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Brain blood markers for injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434264/exploring-effects-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-a-pig-model-of-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest
#1
Johanna Herajärvi, Tuomas Anttila, Elitsa Y Dimova, Tuomas Laukka, Mikko Myllymäki, Henri Haapanen, Benjamin A Olenchock, Hannu Tuominen, Ulla Puistola, Peeter Karihtala, Kai Kiviluoma, Peppi Koivunen, Vesa Anttila, Tatu Juvonen
OBJECTIVES: During aortic and cardiac surgery, risks for mortality and morbidity are inevitable. Surgical setups involving deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) are effective to achieve organ protection against ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to identify humoural factors mediating additive protective effects of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in a porcine model of DHCA. DESIGN: Twenty-two pigs were randomized into the RIPC group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 11)...
April 24, 2017: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386329/inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-lithium-chloride-contributes-to-the-integrity-of-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Zili He, Yulong Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Jiawei Li, Zengming Zheng, Jian Chen, Hongyu Zhang, Zhouguang Wang, Huazi Xu, Jian Xiao
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play important roles in the spinal cord injury (SCI), which including blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a clinical drug for bipolar mood disorders and contributes to neuroprotection. This study aims to investigate the effects of LiCl on BSCB disruption and the ER stress pathway induced by spinal cord injury. We examined the integrity of the BSCB with Evans Blue dye and macrophages extravasation, measured the microvessels loss, the junction proteins degeneration, the activation ER stress, and the locomotor function recovery...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355608/new-wavelet-neurovascular-bundle-for-bedside-evaluation-of-cerebral-autoregulation-and-neurovascular-coupling-in-newborns-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#3
Lina F Chalak, Rong Zhang
Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) resulting from birth asphyxia constitutes a major global public health burden for millions of infants every year, and despite therapeutic hypothermia, half of these neonates have poor neurological outcomes. As new neuroprotective interventions are being studied in clinical trials, there is a critical need to establish physiological surrogate markers of therapeutic efficacy, to guide patient selection and/or to modify the therapeutic intervention. The challenge in the field of neonatal brain injury has been the difficulty of clinically discerning NE severity within the short therapeutic window after birth or of analyzing the dynamic aspects of the cerebral circulation in sick NE newborns...
March 30, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346963/point-of-care-testing-in-neurosurgery
#4
Christopher Beynon, Lars Wessels, Andreas W Unterberg
Coagulation disorders can have a major impact on the outcome of neurosurgical patients. The central nervous system is located within the closed space of the skull, and therefore, intracranial hemorrhage can lead to intracranial hypertension. Acute brain injury has been associated with alterations of various hemostatic parameters. Point-of-care (POC) techniques such as rotational thromboelastometry are able to identify markers of coagulopathy which are not reflected by standard assessment of hemostasis (e.g...
March 27, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340601/rantes-levels-in-peripheral-blood-csf-and-contused-brain-tissue-as-a-marker-for-outcome-in-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-patients
#5
Venencia Albert, Arulselvi Subramanian, Deepak Agrawal, Sanjeev Kumar Bhoi, Pooja Pallavi, A K Mukhopadhayay
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes activation of several neurochemical and physiological cascades, leading to neurological impairment. We aimed to investigate the level of novel chemokine RANTES in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and contused brain tissue in traumatic brain injury patients and to correlate the expression of this chemokine with the severity of head injury and neurological outcome. METHODS: This longitudinal case control study was performed on 70 TBI patients over a period of 30 months...
March 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336326/oxidative-stress-and-genes-regulation-of-cerebral-malaria-upon-zizyphus-spina-christi-treatment-in-a-murine-model
#6
Murad A Mubaraki, Taghreed A Hafiz, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Mohamed A Dkhil
The development and spread of multidrug-resistant strains of malarial parasites have led to an overwhelming increase in the resistance to current antimalarial drugs. The urgent need for alternative antimalarial drugs has directed some of the current studies toward folkloric medicine approaches. Interestingly, the Zizyphus spina Cristi leaf extract (ZLE) has been found to exhibit antiplasmodial activity. This study evaluated the protective effect of ZLE against Plasmodium berghei-induced cerebral tissue injuries in mice...
March 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322619/raising-the-bar-on-traumatic-brain-injury-biomarker-research-methods-make-a-difference
#7
Linda Papa, Kevin K W Wang
Research in blood-based traumatic brain injury (TBI) biomarkers has imploded over the last two decades and continues to grow at an unwavering pace. Commercialization of these biomarkers is ongoing, with a number of companies seeking FDA approval to market their test for clinical application. Although there are many papers being published, many lack the rigorous reporting required to adequately evaluate these markers for clinical use. Too often, there are inadequate sample sizes, inappropriate control groups and outcome measures, variable definitions of TBI, inconsistencies in when samples are drawn relative to time of injury, variability in how samples are processed and performance characteristics of the assays themselves are rarely known or poorly described...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315443/progesterone-modulates-diabetes-hyperglycemia-induced-changes-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-sciatic-nerve
#8
Fahim Atif, Megan C Prunty, Nefize Turan, Donald G Stein, Seema Yousuf
We investigated the effect of progesterone (P4) treatment on diabetes/hyperglycemia-induced pathological changes in brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve tissue in male rats. Animals were rendered hyperglycemic by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ). P4 treatment was started after hyperglycemia was confirmed and body weight and blood glucose levels were monitored once/week for 5weeks. Rats underwent behavioral testing at week 5 and were then euthanized for histology. We assessed the expression of markers of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and tissue injury (CD11b, NG2, COX2 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)) in the brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve...
