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Brain blood markers for injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886695/cerebral-microvascular-dysfunction-in-metabolic-syndrome-is-exacerbated-by-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Nathalie Obadia, Marcos Adriano Lessa, Anissa Daliry, Raquel Rangel Silvares, Fabiana Gomes, Eduardo Tibiriçá, Vanessa Estato
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Microvascular dysfunction is an important feature underlying the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impacts of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury on the cerebral microvascular function of rats with high-fat diet-induced MetS. RESULTS: We examined Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet (CTL) for 20 weeks underwent 30 min of bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by 1 h of reperfusion (IR) or sham surgery...
September 8, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868043/metabolomics-profiling-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Jussi P Posti, Alex M Dickens, Matej Orešič, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Olli Tenovuo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex disease with a multifaceted pathophysiology. Impairment of energy metabolism is a key component of secondary insults. This phenomenon is a consequence of multiple potential mechanisms including diffusion hypoxia, mitochondrial failure, and increased energy needs due to systemic trauma responses, seizures, or spreading depolarization. The degree of disturbance in brain metabolism is affected by treatment interventions and reflected in clinical patient outcome. Hence, monitoring of these secondary events in peripheral blood will provide a window into the pathophysiological course of severe TBI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844425/amygdala-activation-as-a-marker-for-selective-attention-toward-neutral-faces-in-a-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury-population
#3
Leanne R Young, Weikei Yu, Michael Holloway, Barry N Rodgers, Sandra B Chapman, Daniel C Krawczyk
There has been great interest in characterizing the response of the amygdala to emotional faces, especially in the context of social cognition. Although amygdala activation is most often associated with fearful or angry stimuli, there is considerable evidence that the response of the amygdala to neutral faces is both robust and reliable. This characteristic of amygdala function is of particular interest in the context of assessing populations with executive function deficits, such as traumatic brain injuries, which can be evaluated using fMRI attention modulation tasks that evaluate prefrontal control over representations, notably faces...
August 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836308/siglec-h-is-a-microglia-specific-marker-that-discriminates-microglia-from-cns-associated-macrophages-and-cns-infiltrating-monocytes
#4
Hiroyuki Konishi, Masaaki Kobayashi, Taikan Kunisawa, Kenta Imai, Akira Sayo, Bernard Malissen, Paul R Crocker, Katsuaki Sato, Hiroshi Kiyama
Several types of myeloid cell are resident in the CNS. In the steady state, microglia are present in the CNS parenchyma, whereas macrophages reside in boundary regions of the CNS, such as perivascular spaces, the meninges and choroid plexus. In addition, monocytes infiltrate into the CNS parenchyma from circulation upon blood-brain barrier breakdown after CNS injury and inflammation. Although several markers, such as CD11b and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), are frequently used as microglial markers, they are also expressed by other types of myeloid cell and microglia-specific markers were not defined until recently...
August 24, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834611/a-molecular-method-to-detect-wound-cells-in-bloodstains-resultant-of-sharp-force-injuries-for-crime-scene-reconstruction
#5
Donald J Johnson, David E Raymond, Cynthia Chen, Matthew Quon, Julian Lis, Mo Re Choi, Christopher Lopez, Aileen Han, Ray D de Leon, Cynthia Bir
Previous research by the authors on an animal model showed that bloodstains can contain additional information about their somatic origin in the form of wound cells. Bloodstains produced by a gunshot wound to the head were distinguished from bloodstains produced by a gunshot wound to the chest by testing the stains for a brain microRNA marker. In this study, the effectiveness of the technique was examined on blood drops shed externally from a stab wound to the liver of rat carcasses. Specifically, investigations were conducted on the liver microRNA marker, rno-mir-122-3p, with the QIAGEN miScript System, and PCR analysis...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810961/resuscitation-of-hypotensive-traumatic-brain-injured-animals-with-spray-dried-plasma-does-not-adversely-alter-physiology-and-improves-blood-brain-barrier-function
#6
Steven McDaniel, Stephanie Golla, Anthony N Moore, Joe DaCorta, Arthur Bode, Shibani Pati, Pramod K Dash, Jing Zhao
INTRODUCTION: According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center and the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, the number of soldiers who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has risen dramatically over the past decade. Studies have shown that brain damage can be exacerbated if blood loss occurs (often occurring in polytrauma). As blood supply is critical for brain function and survival, TBI patients must be properly resuscitated to maintain blood volume, blood pressure, and cerebral perfusion...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789711/does-growth-restriction-increase-the-vulnerability-to-acute-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-in-newborn-lambs-implications-for-future-health-and-disease
#7
B J Allison, S B Hooper, E Coia, G Jenkin, A Malhotra, V Zahra, A Sehgal, M Kluckow, A W Gill, T Yawno, G R Polglase, M Castillo-Melendez, S L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth are frequent co-morbidities, both are independent risks for brain injury. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms by which preterm FGR increases the risk of adverse neurological outcomes. We aimed to determine the effects of prematurity and mechanical ventilation (VENT) on the brain of FGR and appropriately grown (AG, control) lambs. We hypothesized that FGR preterm lambs are more vulnerable to ventilation-induced acute brain injury. FGR was surgically induced in fetal sheep (0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761630/s100-b-a-new-concept-in-neurocritical-care
#8
REVIEW
Omidvar Rezaei, Hossein Pakdaman, Kurosh Gharehgozli, Leila Simani, Amir Vahedian-Azimi, Sina Asaadi, Zahra Sahraei, Mohammadreza Hajiesmaeili
After brain injuries, concentrations of some brain markers such as S100B protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are correlated with the severity and outcome of brain damage. To perform an updated review of S100B roles in human neurocritical care domain, an electronic literature search was carried among articles published in English prior to March 2017. They were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, EMBSCO, CINAHL, ISC and the Cochrane Library using keywords including "brain", "neurobiochemical marker", "neurocritical care", and "S100B protein"...
