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Brain blood markers for injury

Kelly M DeMars, Austin O McCrea, David M Siwarski, Brian D Sanz, Changjun Yang, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
Ischemic stroke occurs when a clot forms in the brain vasculature that starves downstream tissue of oxygen and nutrients resulting in cell death. The tissue immediately downstream of the blockage, the core, dies within minutes, but the surrounding tissue, the penumbra is potentially salvageable. Prostaglandin E2 binds to four different G-protein coupled membrane receptors EP1-EP4 mediating different and sometimes opposing responses. Pharmacological activation of the EP4 receptor has already been established as neuroprotective in stroke, but the mechanism(s) of protection are not well-characterized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Christopher G Hughes, Mayur B Patel, Nathan E Brummel, Jennifer L Thompson, J Brennan McNeil, Pratik P Pandharipande, James C Jackson, Rameela Chandrasekhar, Lorraine B Ware, E Wesley Ely, Timothy D Girard
PURPOSE: Neurologic and endothelial injury biomarkers are associated with prolonged delirium during critical illness and may reflect injury pathways that lead to poor long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that blood-brain barrier (BBB), neuronal, and endothelial injury biomarkers measured during critical illness are associated with cognitive impairment and disability after discharge. METHODS: We enrolled adults with respiratory failure and/or shock and measured plasma concentrations of BBB (S100B), neuronal (UCHL1, BDNF), and endothelial (E-selectin, PAI-1) injury markers within 72 h of ICU admission...
March 9, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Jia-Feng Fang, Xu-Na Huang, Xiao-Yan Han, Xi Ouyang, Lei Fan, Xin Zhao, Ze-Hong Chen, Hong-Bo Wei
BACKGROUND: Whether combined transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is more effective than transplantation of a single cell type in the restoration of erectile function is unknown. AIM: To investigate the effect of combined transplantation of MSCs and EPCs on restoration of erectile function in rats with cavernous nerve injury (CNI). METHODS: MSCs were isolated from human bone marrow and EPCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood...
March 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Mikhail E Sokolov, Farid V Bashirov, Vage A Markosyan, Tatyana V Povysheva, Filip O Fadeev, Andrey A Izmailov, Maxim S Kuztetsov, Zufar Z Safiullov, Maxim M Shmarov, Boris S Naroditskyi, András Palotás, Rustem R Islamov
Natural brain repair after stroke is extremely limited, and current therapeutic options are even more scarce with no clinical break-through in sight. Despite restricted regeneration in the central nervous system, we have previously proved that human umbilical cord blood mono-nuclear cells (UCB-MC) transduced with adenoviral vectors carrying genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) successfully rescued neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yona Goldshmit, Ghil Jona, Eran Schmukler, Shira Solomon, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Angela Ruban
Neurotrauma causes immediate elevation of extracellular glutamate levels, which creates excitotoxicity and facilitates inflammation, glial scar formation and consequently neuronal death. Finding factors that reduce the inflammatory response, glial scar formation and increase neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth, are of major importance for improving the outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we evaluated a new treatment aiming to remove CNS glutamate into the systemic blood circulation by intravenous administration of blood glutamate scavengers (BGS) such as recombinant enzyme glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (rGOT1) and its co-substrate...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Gönül Çatlı, Ahmet Anık, Sezer Acar, Tuncay Küme, Melike Karabulut, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Bumin Nuri Dündar, Ayhan Abacı
AIM: To investigate serum levels of brain injury markers in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the relation of these markers with clinical and radiological findings of brain injury and laboratory results. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with DKA, 30 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and 35 healthy children were included. Clinical and laboratory findings, and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were recorded. In the DKA group, Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) levels were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 hours after treatment...
February 27, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Ramazan Giden, Mehmet T Gokdemir, Ozcan Erel, Hasan Buyukaslan, Hamza Karabag
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may induce brain injury. Thiols are one of the most important antioxidant agents, and thiol/disulphide (SH/SS) homeo stasis is a novel oxidative stress marker. The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship of thiol levels and SH/SS homeostasis with head trauma in pediatric patients. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in 85 consecutive pediatric patients aged < 18 years with isolated head trauma and 58 age- and gender-matched healthy controls in the Emergency Department (ED)...
January 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Hans Jørgen Timm Guthe, Torbjørn Nedrebø, Jan Kristian Damås, Helge Wiig, Ansgar Berg
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia is neuroprotective in asphyxiated neonates by counteracting mechanisms contributing to brain injury. Although an initial increased permeability is part of an inflammatory reaction and thereby a natural healing process, an excessive endothelial permeability with edema formation may result in impaired hemodynamics. Reduced permeability may, however, benefit healing. Although plasma and interstitial colloid osmotic pressure are accessible and essential parameters for understanding fluid imbalance, the mechanisms of fluid exchange remain poorly understood...
