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Brain blood markers for injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132543/intravenous-administration-of-functionalized-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-does-not-induce-cns-injury-in-the-rat-influence-of-spinal-cord-trauma-and-cerebrolysin-treatment
#1
Preeti K Menon, Aruna Sharma, José V Lafuente, Dafin F Muresanu, Zoraida P Aguilar, Y Anderw Wang, Ranjana Patnaik, Herbert Mössler, Hari S Sharma
Influence of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs, 10nm in diameter, 0.25 or 0.50mg/mL in 100μL, i.v.) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, edema formation, and neuronal or glial changes within 4-24h after administration was examined in normal rats and after a focal spinal cord injury (SCI). Furthermore, effect of cerebrolysin, a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors, and active peptide fragments was also evaluated on IOMNP-induced changes in central nervous system (CNS) pathology...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125053/twenty-minutes-of-normothermic-cardiac-arrest-in-a-pig-model-the-role-of-short-term-hypothermia-for-neurological-outcome
#2
Katharina Foerster, Christoph Benk, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Heidi Cristina Schmitz, Karin Wittmann, Itumeleng Taunyane, Claudia Heilmann, Georg Trummer
INTRODUCTION: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation restores circulation, but with inconsistent blood-flow and pressures. Our recent approach using an extracorporeal life support system, named "controlled integrated resuscitation device" (CIRD), may lead to improved survival and neurological recovery after cardiac arrest (CA). The basic idea is to provide a reperfusion tailored to the individual patient by control of the conditions of reperfusion and the composition of the reperfusate. Hypothermia is one aspect of this concept...
November 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114076/circular-rna-dlgap4-ameliorates-ischemic-stroke-outcomes-by-targeting-mir-143-to-regulate-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-associated-with-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#3
Ying Bai, Yuan Zhang, Bing Han, Li Yang, Xufeng Chen, Rongrong Huang, Fangfang Wu, Jie Chao, Pei Liu, Gang Hu, John H Zhang, Honghong Yao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly expressed in the central nervous system and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, the potential role of circRNAs in stroke remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the circular RNA DLGAP4 (circDLGAP4) functions as an endogenous microRNA-143 (miR-143) sponge to inhibit miR-143 activity, resulting in the inhibition of HECT domain E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HECTD1) expression. CircDLGAP4 levels were significantly decreased in the plasma of acute ischemic stroke patients (13 females and 13 males) and in a mouse stroke model...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103037/circulating-progenitor-cells-correlate-with-memory-posterior-cortical-thickness-and-hippocampal-perfusion
#4
Daniel A Nation, Alick Tan, Shubir Dutt, Elissa C McIntosh, Belinda Yew, Jean K Ho, Anna E Blanken, Jung Yun Jang, Kathleen E Rodgers, Aimée Gaubert
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells survey the vasculature and home to sites of tissue injury where they can promote repair and regeneration. It has been hypothesized that these cells may play a protective role neurodegenerative and vascular cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate progenitor cell levels in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to relate circulating levels to memory, brain volume, white matter lesion volume, and cerebral perfusion...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091896/effect-of-the-nadph-oxidase-inhibitor-apocynin-on-ischemia-reperfusion-hippocampus-injury-in-rat-brain
#5
Monika Kapoor, Neha Sharma, Rajat Sandhir, Bimla Nehru
Blockage along with sudden restoration of blood following ischemia, results in several cascading events, such as a massive ROS production which plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemia. NADPH oxidase complex in mitochondria complex is believed to be the major source for ROS production. The present study explores the therapeutic potential of apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor in attenuating the ROS production, and the resultant neuroinflammation and mitochondrial injury during cerebral ischemia in rats...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070527/extracellular-vesicles-released-by-cardiomyocytes-in-a-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-injury-mouse-model-contain-protein-biomarkers-of-early-cardiac-injury
#6
Chontida Yarana, Dustin Carroll, Jing Chen, Luksana Chaiswing, Yanming Zhao, Teresa Noel, Michael Alstott, Younsoo Bae, Emily V Dressler, Jeffrey A Moscow, D Allan Butterfield, Haining Zhu, Daret K St Clair
PURPOSE: Cardiac injury is a major cause of death in cancer survivors, and biomarkers for it are detectable only after tissue injury has occurred. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) remove toxic biomolecules from tissues and can be detected in the blood. Here, we evaluate the potential of using circulating EVs as early diagnostic markers for long-term cardiac injury. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac injury, we quantified serum EVs, analyzed proteomes, measured oxidized protein levels in serum EVs released after DOX treatment, and investigated the alteration of EV content...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064155/assessing-inflammation-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-with-pk11195-pet-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#7
Kamran A Abid, Oluwaseun A Sobowale, Laura M Parkes, Josephine Naish, Geoff J M Parker, Daniel du Plessis, David Brough, Jack Barrington, Stuart M Allan, Rainer Hinz, Adrian R Parry-Jones
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies in animal models suggest that inflammation is a major contributor to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Direct, noninvasive monitoring of inflammation in the human brain after ICH will facilitate early-phase development of anti-inflammatory treatments. We sought to investigate the feasibility of multimodality brain imaging in subacute ICH. METHODS: Acute ICH patients were recruited to undergo multiparametric MRI (including dynamic contrast-enhanced measurement of blood-brain barrier transfer constant (K(trans) ) and PET with [(11) C]-(R)-PK11195)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037893/gelatin-promotes-rapid-restoration-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-after-acute-brain-injury
#8
Lucas S Kumosa, Valdemar Zetterberg, Jens Schouenborg
Gelatin coating of brain implants is known to provide considerable benefits in terms of reduced inflammatory sequalae and long-term neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanisms for gelatin's protective role in brain injury are still unknown. To address this question, cellular and molecular markers were studied with quantitative immunohistochemical microscopy at acute (<2hours, 1, 3days), intermediate (1-2 weeks) and long-term time points (6 weeks) after transient insertion of stainless steel needles into female rat cortex cerebri with or without gelatin coating...