April 4, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759530/sevoflurane-attenuates-systemic-inflammation-compared-with-propofol-but-does-not-modulate-neuro-inflammation-a-laboratory-rat-study
#9
Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, Lukas Baumann, Tanja Restin, Philipp Eugster, Melanie Hasler, Christa Booy, Martin Schläpfer
BACKGROUND: Septic encephalopathy is believed to be a result of neuro-inflammation possibly triggered by endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Modulation of the immune system is a property of volatile anaesthetics. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the systemic and cerebral inflammatory response in a LPS-induced sepsis model in rats. We compared two different sedation strategies, intravenous propofol and the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane, with the hypothesis that the latter may attenuate neuro-inflammatory processes...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754612/differentiation-potential-of-human-cd133-positive-hematopoietic-stem-cells-into-motor-neuron-like-cells-in-vitro
#10
Sepideh Alavi Moghaddam, Behnam Yousefi, Davood Sanooghi, Faezeh Faghihi, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Nikoo Bana, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Paria Pooyan, Babak Arjmand
Spinal cord injuries and motor neuron-related disorders impact on life of many patients around the world. Since pharmacotherapy and surgical approaches were not efficient to regenerate these types of defects; stem cell therapy as a good strategy to restore the lost cells has become the focus of interest among the scientists. Umbilical cord blood CD133(+) hematopoietic stem cells (UCB- CD133(+) HSCs) with self- renewal property and neural lineage differentiation capacity are ethically approved cell candidate for use in regenerative medicine...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#11
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737081/hypotension-of-%C3%A2-110-mmhg-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-south-african-patients-after-trauma
#12
D L Clarke, P Brysiewicz, B Sartorius, J L Bruce, G L Laing
INTRODUCTION: This study used data from a prospectively maintained trauma database to assess the level of systolic blood pressure at which mortality rates for trauma begin to increase and to compare systolic blood pressure with base deficit as a predictor of outcome. METHODOLOGY: The Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service maintains a prospective digital trauma registry. All trauma patients admitted to the service for the period January 2012-January 2015 were included...
