman M Alrajhi, Monerah M Annaim, Shmoukh A Al Sharif, Tanweer Aziz, Sami Al Eissa
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) consists of a group of neurodiagnostic techniques that assess the nervous system's functional integrity during surgical operations. A retrospective analysis of a pediatric female patient was conducted who underwent 12 operations for the correction of scoliosis, tethered cord, and split spinal cord wherein IONM played an important role. From age 3 to 6, she underwent six procedures including a release of the tethered cord, resection of the filum terminale, removal of a T11-T12 bony spur, release of L3 adhesions, repair of subcutaneous meningocele, and correction of scoliosis with a vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rod (VEPTR) technique without the use of IONM...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119045/lumbar-stenosis-surgery-spine-surgeons-not-insurance-companies-should-decide-when-enough-is-better-than-too-much
#6
EDITORIAL
Nancy E Epstein
Background: Lumbar surgery for spinal stenosis is the most common spine operation being performed in older patients. Nevertheless, every time we want to schedule surgery, we confront the insurance industry. More often than not they demand patients first undergo epidural steroid injections (ESI); clearly they are not aware of ESI's lack of long-term efficacy. Who put these insurance companies in charge anyway? We did. How? Through performing too many unnecessary or overly extensive spinal operations (e...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099542/chloral-hydrate-as-a-sedating-agent-for-neurodiagnostic-procedures-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Choong Yi Fong, Chee Geap Tay, Lai Choo Ong, Nai Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: Paediatric neurodiagnostic investigations, including brain neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG), play an important role in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders. The use of an appropriate sedative agent is important to ensure the successful completion of the neurodiagnostic procedures, particularly in children, who are usually unable to remain still throughout the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of chloral hydrate as a sedative agent for non-invasive neurodiagnostic procedures in children...
November 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898173/utility-of-stereoelectroencephalography-in-children-with-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-and-cortical-malformation
#8
Jun T Park, Guadalupe Fernandez Baca Vaca, Jennifer Avery, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled seizures in children can contribute to irreversible cognitive impairment and developmental delay, in addition to placing them at risk for sudden unexplained death in epileptic patients (SUDEP). Since its introduction at Saint Ann Hospital in Paris in the 1960s, stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is increasingly being utilized at epilepsy centers in the United States as an invasive tool to help localize the seizure focus in drug-resistant focal epilepsy. INDICATIONS: Children with symptomatic epilepsy, commonly due to cortical dysplasia and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET), may benefit from SEEG investigation...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855403/developmental-outcomes-of-cord-blood-transplantation-for-krabbe-disease-a-15-year-study
#9
Matthew D Wright, Michele D Poe, Anthony DeRenzo, Shilpa Haldal, Maria L Escolar
OBJECTIVE: To describe long-term outcomes of children with early-infantile Krabbe disease who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the first 7 weeks of life. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study, evaluations performed at baseline and follow-up included brain imaging, neurodiagnostic tests, and neurobehavioral evaluations. RESULTS: Of the 18 patients in this study (11 girls, 7 boys; mean follow-up 9.5 years, range 4-15), 5 died (3 of peritransplant complications, 1 of a surgical complication unrelated to Krabbe disease, 1 of disease progression)...
September 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629849/analysis-of-archived-newborn-dried-blood-spots-dbs-identifies-congenital-cytomegalovirus-as-a-major-cause-of-unexplained-pediatric-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#10
Lucy Meyer, Bazak Sharon, Tina C Huang, Abby C Meyer, Kristin E Gravel, Lisa A Schimmenti, Elizabeth C Swanson, Hannah E Herd, Nelmary Hernandez-Alvarado, Kirsten R Coverstone, Mark McCann, Mark R Schleiss
PURPOSE: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, accurate diagnosis of cCMV as the etiology of SNHL is problematic beyond the neonatal period. This study therefore examined whether cCMV infection could be identified retrospectively in children presenting with unexplained SNHL to a multidisciplinary diagnostic outpatient otolaryngology clinic at an academic medical center in Minnesota. METHODS: Over a 4-year period, 57 patients with an age range of 3months to 10years with unexplained SNHL were recruited to participate in this study...
September 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622129/ellen-grass-memorial-lecture-the-utility-of-neurodiagnostics-it-s-never-too-late-to-make-a-difference-epilepsy-and-seizures-as-a-continuum-through-case-studies
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615421/outcomes-of-colorado-children-with-acute-flaccid-myelitis-at-1-year
#12
Jan A Martin, Kevin Messacar, Michele L Yang, John A Maloney, Jennifer Lindwall, Terri Carry, Patricia Kenyon, Stefan H Sillau, Joyce Oleszek, Kenneth L Tyler, Samuel R Dominguez, Teri L Schreiner
OBJECTIVE: We describe long-term functional, neurodiagnostic, and psychosocial outcomes of a cohort of 12 children from Colorado diagnosed with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in 2014. METHODS: Children were assessed every 3 months for 1 year or until clinical resolution. Assessments included neurologic examination, MRI, EMG/nerve conduction studies (NCS), functional measures (Assisting Hand Assessment, Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale), and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System questionnaires...