October 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035978/use-of-blood-biomarkers-in-the-assessment-of-sports-related-concussion-a-systematic-review-in-the-context-of-their-biological-significance
#9
Brendan OʼConnell, Áine M Kelly, David Mockler, Matej Orešič, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Damir Janigro, Fiona Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To critically review current knowledge on the positive and negative predictive value of blood biomarkers for concussion; to illustrate the clinical and biological contexts that help evaluate the use of these markers in sport-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). METHODS: This systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We reviewed the measurement, clinical utility, endpoint, and biological significance of blood biomarkers in concussion...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031233/forensic-and-clinical-significance-of-serum-amylase-lipase-and-gamma-glutamyl-transferase-as-predictors-of-outcome-in-head-injured-patients
#10
Mona Mohamed Abo El-Noor, Naema Mahmoud ElHosary, Hytham Ibrahim Elatrozy, Hussein Mohamed Abou Elgheit, Ahmed Mohamed Elbelkasy, Ahmed Gamal Fath, Ghada Hamed El-Shafy
Head trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Combined head lesions consist of more than one form of lesions. Biochemical markers of brain injury are used in determining the extent of brain injury and predicting its outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the forensic and clinical significance of serum amylase, lipase and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) as predictors of the outcome in head injured patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty head injured patients were enrolled and subjected to personal history taking, general and local physical examination...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020853/blood-based-protein-biomarkers-for-the-management-of-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-adults-presenting-with-mild-head-injury-to-emergency-departments-a-living-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Stefania Mondello, Abayomi Sorinola, Endre Czeiter, Zoltán Vámos, Krisztina Amrein, Anneliese Synnot, Emma L Donoghue, János Sándor, Kevin K W Wang, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Ewout W Steyerberg, David Menon, Andrew Maas, Andras Buki
Accurate diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is critical to effective management and intervention, but can be challenging in patients with mild TBI. A substantial number of studies have reported the use of circulating biomarkers as signatures for TBI, capable of improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical decision-making beyond current practice standards. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively and critically evaluate the existing body of evidence for the use of blood protein biomarkers (S100B, GFAP, NSE, UCH-L1, Tau and Neurofilament proteins) for diagnosis of intracranial lesions on CT following mild TBI...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020847/sphingolipids-and-microrna-changes-in-blood-following-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-an-exploratory-study
#12
Venkata Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Anna Jablonska, Norman Haughey, Jeff W M Bulte, Robert D Stevens, Joseph B Long, Piotr Walczak, Miroslaw Janowski
At present, accurate and reliable biomarkers to ascertain the presence, severity, or prognosis of blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are lacking. There is an urgent need to establish accurate and reliable biomarkers capable of mbTBI detection. Currently, there are no studies that identify changes in miRNA and lipids at varied severities of bTBI. Various biological components such as lipids, circulating mRNA, and miRNA, could potentially be detected using advanced techniques such as next-generation sequencing and mass spectroscopy...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993802/glycemia-is-related-to-impaired-cerebrovascular-autoregulation-after-severe-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-observational-study
#13
Adam M H Young, Hadie Adams, Joseph Donnelly, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Helen Fernandes, Mathew R Garnett, Marek Czosnyka, Peter Smielewski, Mark Plummer, Shruti Agrawal, Peter J Hutchinson
INTRODUCTION: A strong association exists between hyperglycemia and outcome in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we describe observations of serum markers of glucose metabolism in a cohort of pediatric TBI patients and how these variables are related to parameters of intracranial pathophysiology. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on pediatric severe TBI patients admitted to Addenbrookes Hospital Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) between January 2001 and December 2013...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987163/cellular-reactions-of-the-central-nervous-system
#14
Gabor G Kovacs
Major cell types of the central nervous system comprise neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia), choroid plexus cells, cells related to blood vessels and coverings. These cells show a wide range of reactions to various noxious agents, which can be detected in routine stainings. Some of these reactions are nonspecific to different injuries; however some, such as the appearance of inclusion bodies, can be highly disease-specific. Immunohistochemical markers are widely used in neuropathologic diagnostic practice and help to understand the pathogenesis of diseases...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955196/minocycline-suppression-of-early-peripheral-inflammation-reduces-hypoxia-induced-neonatal-brain-injury
