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Brain blood markers for injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340731/sensitive-cardiac-troponins-could-they-be-new-biomarkers-in-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension-due-to-congenital-heart-disease
#1
Seyma Kayali, Ilker Ertugrul, Tamer Yoldas, Ozkan Kaya, Senem Ozgür, Utku A Orün, Selmin Karademir
To analyze the role of sensitive cardiac troponin I (scTnI) and high-sensitive troponin T (hscTnT) in the determination of myocardial injury caused by volume and pressure load due to pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to investigate if these markers may be useful in the management of PH in childhood. Twenty-eight patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) with left to right shunt and PH, 29 patients with CHD with left to right shunt but without PH, and 18 healthy children, in total 75 individuals, were included in the study...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303018/the-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonist-clenbuterol-reduces-the-neuroinflammatory-response-neutrophil-infiltration-and-apoptosis-following-intra-striatal-il-1%C3%AE-administration-to-rats
#2
Éadaoin W Griffin, Justin D Yssel, Eoin O'Neill, Katie J Ryan, Noreen Boyle, Peter Harper, Andrew Harkin, Thomas Connor
OBJECTIVES: Clenbuterol is a brain penetrant β2-adrenoceptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and putative neuroprotective properties. In the present investigation, the effect of clenbuterol was assessed in a rat model of acute brain injury induced by intra-striatal administration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. METHODS: Clenbuterol (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered one hour prior to stereotactically delivered IL-1β (100 ng) into the striatum. Four hours postinjection, rats were anesthetized, blood samples were collected for circulating cytokine and chemokine analysis, and the ipsilateral striatum and liver tissue were harvested for mRNA expression analysis of target genes...
January 5, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277297/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-isoflurane-versus-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-brain-injury-after-cardiac-valve-replacement-surgery
#3
Fang Kang, ChaoLiang Tang, MingMing Han, XiaoQing Chai, Xiang Huang, Juan Li
OBJECTIVES: To compare dexmedetomidine combined with isoflurane versus isoflurane anesthesia on brain injury after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients undergoing elective valve replacement surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Ninety-seven patients scheduled for valve replacement surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: dexmedetomidine and isoflurane (Dex-Iso, n = 50) and isoflurane alone (Iso, n = 47)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274879/glial-cell-responses-in-a-murine-multifactorial-perinatal-brain-injury-model
#4
Miriam Domowicz, Natasha L Wadlington, Judith G Henry, Kasandra Diaz, Miranda J Munoz, Nancy B Schwartz
The impact of traumatic brain injury during the perinatal period, which coincides with glial cell (astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) maturation was assessed to determine whether a second insult, e.g., increased inflammation due to remote bacterial exposure, exacerbates the initial injury's effects, possibly eliciting longer-term brain damage. Thus, a murine multifactorial injury model incorporating both mechanisms consisting of perinatal penetrating traumatic brain injury, with or without intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an analog of remote pathogen exposure has been developed...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250027/derivation-of-a-three-biomarker-panel-to-improve-diagnosis-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
W Frank Peacock, Timothy E Van Meter, Nazanin Mirshahi, Kyle Ferber, Robert Gerwien, Vani Rao, Haris Iqbal Sair, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Frederick K Korley
Background: Nearly 5 million emergency department (ED) visits for head injury occur each year in the United States, of which <10% of patients show abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings. CT negative patients frequently suffer protracted somatic, behavioral, and neurocognitive dysfunction. Our goal was to evaluate biomarkers to identify mild TBI (mTBI) in patients with suspected head injury. Methods: An observational ED study of head-injured and control patients was conducted at Johns Hopkins University (HeadSMART)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249007/human-umbilical-cord-blood-cd45-pan-hematopoietic-cells-induced-a-neurotherapeutic-effect-in-mice-with-traumatic-brain-injury-immunophenotyping-comparison-of-maternal-and-neonatal-parameters-and-immunomodulation
#6
Galit Gincberg, Esther Shohami, Philip Lazarovici, Uriel Elchalal
Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) transplantation has become an alternative cell therapy for hematological and oncological malignancies in the clinic and is considered for neurological disorders. The heterogeneity in the content of the different stem and progenitor cells composing HUCB mononuclear cells (MNC) may influence their engraftment and neurotherapeutic effect. We hypothesized that CD45 pan-hematopoietic marker expression is heterogeneous in MNC, and therefore, CD45+ subpopulation enrichment for neurotherapy may provide a tool to overcome cellular variance in different HUCB units...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209266/current-opportunities-for-clinical-monitoring-of-axonal-pathology-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
REVIEW
Parmenion P Tsitsopoulos, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multidimensional and highly complex disease commonly resulting in widespread injury to axons, due to rapid inertial acceleration/deceleration forces transmitted to the brain during impact. Axonal injury leads to brain network dysfunction, significantly contributing to cognitive and functional impairments frequently observed in TBI survivors. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a clinical entity suggested by impaired level of consciousness and coma on clinical examination and characterized by widespread injury to the hemispheric white matter tracts, the corpus callosum and the brain stem...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194322/direct-peritoneal-resuscitation-reduces-intestinal-permeability-after-brain-death
