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Brain blood markers for injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908617/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cellular-environment-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-thermal-doppler-flowmetry-and-microdialysis-study
#1
D Papadopoulos, A Filippidis, G Krommidas, G Vretzakis, K Paterakis, A Komnos, K N Fountas
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microdialysis enables assessment of regional metabolic physiology and provides biomarkers for clinical correlation in critical conditions, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of our current study was to investigate the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and microdialysis parameters (glucose, lactate, glycerol, pyruvate concentrations, and lactate/pyruvate metabolic ratio) in patients with SAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with SAH were enrolled in our retrospective study...
November 18, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903281/improving-the-clinical-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-through-the-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-peripheral-blood-biomarkers
#2
Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi, Damir Janigro
BACKGROUND: Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dependence on variables other than the disease condition itself. These include half-life in blood, molecular weight, and marker-specific biophysical properties, as well as the effects of glomerular filtration, age, gender, and ethnicity. To study these factors, and to provide a method for markers' analyses, we developed a kinetic model that allows the integrated interpretation of these properties...
November 30, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889567/prognostic-value-of-plasma-apelin-concentrations-at-admission-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-acute-myocardial-infarction
#3
Jordi Sans-Roselló, Gregori Casals, Xavier Rosselló, Bernardino González de la Presa, Montserrat Vila, Albert Duran-Cambra, Manuel Morales-Ruiz, Andreu Ferrero-Gregori, Wladimiro Jiménez, Alessandro Sionis
BACKGROUND: The use of plasma biomarkers is relevant for the prognosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Apelin, an adipocytokine, plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of both ischemia/reperfusion injury and its potential subsequent heart failure. We evaluated apelin concentrations at admission as a biomarker to assess risk of 6-month mortality. METHODS: Consecutive patients with STEMI were recruited from January 2012 to January 2013 (n=250)...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881777/temporal-profiling-of-astrocyte-precursors-reveals-parallel-roles-for-asef-during-development-and-after-injury
#4
Lesley S Chaboub, Jeanne M Manalo, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Stacey M Glasgow, Fengju Chen, Yoshihiro Kawasaki, Tetsu Akiyama, Chay T Kuo, Chad J Creighton, Carrie A Mohila, Benjamin Deneen
: Lineage development is a stepwise process, governed by stage-specific regulatory factors and associated markers. Astrocytes are one of the principle cell types in the CNS and the stages associated with their development remain very poorly defined. To identify these stages, we performed gene-expression profiling on astrocyte precursor populations in the spinal cord, identifying distinct patterns of gene induction during their development that are strongly correlated with human astrocytes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881344/-value-of-urinary-liver-fatty-acid-binding-protein-in-assessing-severity-of-brain-trauma-and-predicting-acute-kidney-injury
#5
Guang-Yong Wu, Kai Zhuang, Yu Liu, Zhi-Fei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in early assessment of the severity of traumatic brain injury and in predicting the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) following the brain injury. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with traumatic brain injury patients were divided into 4 groups according to their Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores. Blood and urine samples were collected at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after the injury to detect serum creatinine (SCr) level using biochemical analyzer and urinary L-FABP using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with samples from 15 healthy adults as controls...