February 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Christine M Leeper, Matthew D Neal, Timothy R Billiar, Jason L Sperry, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Elevated INR is a marker of poor outcome but not necessarily bleeding or clinical coagulopathy in injured children. Conversely, children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) tend to be hypercoagulable based on rapid thromboelastography (rTEG) parameters. Many clinicians continue to utilize INR as a treatment target. METHODS: Prospective observational study of severely-injured children age<18 with rTEG on arrival and daily thereafter for up to 7 days...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Brittany Lang, Mark S Kindy, F Andrew Kozel, Susan K Schultz, Saeid Taheri
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a diagnostic term applied to cognitively impaired individuals with heterogeneous cerebrovascular conditions affecting large and/or small vessels. Individual biomarkers have been identified as instrumental in relating VCID to specific underlying pathologies to better characterize this syndrome. Emerging research to refine panels of biomarkers will increase classification sensitivity and specificity. Refined VCID clustering based on the severity and pathology of vascular injury will permit the development of optimal prevention and treatment strategies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
K A Mander, J W Finnie
Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin (ETX) is a potent neurotoxin producing a severe, and often fatal, neurological disorder in ruminant livestock. Microvascular damage appears to be the fundamental action of ETX in the brain and, recently, similar vascular injury, with subsequent severe vasogenic oedema, has been reported in the retina of rats given ETX. Endothelial barrier antigen (EBA) is a useful marker of an intact blood-brain barrier in rats and it has been shown that loss of EBA immunoreactivity is correlated with ETX-induced cerebral microvascular damage in this species...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Bin Xiang, Chun Xiao, Ting Shen, Xiufang Li
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. The inhibition of inflammation appears to be a potential therapeutic strategy for neuro-inflammatory injury after ischemic stroke. In response to cerebral ischemia, resident microglia and infiltrated macrophages from the damaged blood-brain barrier are activated. Microglia activation appears to be a double-edged sword. Activated microglia migrate to the damaged neuron, change their phenotype to M1 or M2, and become involved in nerve damage and repair...
January 29, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Tessa J Parsons, Claudio Sartini, Paul Welsh, Naveed Sattar, Sarah Ash, Lucy T Lennon, S Goya Wannamethee, I-Min Lee, Peter H Whincup, Barbara J Jefferis
BACKGROUND: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT) are markers of cardiac injury used in diagnosis of heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively, and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since physical activity is protective against cardiovascular disease and heart failure, we investigated whether higher levels of physical activity, and less sedentary behaviour were associated with lower NT-proBNP and hsTnT...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
María A Ballesteros, María I Rubio-Lopez, María San Martín, Ana Padilla, Marcos López-Hoyos, Javier Llorca, Eduardo Miñambres
AIMS/BACKGROUND: To evaluate the correlation between protein S100B concentrations measured in the jugular bulb as well as at peripheral level and the prognostic usefulness of this marker. METHODS: A prospective study of all patients admitted to the intensive care unit with acute brain damage was carried out. Peripheral and jugular bulb blood samples were collected upon admission and every 24h for three days. The endpoints were brain death diagnosis and the Glasgow Outcome Scale score after 6months...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jian-Liang Li, Kai Li, Yuan Guo, Zheng Zhao, Li-Na Chen, Xiao-Hui Jiang, Yu-Jie Li, Ya Tu, Xiao-Jun Zheng
Cerebral malaria (CM), a severe neurological syndrome caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, is a serious life-threatening disease with a high mortality. Survivors' persistent brain injury is manifested as long-term neurocognitive disorders. The main neuropathological feature of CM is the sequestration of parasited red blood cells (pRBCs) in cerebral microvessels. Other neuropathological features of CM include petechial hemorrhage in the brain parenchyma, annular hemorrhage, extensive brain endothelial cell activation, and focal endothelial cell injury and necrosis...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ernest M Graham, Allen D Everett, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Frances J Northington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rapid progress in biomarker science is on the threshold of significantly changing clinical care for infants in the neonatal ICU. Infants with neonatal brain injuries will likely be the first group whose management is dramatically altered with point-of-care, rapidly available brain biomarker analysis. Providing an interim update on progress in this area is the purpose of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Highlighted findings from the past 18 months of publications on biomarkers in neonatal brain injury include; Specific nonbrain markers of cardiac health and global asphyxia continue to provide information on brain injury after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Seyma Kayali, Ilker Ertugrul, Tamer Yoldas, Ozkan Kaya, Senem Ozgür, Utku A Orün, Selmin Karademir
To analyze the role of sensitive cardiac troponin I (scTnI) and high-sensitive troponin T (hscTnT) in the determination of myocardial injury caused by volume and pressure load due to pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to investigate if these markers may be useful in the management of PH in childhood. Twenty-eight patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) with left to right shunt and PH, 29 patients with CHD with left to right shunt but without PH, and 18 healthy children, in total 75 individuals, were included in the study...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Éadaoin W Griffin, Justin D Yssel, Eoin O'Neill, Katie J Ryan, Noreen Boyle, Peter Harper, Andrew Harkin, Thomas Connor
OBJECTIVES: Clenbuterol is a brain penetrant β2-adrenoceptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and putative neuroprotective properties. In the present investigation, the effect of clenbuterol was assessed in a rat model of acute brain injury induced by intra-striatal administration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. METHODS: Clenbuterol (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered one hour prior to stereotactically delivered IL-1β (100 ng) into the striatum. Four hours postinjection, rats were anesthetized, blood samples were collected for circulating cytokine and chemokine analysis, and the ipsilateral striatum and liver tissue were harvested for mRNA expression analysis of target genes...
January 5, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Fang Kang, ChaoLiang Tang, MingMing Han, XiaoQing Chai, Xiang Huang, Juan Li
OBJECTIVES: To compare dexmedetomidine combined with isoflurane versus isoflurane anesthesia on brain injury after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients undergoing elective valve replacement surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Ninety-seven patients scheduled for valve replacement surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: dexmedetomidine and isoflurane (Dex-Iso, n = 50) and isoflurane alone (Iso, n = 47)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Miriam Domowicz, Natasha L Wadlington, Judith G Henry, Kasandra Diaz, Miranda J Munoz, Nancy B Schwartz
The impact of traumatic brain injury during the perinatal period, which coincides with glial cell (astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) maturation was assessed to determine whether a second insult, e.g., increased inflammation due to remote bacterial exposure, exacerbates the initial injury's effects, possibly eliciting longer-term brain damage. Thus, a murine multifactorial injury model incorporating both mechanisms consisting of perinatal penetrating traumatic brain injury, with or without intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an analog of remote pathogen exposure has been developed...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
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