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Brain blood markers for injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101531/osteopontin-is-a-blood-biomarker-for-microglial-activation-and-brain-injury-in-experimental-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#1
Yikun Li, Eric B Dammer, Xiaohui Zhang-Brotzge, Scott Chen, Duc M Duong, Nicholas T Seyfried, Chia-Yi Kuan, Yu-Yo Sun
Clinical management of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suffers from the lack of reliable surrogate marker tests. Proteomic analysis may identify such biomarkers in blood, but there has been no proof-of-principle evidence to support this approach. Here we performed in-gel trypsin digestion of plasma proteins from four groups of 10-d-old mice [untouched and 24 h after low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, hypoxia-ischemia (HI), or LPS/HI injury; n = 3 in each group) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis to search for HI- and LPS/HI-associated brain injury biomarkers...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#2
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087824/neuropathology-of-sudep-role-of-inflammation-blood-brain-barrier-impairment-and-hypoxia
#3
Zuzanna Michalak, Dima Obari, Matthew Ellis, Maria Thom, Sanjay M Sisodiya
OBJECTIVE: To seek a neuropathologic signature of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in a postmortem cohort by use of immunohistochemistry for specific markers of inflammation, gliosis, acute neuronal injury due to hypoxia, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, enabling the generation of hypotheses about potential mechanisms of death in SUDEP. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the expression of 6 markers (CD163, human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related, glial fibrillary acid protein, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α [HIF-1α], immunoglobulin G, and albumin) in the hippocampus, amygdala, and medulla in 58 postmortem cases: 28 SUDEP (definite and probable), 12 epilepsy controls, and 18 nonepileptic sudden death controls...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007523/pinocembrin-protects-hemorrhagic-brain-primarily-by-inhibiting-toll-like-receptor-4-and-reducing-m1-phenotype-microglia
#4
Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Qian Li, Qiang Li, Yufeng Gao, Tian Cheng, Jieru Wan, Wei Zhu, Jian Wang
Neuroinflammation is a major contributor to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) progression, but no drug is currently available to reduce this response and protect against ICH-induced injury. Recently, the natural product pinocembrin has been shown to ameliorate neuroinflammation and is undergoing a phase II clinical trial for ischemic stroke treatment. In this study, we examined the efficacy of pinocembrin in an ICH model, and further examined its effect on microglial activation and polarization. In vivo, pinocembrin dose-dependently reduced lesion volume by ∼47...
December 20, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978510/optimizing-cerebral-autoregulation-may-decrease-neonatal-regional-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#5
Jennifer K Lee, Andrea Poretti, Jamie Perin, Thierry A G M Huisman, Charlamaine Parkinson, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Jacky M Jennings, Maureen M Gilmore, Raymond C Koehler, Frances J Northington, Aylin Tekes
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We examined whether hemodynamic goals that support autoregulation are associated with decreased brain injury and whether these relationships are affected by birth asphyxia or vary by anatomic region. METHODS: Neonates cooled for HIE received near-infrared spectroscopy autoregulation monitoring to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulatory function (MAPOPT)...
December 16, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931776/cd47-deficiency-improves-neurological-outcomes-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#6
Song Zhao, Zhanyang Yu, Yu Liu, Yang Bai, Yinghua Jiang, Klaus van Leyen, Yong-Guang Yang, Josephine M Lok, Michael J Whalen, Eng H Lo, Xiaoying Wang
CD47 is a receptor for signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) in self-recognition by the innate immune system, and a receptor of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) contributing to vascular impairment in response to stress. However, the roles of CD47 in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been investigated. In this study we aimed to test our hypothesis that CD47 mediates early neutrophil brain infiltration and late brain vascular remodeling after TBI. Mice were subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908617/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cellular-environment-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-thermal-doppler-flowmetry-and-microdialysis-study
#7
D Papadopoulos, A Filippidis, G Krommidas, G Vretzakis, K Paterakis, A Komnos, K N Fountas
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microdialysis enables assessment of regional metabolic physiology and provides biomarkers for clinical correlation in critical conditions, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of our current study was to investigate the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and microdialysis parameters (glucose, lactate, glycerol, pyruvate concentrations, and lactate/pyruvate metabolic ratio) in patients with SAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with SAH were enrolled in our retrospective study...