November 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872486/alpha-2-macroglobulin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-marker-of-neuronal-injury-through-the-rcan1-pathway
#6
V R Varma, S Varma, Y An, T J Hohman, S Seddighi, R Casanova, A Beri, E B Dammer, N T Seyfried, O Pletnikova, A Moghekar, M R Wilson, J J Lah, R J O'Brien, A I Levey, J C Troncoso, M S Albert, M Thambisetty
Preclinical changes that precede the onset of symptoms and eventual diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a target for potential preventive interventions. A large body of evidence suggests that inflammation is closely associated with AD pathogenesis and may be a promising target pathway for such interventions. However, little is known about the association between systemic inflammation and preclinical AD pathophysiology. We first examined whether the acute-phase protein, alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M), a major component of the innate immune system, was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuronal injury in preclinical AD and risk of incident AD in the predictors of cognitive decline among normal individuals (BIOCARD) cohort...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869558/polynitroxylated-pegylated-hemoglobin-a-novel-small-volume-therapeutic-for-traumatic-brain-injury-resuscitation-comparison-to-whole-blood-and-dose-response-evaluation
#7
Erik C Brockman, Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Hulya Bayir, Robert Clark, Vincent A Vagni, Keri L Janesko, Catherine Byrd, Li Ma, Carleton J C Hsia, Patrick M Kochanek
: Resuscitation with polynitroxylated pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), a PEGylated bovine hemoglobin decorated with nitroxides, eliminated the need for fluid administration, reduced ICP and brain edema, and produced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo vs. lactated Ringer's (LR) in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS). HYPOTHESIS: Resuscitation with PNPH will improve acute physiology vs. whole blood after TBI+HS and will be safe and effective across a wide dosage range...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834539/chronic-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Cillian E Lynch, Gogce Crynen, Scott Ferguson, Benoit Mouzon, Daniel Paris, Joseph Ojo, Paige Leary, Fiona Crawford, Corbin Bachmeier
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of the cerebrovasculature following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: TBI is a risk factor for development of various neurodegenerative disorders. A common feature of neurodegenerative disease is cerebrovascular dysfunction which includes alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF). TBI can result in transient reductions in CBF, with severe injuries often accompanied by varying degrees of vascular pathology post-mortem...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783383/early-erythrolysis-in-the-hematoma-after-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Ge Dang, Yuefan Yang, Gang Wu, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Guohua Xi
Erythrolysis occurs in the clot after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and the release of hemoglobin causes brain injury, but it is unclear when such lysis occurs. The present study examined early erythrolysis in rats. ICH rats had an intracaudate injection of 100 μl autologous blood, and sham rats had a needle insertion. All rats had T2 and T2* magnetic response imaging (MRI) scanning, and brains were used for histology and CD163 (a hemoglobin scavenger receptor) and DARPP-32 (a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry...
October 25, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778404/progranulin-protects-against-exaggerated-axonal-injury-and-astrogliosis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Lutz Menzel, Lisa Kleber, Carina Friedrich, Regina Hummel, Larissa Dangel, Jennifer Winter, Katja Schmitz, Irmgard Tegeder, Michael K E Schäfer
In response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) microglia/macrophages and astrocytes release inflammatory mediators with dual effects on secondary brain damage progression. The neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein progranulin (PGRN) attenuates neuronal damage and microglia/macrophage activation in brain injury but mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we studied histopathology, neurology and gene expression of inflammatory markers in PGRN-deficient mice (Grn(-/-) ) 24 h and 5 days after experimental TBI...
October 25, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765361/aralia-elata-var-mandshurica-rupr-maxim-j-wen-an-overview-of-pharmacological-studies
#11
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750470/controls-can-t-be-ignored
#12
W Frank Peacock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747196/shiga-toxin-mediated-neurologic-changes-in-murine-model-of-disease
#13
Suman Pradhan, Christine Pellino, Kayleigh MacMaster, Dennis Coyle, Alison A Weiss
Seizures and neurologic involvement have been reported in patients infected with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with neurologic involvement is associated with more severe outcome. We investigated the extent of renal and neurologic damage in mice following injection of the highly potent form of Stx, Stx2a, and less potent Stx1. As observed in previous studies, Stx2a brought about moderate to acute tubular necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in the kidneys. Brain sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) appeared normal, although some red blood cell congestion was observed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725118/sinomenine-enhances-microglia-m2-polarization-and-attenuates-inflammatory-injury-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#14
Hui Shi, Kuang Zheng, Zulu Su, Hai Su, Ming Zhong, Xuenong He, Changlong Zhou, Hao Chen, Qijiang Xiong, Yi Zhang