#8
Jessica L Weaver, Paul J Matheson, Amy Matheson, Brian G Harbrecht, Cynthia D Downard, R Neal Garrison, Jason W Smith
BACKGROUND: The profound inflammatory response associated with brain death is frequently cited as the reason organs procured from brain dead donors are associated with worse graft function. The intestine releases inflammatory mediators in other types of shock, but its role is brain death has not been well-studied. Direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) improves visceral organ blood flow and reduces inflammation after hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that use of DPR would maintain intestinal integrity and reduce circulating inflammatory mediators after brain death...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160735/up-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-expression-is-accompanied-with-vascular-repair-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Arjang Salehi, Amandine Jullienne, Mohsen Baghchechi, Mary Hamer, Mark Walsworth, Virginia Donovan, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce, Andre Obenaus
Recent data suggest that repairing the cerebral vasculature after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may help to improve functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation during vascular development, but its role in vascular repair after TBI remains elusive. In this study, we examined how the cerebral vasculature responds to TBI and the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vascular repair. We induced a moderate controlled cortical impact in adult mice and performed vessel painting to visualize the vascular alterations in the brain...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132543/intravenous-administration-of-functionalized-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-does-not-induce-cns-injury-in-the-rat-influence-of-spinal-cord-trauma-and-cerebrolysin-treatment
#10
Preeti K Menon, Aruna Sharma, José V Lafuente, Dafin F Muresanu, Zoraida P Aguilar, Y Anderw Wang, Ranjana Patnaik, Herbert Mössler, Hari S Sharma
Influence of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs, 10nm in diameter, 0.25 or 0.50mg/mL in 100μL, i.v.) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, edema formation, and neuronal or glial changes within 4-24h after administration was examined in normal rats and after a focal spinal cord injury (SCI). Furthermore, effect of cerebrolysin, a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors, and active peptide fragments was also evaluated on IOMNP-induced changes in central nervous system (CNS) pathology...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125053/twenty-minutes-of-normothermic-cardiac-arrest-in-a-pig-model-the-role-of-short-term-hypothermia-for-neurological-outcome
#11
Katharina Foerster, Christoph Benk, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Heidi Cristina Schmitz, Karin Wittmann, Itumeleng Taunyane, Claudia Heilmann, Georg Trummer
INTRODUCTION: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation restores circulation, but with inconsistent blood-flow and pressures. Our recent approach using an extracorporeal life support system, named "controlled integrated resuscitation device" (CIRD), may lead to improved survival and neurological recovery after cardiac arrest (CA). The basic idea is to provide a reperfusion tailored to the individual patient by control of the conditions of reperfusion and the composition of the reperfusate. Hypothermia is one aspect of this concept...
November 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114076/circular-rna-dlgap4-ameliorates-ischemic-stroke-outcomes-by-targeting-mir-143-to-regulate-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-associated-with-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#12
Ying Bai, Yuan Zhang, Bing Han, Li Yang, Xufeng Chen, Rongrong Huang, Fangfang Wu, Jie Chao, Pei Liu, Gang Hu, John H Zhang, Honghong Yao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly expressed in the central nervous system and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, the potential role of circRNAs in stroke remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the circular RNA DLGAP4 (circDLGAP4) functions as an endogenous microRNA-143 (miR-143) sponge to inhibit miR-143 activity, resulting in the inhibition of HECT domain E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HECTD1) expression. CircDLGAP4 levels were significantly decreased in the plasma of acute ischemic stroke patients (13 females and 13 males) and in a mouse stroke model...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103037/circulating-progenitor-cells-correlate-with-memory-posterior-cortical-thickness-and-hippocampal-perfusion
#13
Daniel A Nation, Alick Tan, Shubir Dutt, Elissa C McIntosh, Belinda Yew, Jean K Ho, Anna E Blanken, Jung Yun Jang, Kathleen E Rodgers, Aimée Gaubert
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells survey the vasculature and home to sites of tissue injury where they can promote repair and regeneration. It has been hypothesized that these cells may play a protective role neurodegenerative and vascular cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate progenitor cell levels in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to relate circulating levels to memory, brain volume, white matter lesion volume, and cerebral perfusion...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091896/effect-of-the-nadph-oxidase-inhibitor-apocynin-on-ischemia-reperfusion-hippocampus-injury-in-rat-brain
#14
Monika Kapoor, Neha Sharma, Rajat Sandhir, Bimla Nehru