#15
Yingjun Min, Hongchun Li, Kaiyu Xu, Yilong Huang, Jie Xiao, Weizhou Wang, Longjun Li, Ting Yang, Lixuan Huang, Ling Yang, Hong Jiang, Qian Wang, Min Zhao, HaiRong Hua, Rong Mei, Fan Li
While extensive studies report that neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) induces long-term cognitive impairment via inflammatory responses in the brain, little is known about the role of early peripheral inflammation response in HI injury. Here we used a neonatal hypoxia rodent model by subjecting postnatal day 0 (P0d) rat pups to systemic hypoxia (3.5 h), a condition that is commonly seen in clinic neonates, Then, an initial dose of minocycline (45 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 2 h after the hypoxia exposure ended, followed by half dosage (22...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942078/tau-protein-mapt-as-a-possible-biochemical-marker-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-postmortem-examination
#16
Mieszko Olczak, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Magdalena Kwiatkowska, Dorota Samojłowicz, Sylwia Tarka, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
MAPT is a neuronal protein that plays an important role in axonal stabilization, neuronal development, and neuronal polarity. MAPT release into the CSF and blood has been interpreted as indicative of axonal injury as its elevated levels were observed in olympic boxers even after a mild head trauma suggesting minor CNS injuries. In our study we wanted to check the potential relevance of MAPT examination for forensic purposes. The study was carried out using cases of head injury group and cases of sudden death (cardiopulmonary failure, no injuries of the head - control group) provided by forensic pathologists at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw...
November 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924363/thrombospondin-1-gene-deficiency-worsens-the-neurological-outcomes-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#17
Chongjie Cheng, Zhanyang Yu, Song Zhao, Zhengbu Liao, Changhong Xing, Yinghua Jiang, Yong-Guang Yang, Michael J Whalen, Eng H Lo, Xiaochuan Sun, Xiaoying Wang
Background: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays multiple physiological and pathophysiological roles in the brain. Experimental reports suggest that TSP-1 may have an adverse role in neuronal function recovery under certain injury conditions. However, the roles of TSP-1 in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been elucidated. In this study we for the first time investigated the roles of TSP-1 in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in TSP-1 knockout (TSP-1 KO) and wild type (WT) mice...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921587/dimethyl-fumarate-treatment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-prevents-depletion-of-antioxidative-brain-glutathione-and-confers-neuroprotection
#18
Tobias Krämer, Theresa Grob, Lutz Menzel, Tobias Hirnet, Eva Griemert, Konstantin Radyushkin, Serge C Thal, Axel Methner, Michael K E Schaefer
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an immunomodulatory compound to treat multiple sclerosis and psoriasis with neuroprotective potential. Its mechanism of action involves activation of the antioxidant pathway regulator Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 thereby increasing synthesis of the cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The objective of this study was to investigate whether post-traumatic DMF treatment is beneficial after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact followed by oral administration of DMF (80 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at 3, 24, 48, and 72 h after the inflicted TBI...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886695/cerebral-microvascular-dysfunction-in-metabolic-syndrome-is-exacerbated-by-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#19
Nathalie Obadia, Marcos Adriano Lessa, Anissa Daliry, Raquel Rangel Silvares, Fabiana Gomes, Eduardo Tibiriçá, Vanessa Estato
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Microvascular dysfunction is an important feature underlying the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impacts of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury on the cerebral microvascular function of rats with high-fat diet-induced MetS. RESULTS: We examined Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet (CTL) for 20 weeks underwent 30 min of bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by 1 h of reperfusion (IR) or sham surgery...
September 8, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868043/metabolomics-profiling-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Jussi P Posti, Alex M Dickens, Matej Orešič, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Olli Tenovuo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex disease with a multifaceted pathophysiology. Impairment of energy metabolism is a key component of secondary insults. This phenomenon is a consequence of multiple potential mechanisms including diffusion hypoxia, mitochondrial failure, and increased energy needs due to systemic trauma responses, seizures, or spreading depolarization. The degree of disturbance in brain metabolism is affected by treatment interventions and reflected in clinical patient outcome. Hence, monitoring of these secondary events in peripheral blood will provide a window into the pathophysiological course of severe TBI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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