Microglia polarization plays a vital role in brain inflammatory injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Previous studies have shown that sinomenine possesses potential immunoregulatory capabilities. However, microglia polarization's exact mechanisms in ICH remain uncertain. Therefore, we examined the role of sinomenine on microglia polarization and brain inflammation following ICH. For the experiment, autologous blood models were constructed in C57/BL6 mice. Markers of classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) microglia were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697434/elevation-of-oxidative-stress-indicators-in-a-pilot-study-of-plasma-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Alison Halstrom, Ellen MacDonald, Claire Neil, Glenn Arendts, Daniel Fatovich, Melinda Fitzgerald
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) encompasses a broad range of injury mechanisms and severity. A detailed determination of TBI severity can be a complex challenge, with current clinical tools sometimes insufficient to tailor a clinical response to a spectrum of patient needs. Blood biomarkers of TBI may supplement clinical assessments but currently available biomarkers have limited sensitivity and specificity. While oxidative stress is known to feature in damage mechanisms following TBI, investigation of blood biomarkers of oxidative stress has been limited...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665050/human-serum-metabolites-associate-with-severity-and-patient-outcomes-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Matej Orešič, Jussi P Posti, Maja H Kamstrup-Nielsen, Riikka S K Takala, Hester F Lingsma, Ismo Mattila, Sirkku Jäntti, Ari J Katila, Keri L H Carpenter, Henna Ala-Seppälä, Anna Kyllönen, Henna-Riikka Maanpää, Jussi Tallus, Jonathan P Coles, Iiro Heino, Janek Frantzén, Peter J Hutchinson, David K Menon, Olli Tenovuo, Tuulia Hyötyläinen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. TBI is an example of a medical condition where there are still major lacks in diagnostics and outcome prediction. Here we apply comprehensive metabolic profiling of serum samples from TBI patients and controls in two independent cohorts. The discovery study included 144 TBI patients, with the samples taken at the time of hospitalization. The patients were diagnosed as severe (sTBI; n=22), moderate (moTBI; n=14) or mild TBI (mTBI; n=108) according to Glasgow Coma Scale...
July 15, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646002/cell-surface-cd36-protein-in-monocyte-macrophage-contributes-to-phagocytosis-during-the-resolution-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#17
Moon-Sook Woo, Jiwon Yang, Cesar Beltran, Sunghee Cho
Infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages (M-MΦ) influence stroke-induced brain injury. Although the inflammatory nature of M-MΦ in acute stroke has been well documented, their role during the resolution phase of stroke is less clear. With emerging evidence for the involvement of scavenger receptors in innate immunity, this study addresses an M-MΦ CD36 role in mediating phagocytosis during the recovery phase of stroke. Stroke increases CD36 and TSP-1/2 mRNA levels in the ipsilateral hemisphere at acute (3-day (d)) and recovery (7d) periods...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637400/the-role-of-multimodal-invasive-monitoring-in-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
REVIEW
Christos Lazaridis, Claudia S Robertson
This article reviews the role of modalities that directly monitor brain parenchyma in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The physiology monitored involves compartmental and perfusion pressures, tissue oxygenation and metabolism, quantitative blood flow, pressure autoregulation, and electrophysiology. There are several proposed roles for this multimodality monitoring, such as to track, prevent, and treat the cascade of secondary brain injury; monitor the neurologically injured patient; integrate various data into a composite, patient-specific, and dynamic picture; apply protocolized, pathophysiology-driven intensive care; use as a prognostic marker; and understand pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in secondary brain injury to develop preventive and abortive therapies, and to inform future clinical trials...
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632903/fluid-biomarkers-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-related-conditions
#19
REVIEW
Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow
Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as concussion, remain a major unmet clinical need. Moderate to severe TBI can be diagnosed definitively by clinical assessment and standard neuroimaging techniques that detect the gross damage to the brain parenchyma. Diagnostic tools for mild TBI are lacking and, currently, the diagnosis has to be made on clinical grounds alone, because most patients show no gross pathological changes on CT. Most patients with mild TBI recover quickly, but about 15% develop an ill-defined condition called postconcussive syndrome (PCS)...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614125/traumatic-brain-injury-induced-matrix-metalloproteinase2-cleaves-cxcl12%C3%AE-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-and-causes-neurodegeneration
#20
P M Abdul-Muneer, Adriano Andrea Conte, Debanjan Haldar, Mathew Long, Rachel Patel, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar, Christopher M Overall, Bryan J Pfister
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), even at mild levels, can activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the induction of neuroinflammation that can result in blood brain barrier breakdown and neurodegeneration. MMP2 has a significant role in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration by modulating the chemokine CXCL12 (stromal cell derived factor SDF-1α) signaling pathway and the induction of apoptosis. SDF-1α is responsible for cell proliferation and differentiation throughout the nervous system and is also implicated in various neurodegenerative illnesses...
September 7, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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