Blockage along with sudden restoration of blood following ischemia, results in several cascading events, such as a massive ROS production which plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemia. NADPH oxidase complex in mitochondria complex is believed to be the major source for ROS production. The present study explores the therapeutic potential of apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor in attenuating the ROS production, and the resultant neuroinflammation and mitochondrial injury during cerebral ischemia in rats...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070527/extracellular-vesicles-released-by-cardiomyocytes-in-a-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-injury-mouse-model-contain-protein-biomarkers-of-early-cardiac-injury
#15
Chontida Yarana, Dustin Carroll, Jing Chen, Luksana Chaiswing, Yanming Zhao, Teresa Noel, Michael Alstott, Younsoo Bae, Emily V Dressler, Jeffrey A Moscow, D Allan Butterfield, Haining Zhu, Daret K St Clair
PURPOSE: Cardiac injury is a major cause of death in cancer survivors, and biomarkers for it are detectable only after tissue injury has occurred. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) remove toxic biomolecules from tissues and can be detected in the blood. Here, we evaluate the potential of using circulating EVs as early diagnostic markers for long-term cardiac injury. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac injury, we quantified serum EVs, analyzed proteomes, measured oxidized protein levels in serum EVs released after DOX treatment, and investigated the alteration of EV content...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064155/assessing-inflammation-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-with-pk11195-pet-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#16
Kamran A Abid, Oluwaseun A Sobowale, Laura M Parkes, Josephine Naish, Geoff J M Parker, Daniel du Plessis, David Brough, Jack Barrington, Stuart M Allan, Rainer Hinz, Adrian R Parry-Jones
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies in animal models suggest that inflammation is a major contributor to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Direct, noninvasive monitoring of inflammation in the human brain after ICH will facilitate early-phase development of anti-inflammatory treatments. We sought to investigate the feasibility of multimodality brain imaging in subacute ICH. METHODS: Acute ICH patients were recruited to undergo multiparametric MRI (including dynamic contrast-enhanced measurement of blood-brain barrier transfer constant (K(trans) ) and PET with [(11) C]-(R)-PK11195)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037893/gelatin-promotes-rapid-restoration-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-after-acute-brain-injury
#17
Lucas S Kumosa, Valdemar Zetterberg, Jens Schouenborg
Gelatin coating of brain implants is known to provide considerable benefits in terms of reduced inflammatory sequalae and long-term neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanisms for gelatin's protective role in brain injury are still unknown. To address this question, cellular and molecular markers were studied with quantitative immunohistochemical microscopy at acute (<2hours, 1, 3days), intermediate (1-2 weeks) and long-term time points (6 weeks) after transient insertion of stainless steel needles into female rat cortex cerebri with or without gelatin coating...
October 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035978/use-of-blood-biomarkers-in-the-assessment-of-sports-related-concussion-a-systematic-review-in-the-context-of-their-biological-significance
#18
Brendan OʼConnell, Áine M Kelly, David Mockler, Matej Orešič, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Damir Janigro, Fiona Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To critically review current knowledge on the positive and negative predictive value of blood biomarkers for concussion; to illustrate the clinical and biological contexts that help evaluate the use of these markers in sport-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). METHODS: This systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We reviewed the measurement, clinical utility, endpoint, and biological significance of blood biomarkers in concussion...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031233/forensic-and-clinical-significance-of-serum-amylase-lipase-and-gamma-glutamyl-transferase-as-predictors-of-outcome-in-head-injured-patients
#19
Mona Mohamed Abo El-Noor, Naema Mahmoud ElHosary, Hytham Ibrahim Elatrozy, Hussein Mohamed Abou Elgheit, Ahmed Mohamed Elbelkasy, Ahmed Gamal Fath, Ghada Hamed El-Shafy
Head trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Combined head lesions consist of more than one form of lesions. Biochemical markers of brain injury are used in determining the extent of brain injury and predicting its outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the forensic and clinical significance of serum amylase, lipase and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) as predictors of the outcome in head injured patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty head injured patients were enrolled and subjected to personal history taking, general and local physical examination...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020853/blood-based-protein-biomarkers-for-the-management-of-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-adults-presenting-with-mild-head-injury-to-emergency-departments-a-living-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Stefania Mondello, Abayomi Sorinola, Endre Czeiter, Zoltán Vámos, Krisztina Amrein, Anneliese Synnot, Emma L Donoghue, János Sándor, Kevin K W Wang, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Ewout W Steyerberg, David Menon, Andrew Maas, Andras Buki
Accurate diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is critical to effective management and intervention, but can be challenging in patients with mild TBI. A substantial number of studies have reported the use of circulating biomarkers as signatures for TBI, capable of improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical decision-making beyond current practice standards. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively and critically evaluate the existing body of evidence for the use of blood protein biomarkers (S100B, GFAP, NSE, UCH-L1, Tau and Neurofilament proteins) for diagnosis of intracranial lesions on CT following mild TBI...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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