March 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710466/dramatic-increases-in-blood-glutamate-concentrations-are-closely-related-to-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-acute-lung-injury
#13
Wei Bai, Wan-Li Zhu, Ya-Lei Ning, Ping Li, Yan Zhao, Nan Yang, Xing Chen, Yu-Lin Jiang, Wen-Qun Yang, Dong-Po Jiang, Li-Yong Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Traumatic brain injury-induced acute lung injury (TBI-ALI) is a serious complication after brain injury for which predictive factors are lacking. In this study, we found significantly elevated blood glutamate concentrations in patients with TBI or multiple peripheral trauma (MPT), and patients with more severe injuries showed higher blood glutamate concentrations and longer durations of elevated levels. Although the increase in amplitude was similar between the two groups, the duration was longer in the patients with TBI...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699381/prospective-assessment-of-acute-blood-markers-of-brain-injury-in-sport-related-concussion
#14
Timothy B Meier, Lindsay D Nelson, Daniel L Huber, Jeffrey J Bazarian, Ronald L Hayes, Michael A McCrea
There is a pressing need to identify objective biomarkers for the assessment of sport-related concussion (SRC) to reduce the reliance on clinical judgment for the management of these injuries. The goal of the current study was to prospectively establish the acute effects of SRC on serum levels of S100 calcium-binding protein beta (S100B), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1). Collegiate and high school football players were enrolled and provided blood at pre-season...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649562/umbilical-cord-blood-nos1-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-neonatal-encephalopathy
#15
Jun Lei, Cristina Paules, Elisabeth Nigrini, Jason M Rosenzweig, Rudhab Bahabry, Azadeh Farzin, Samuel Yang, Frances J Northington, Daniel Oros, Stephanie McKenney, Michael V Johnston, Ernest M Graham, Irina Burd
BACKGROUND: There are no definitive markers to aid in diagnosis of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). The purpose of our study was (1) to identify and evaluate the utility of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) in umbilical cord blood as a NE biomarker and (2) to identify the source of NOS1 in umbilical cord blood. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study of neonates >35 weeks of gestation. ELISA for NOS1 in umbilical cord blood was performed. Sources of NOS1 in umbilical cord were investigated by immunohistochemistry, western blot, ELISA, and quantitative PCR...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637381/role-of-caspase-3-mediated-apoptosis-in-chronic-caspase-3-cleaved-tau-accumulation-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-the-corpus-callosum-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#16
Olena Y Glushakova, Andriy O Glushakov, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a significant risk factor for development of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), and Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Chronic TBI is associated with several pathological features that are also characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, including tau pathologies, caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and microvascular alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes following TBI in cleaved-caspase-3 and caspase-3-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421, and their relationships to cellular markers potentially associated with inflammation and blood-brain (BBB) barrier damage...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630485/acute-administration-of-catalase-targeted-to-icam-1-attenuates-neuropathology-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Evan M Lutton, Roshanak Razmpour, Allison M Andrews, Lee Anne Cannella, Young-Jin Son, Vladimir V Shuvaev, Vladimir R Muzykantov, Servio H Ramirez
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to one third of injury related deaths in the US. Treatment strategies for TBI are supportive, and the pathophysiology is not fully understood. Secondary mechanisms of injury in TBI, such as oxidative stress and inflammation, are points at which intervention may reduce neuropathology. Evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) propagate blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability and inflammation following TBI. We hypothesized that targeted detoxification of ROS may improve the pathological outcomes of TBI...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627348/-effect-of-hydrogen-rich-water-on-the-cd34-expression-in-lesion-boundary-brain-tissue-of-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Ying Liu, Qing Lan, Difen Wang, Xianjun Chen, Jia Yuan, Hailing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of hydrogen-rich water on the CD34 expression and angiogenesis in lesion boundary brain tissue of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A total of 54 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups by random number table: namely sham-operated group (sham group), trauma group (TBI group), and trauma + hydrogen-rich water group (TBI+HW group), the rats in each group were subdivided into 1, 3 and 7 days subgroups according to the time points after trauma, with 6 rats in each subgroup...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606628/hippocampal-and-cerebellar-histological-changes-and-their-behavioural-repercussions-caused-by-brain-ischaemic-hypoxia-experimentally-induced-by-sodium-nitrite
#19
Mara Cláudia Ribeiro, Thiago Dos Santos Bezerra, Aluízio Carlos Soares, Raphael Boechat-Ramos, Fabiana Pirani Carneiro, Leonora Maciel de Souza Vianna, Lilian Rosana Ferreira Faro, Mônica Valero da Silva, Matheus Papa Vieira, Isabelle de Oliveira Monteiro, Vania Moraes Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Brain ischaemic hypoxia can produce severe neurological damage that leads to behavioural disorders. This research analysed the hippocampal and cerebellar histological alterations caused by brain ischaemic hypoxia experimentally induced by sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and possible direct repercussions of this hypoxia on behaviour. METHODOLOGY: An experimental study was carried out by administering 60mg/kg NaNO2 to 10 Wistar rats at 3 months of age for 15 consecutive days...
August 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605426/biomarkers-of-cerebral-injury-and-inflammation-in-pediatric-tuberculous-meningitis
#20
Ursula K Rohlwink, Katya Mauff, Katalin A Wilkinson, Nico Enslin, Emmanuel Wegoye, Robert J Wilkinson, Anthony A Figaji
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) leads to death or disability in half the affected individuals. Tools to assess severity and predict outcome are lacking. Neuro-specific biomarkers could serve as markers of the severity and evolution of brain injury, but have not been widely explored in TBM. We examined biomarkers of neurological injury (neuromarkers) and inflammation in pediatric TBM and their association with outcome. Methods: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with TBM and hydrocephalus taken on admission and over 3 weeks were analysed for neuromarkers S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and multiple inflammatory markers...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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