November 18, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903281/improving-the-clinical-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-through-the-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-peripheral-blood-biomarkers
#8
Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi, Damir Janigro
BACKGROUND: Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dependence on variables other than the disease condition itself. These include half-life in blood, molecular weight, and marker-specific biophysical properties, as well as the effects of glomerular filtration, age, gender, and ethnicity. To study these factors, and to provide a method for markers' analyses, we developed a kinetic model that allows the integrated interpretation of these properties...
November 30, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889567/prognostic-value-of-plasma-apelin-concentrations-at-admission-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-acute-myocardial-infarction
#9
Jordi Sans-Roselló, Gregori Casals, Xavier Rossello, Bernardino González de la Presa, Montserrat Vila, Albert Duran-Cambra, Manuel Morales-Ruiz, Andreu Ferrero-Gregori, Wladimiro Jiménez, Alessandro Sionis
BACKGROUND: The use of plasma biomarkers is relevant for the prognosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Apelin, an adipocytokine, plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of both ischemia/reperfusion injury and its potential subsequent heart failure. We evaluated apelin concentrations at admission as a biomarker to assess risk of 6-month mortality. METHODS: Consecutive patients with STEMI were recruited from January 2012 to January 2013 (n=250)...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881777/temporal-profiling-of-astrocyte-precursors-reveals-parallel-roles-for-asef-during-development-and-after-injury
#10
Lesley S Chaboub, Jeanne M Manalo, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Stacey M Glasgow, Fengju Chen, Yoshihiro Kawasaki, Tetsu Akiyama, Chay T Kuo, Chad J Creighton, Carrie A Mohila, Benjamin Deneen
: Lineage development is a stepwise process, governed by stage-specific regulatory factors and associated markers. Astrocytes are one of the principle cell types in the CNS and the stages associated with their development remain very poorly defined. To identify these stages, we performed gene-expression profiling on astrocyte precursor populations in the spinal cord, identifying distinct patterns of gene induction during their development that are strongly correlated with human astrocytes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881344/-value-of-urinary-liver-fatty-acid-binding-protein-in-assessing-severity-of-brain-trauma-and-predicting-acute-kidney-injury
#11
Guang-Yong Wu, Kai Zhuang, Yu Liu, Zhi-Fei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in early assessment of the severity of traumatic brain injury and in predicting the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) following the brain injury. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with traumatic brain injury patients were divided into 4 groups according to their Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores. Blood and urine samples were collected at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after the injury to detect serum creatinine (SCr) level using biochemical analyzer and urinary L-FABP using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with samples from 15 healthy adults as controls...
November 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872486/alpha-2-macroglobulin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-marker-of-neuronal-injury-through-the-rcan1-pathway
#12
V R Varma, S Varma, Y An, T J Hohman, S Seddighi, R Casanova, A Beri, E B Dammer, N T Seyfried, O Pletnikova, A Moghekar, M R Wilson, J J Lah, R J O'Brien, A I Levey, J C Troncoso, M S Albert, M Thambisetty
Preclinical changes that precede the onset of symptoms and eventual diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a target for potential preventive interventions. A large body of evidence suggests that inflammation is closely associated with AD pathogenesis and may be a promising target pathway for such interventions. However, little is known about the association between systemic inflammation and preclinical AD pathophysiology. We first examined whether the acute-phase protein, alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M), a major component of the innate immune system, was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuronal injury in preclinical AD and risk of incident AD in the predictors of cognitive decline among normal individuals (BIOCARD) cohort...