July 11, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604606/evaluation-of-visual-evoked-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-as-a-diagnostic-marker-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Nicholas A Hubbard, Yoel Sanchez Araujo, Camila Caballero, Minhui Ouyang, Monroe P Turner, Lyndahl Himes, Shawheen Faghihahmadabadi, Binu P Thomas, John Hart, Hao Huang, Darin T Okuda, Bart Rypma
A multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis often relies upon clinical presentation and qualitative analysis of standard, magnetic resonance brain images. However, the accuracy of MS diagnoses can be improved by utilizing advanced brain imaging methods. We assessed the accuracy of a new neuroimaging marker, visual-evoked cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (veCMRO₂), in classifying MS patients and closely age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) participants. MS patients and HCs underwent calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (cfMRI) during a visual stimulation task, diffusion tensor imaging, T₁- and T₂-weighted imaging, neuropsychological testing, and completed self-report questionnaires...
June 11, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570955/-1-h-nmr-spectral-identification-of-medication-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-pediatric-meningitis
#14
Shayne Mason, Carolus J Reinecke, Regan Solomons, Ron A Wevers, Udo F H Engelke
Exploratory metabolomics studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, hold major potential application in neurodiagnostics. Such studies, however, rely upon established databases of known metabolites. Here we address the 'unknowns' in the (1)H NMR spectra of CSF from treated pediatric meningitis cases. Through knowledge of the clinical information given by the pediatrician and analytical application of (1)H NMR spectroscopy on pure reference compounds of the medication used, we identified four of the previously unknown compounds in the (1)H NMR CSF spectra - the drugs pyrazinamide, isoniazid, acyclovir, and sulfamethoxazole...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562172/applying-fmri-complexity-analyses-to-the-single-subject-a-case-study-for-proposed-neurodiagnostics
#15
Anca R Rădulescu, Emily R Hannon
Nonlinear dynamic tools have been statistically validated at the group level to identify subtle differences in system wide regulation of brain meso-circuits, often increasing clinical sensitivity over conventional analyses alone. We explored the feasibility of extracting information at the single-subject level, illustrating two pairs of healthy individuals with psychological differences in stress reactivity. We applied statistical and nonlinear dynamic tools to capture key characteristics of the prefrontal-limbic loop...
April 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449981/recessive-afg3l2-mutation-causes-progressive-microcephaly-early-onset-seizures-spasticity-and-basal-ganglia-involvement
#16
Alaa Eskandrani, Amal AlHashem, El-Sayed Ali, Saad AlShahwan, Kalthoum Tlili, Khaled Hundallah, Brahim Tabarki
BACKGROUND: Mutations in AFG3L2, a gene encoding a subunit of the mitochondrial m-AAA protease, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 and recessive spastic ataxia type 5. Neuroimaging shows cerebellar atrophy. METHODS: Retrospective review of the patient charts including their clinical evaluation and molecular genetic, neurodiagnostic, and neuroradiological investigations. RESULTS: We describe five members of a large consanguineous family with a severe mitochondrial phenotype in the form of regression of the developmental milestones in the first year of life, refractory epilepsy, progressive microcephaly, increased blood lactate, basal ganglia involvement, and premature death...
April 5, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436818/dimensional-analysis-an-alternative-method-for-converting-between-interrelated-units-of-both-timebase-and-sensitivity-in-eeg
#17
Andrew Todd Ham
Neurodiagnostics professionals expected to perform EEG calculations involving timebase and sensitivity may benefit from an additional method in which to solve for the answers. Dimensional analysis (DA) is an efficient, organized method that generates answers in a consolidated context. Its coherent, streamlined mechanism allows for efficient computations involving sets of values with diametric units. One of its key advantages is its ability to emphasize conceptualization, which may be attractive to those with that mathematical personality...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436808/kathleen-mears-memorial-lecture-go-for-the-gold-essential-skills-for-neurodiagnostic-practitioners
#18
Jerry Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382311/infrared-imaging-a-potential-powerful-tool-for-neuroimaging-and-neurodiagnostics
#19
Arezou Khoshakhlagh, Sarath D Gunapala
Infrared (IR) imaging is used to detect the subtle changes in temperature needed to accurately detect and monitor disease. Technological advances have made IR a highly sensitive and reliable detection tool with strong potential in medical and neurophotonics applications. An overview of IR imaging specifically investigating quantum well IR detectors developed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a noninvasive, nonradiating imaging tool is provided, which could be applied for neuroscience and neurosurgery where it involves sensitive cellular temperature change...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373797/refractory-lesional-parietal-lobe-epilepsy-clinical-electroencephalographic-and-neurodiagnostic-findings
#20
Oğuzhan Kurşun, Hülya Karataş, Neşe Dericioğlu, Serap Saygi
INTRODUCTION: Specialized centers, in the management and surgical treatment of medically refractory epilepsy, emphasize the importance of differentiating the varieties of localization related epilepsies. There has been considerable recent interest in temporal and frontal lobe epileptic syndromes and less attention has been paid to parietal and occipital lobe epilepsies. METHODS: Here we report the clinical, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging characteristics of 46 patients with medically refractory lesional parietal lobe epilepsy who have been followed up for 1-10 years...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
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