January 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869558/polynitroxylated-pegylated-hemoglobin-a-novel-small-volume-therapeutic-for-traumatic-brain-injury-resuscitation-comparison-to-whole-blood-and-dose-response-evaluation
#13
Erik C Brockman, Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Hülya Bayɪr, Robert S B Clark, Vincent Vagni, Keri Feldman, Catherine Byrd, Li Ma, Carleton Hsia, Patrick M Kochanek
Resuscitation with polynitroxylated pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), a pegylated bovine hemoglobin decorated with nitroxides, eliminated the need for fluid administration, reduced intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema, and produced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo versus Lactated Ringer's solution (LR) in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that resuscitation with PNPH would improve acute physiology versus whole blood after TBI+HS and would be safe and effective across a wide dosage range...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834539/chronic-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Cillian E Lynch, Gogce Crynen, Scott Ferguson, Benoit Mouzon, Daniel Paris, Joseph Ojo, Paige Leary, Fiona Crawford, Corbin Bachmeier
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of the cerebrovasculature following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: TBI is a risk factor for development of various neurodegenerative disorders. A common feature of neurodegenerative disease is cerebrovascular dysfunction which includes alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF). TBI can result in transient reductions in CBF, with severe injuries often accompanied by varying degrees of vascular pathology post-mortem...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783383/early-erythrolysis-in-the-hematoma-after-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#15
Ge Dang, Yuefan Yang, Gang Wu, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Guohua Xi
Erythrolysis occurs in the clot after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and the release of hemoglobin causes brain injury, but it is unclear when such lysis occurs. The present study examined early erythrolysis in rats. ICH rats had an intracaudate injection of 100 μl autologous blood, and sham rats had a needle insertion. All rats had T2 and T2* magnetic response imaging (MRI) scanning, and brains were used for histology and CD163 (a hemoglobin scavenger receptor) and DARPP-32 (a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry...
October 25, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778404/progranulin-protects-against-exaggerated-axonal-injury-and-astrogliosis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Lutz Menzel, Lisa Kleber, Carina Friedrich, Regina Hummel, Larissa Dangel, Jennifer Winter, Katja Schmitz, Irmgard Tegeder, Michael K E Schäfer
In response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) microglia/macrophages and astrocytes release inflammatory mediators with dual effects on secondary brain damage progression. The neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein progranulin (PGRN) attenuates neuronal damage and microglia/macrophage activation in brain injury but mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we studied histopathology, neurology and gene expression of inflammatory markers in PGRN-deficient mice (Grn(-/-) ) 24 h and 5 days after experimental TBI...
February 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765361/aralia-elata-var-mandshurica-rupr-maxim-j-wen-an-overview-of-pharmacological-studies
#17
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750470/controls-can-t-be-ignored
#18
W Frank Peacock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747196/shiga-toxin-mediated-neurologic-changes-in-murine-model-of-disease
#19
Suman Pradhan, Christine Pellino, Kayleigh MacMaster, Dennis Coyle, Alison A Weiss
Seizures and neurologic involvement have been reported in patients infected with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with neurologic involvement is associated with more severe outcome. We investigated the extent of renal and neurologic damage in mice following injection of the highly potent form of Stx, Stx2a, and less potent Stx1. As observed in previous studies, Stx2a brought about moderate to acute tubular necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in the kidneys. Brain sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) appeared normal, although some red blood cell congestion was observed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725118/sinomenine-enhances-microglia-m2-polarization-and-attenuates-inflammatory-injury-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#20
Hui Shi, Kuang Zheng, Zulu Su, Hai Su, Ming Zhong, Xuenong He, Changlong Zhou, Hao Chen, Qijiang Xiong, Yi Zhang
Microglia polarization plays a vital role in brain inflammatory injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Previous studies have shown that sinomenine possesses potential immunoregulatory capabilities. However, microglia polarization's exact mechanisms in ICH remain uncertain. Therefore, we examined the role of sinomenine on microglia polarization and brain inflammation following ICH. For the experiment, autologous blood models were constructed in C57/BL6 mice. Markers of classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) microglia were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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