March 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299447/markers-of-physiological-stress-during-exercise-under-conditions-of-normoxia-normobaric-hypoxia-hypobaric-hypoxia-and-genuine-high-altitude
#9
David Richard Woods, John Paul O'Hara, Christopher John Boos, Peter David Hodkinson, Costas Tsakirides, Neil Edward Hill, Darren Jose, Amanda Hawkins, Kelly Phillipson, Antonia Hazlerigg, Nicola Arjomandkhah, Liam Gallagher, David Holdsworth, Mark Cooke, Nicholas Donald Charles Green, Adrian Mellor
PURPOSE: To investigate whether there is a differential response at rest and following exercise to conditions of genuine high altitude (GHA), normobaric hypoxia (NH), hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and normobaric normoxia (NN). METHOD: Markers of sympathoadrenal and adrenocortical function [plasma normetanephrine (PNORMET), metanephrine (PMET), cortisol], myocardial injury [highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (hscTnT)], and function [N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)] were evaluated at rest and with exercise under NN, at 3375 m in the Alps (GHA) and at equivalent simulated altitude under NH and HH...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298024/reduction-of-inflammation-after-administration-of-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-results-of-the-subcutaneous-interleukin-1ra-in-sah-scil-sah-study
#10
James Galea, Kayode Ogungbenro, Sharon Hulme, Hiren Patel, Sylvia Scarth, Margaret Hoadley, Karen Illingworth, Catherine J McMahon, Nikolaos Tzerakis, Andrew T King, Andy Vail, Stephen J Hopkins, Nancy Rothwell, Pippa Tyrrell
OBJECTIVE Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating cerebrovascular event with long-term morbidity and mortality. Patients who survive the initial bleeding are likely to suffer further early brain injury arising from a plethora of pathological processes. These may result in a worsening of outcome or death in approximately 25% of patients and may contribute to longer-term cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Inflammation, mediated by the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), is an important contributor to cerebral ischemia after diverse forms of brain injury, including aSAH...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293977/a-prospective-pilot-study-on-serum-cleaved-tau-protein-as-a-neurological-marker-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Sharad Pandey, Kulwant Singh, Vivek Sharma, Deepa Pandey, Ravi Prakash Jha, Sunil Kumar Rai, Richa Singh Chauhan, Royana Singh
OBJECTIVE: Neurotrauma has been labelled as a "silent epidemic" affecting both the developed and the developing nations. To date, no single brain-specific biomarker has been unanimously accepted for routine clinical use in TBI. Our study aims to determine the correlation of "cleaved-tau protein" in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at the time of admission, mode of injury, CT findings and outcome at discharge. METHODS: The study has been approved by the institutional ethical committee...
March 15, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292310/microglial-derived-microparticles-mediate-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Alok Kumar, Bogdan A Stoica, David J Loane, Ming Yang, Gelareh Abulwerdi, Niaz Khan, Asit Kumar, Stephen R Thom, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Local and systemic inflammatory responses are initiated early after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and may play a key role in the secondary injury processes resulting in neuronal loss and neurological deficits. However, the mechanisms responsible for the rapid expansion of neuroinflammation and its long-term progression have yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the role of microparticles (MP), a member of the extracellular vesicle family, in the exchange of pro-inflammatory molecules between brain immune cells, as well as their transfer to the systemic circulation, as key pathways of inflammation propagation following brain trauma...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286182/crotalus-helleri-venom-preconditioning-reduces-postoperative-cerebral-edema-and-improves-neurological-outcomes-after-surgical-brain-injury
#13
Cherine H Kim, Devin W McBride, Prativa Sherchan, Carl E Person, Eric C K Gren, Wayne Kelln, Tim Lekic, William K Hayes, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative cerebral edema is a devastating complication in neurosurgical patients. Loss of blood-brain barrier integrity has been shown to lead to the development of brain edema following neurosurgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate preconditioning with Crotalus helleri venom (Cv-PC) as a potential preventive therapy for reducing postoperative brain edema in the rodent SBI model. C. helleri venom is known to contain phospholipase A2 (PLA2), an enzyme upstream to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the inflammatory cascade, acts to increase the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins...
March 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280686/the-first-week-after-concussion-blood-flow-brain-function-and-white-matter-microstructure
#14
Nathan W Churchill, Michael G Hutchison, Doug Richards, General Leung, Simon J Graham, Tom A Schweizer
Concussion is a major health concern, associated with short-term deficits in physical function, emotion and cognition, along with negative long-term health outcomes. However, we remain in the early stages of characterizing MRI markers of concussion, particularly during the first week post-injury when symptoms are most severe. In this study, 52 varsity athletes were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), including 26 athletes with acute concussion (scanned 1-7 days post-injury) and 26 matched control athletes...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249910/humoral-and-cellular-immunity-changed-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-human-patients
#15
Jia-Wei Wang, Jin-Ping Li, Ying-Lun Song, Qi-Huang Zhao
Previous studies have suggested that there is a disproportionally higher risk of infection following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This predisposition to infection may be driven by a poorly understood, brain-specific response in the immune system after TBI. However, there is a lack of studies that have fully characterized TBI patients to understand the relationship between TBI and peripheral immune function. In the present study, markers for humoral immunity and cellular immunity were measured for up to 2 weeks in the peripheral blood of 37 patients with TBI in order to elucidate the time course and the type of the peripheral immune response following TBI...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224137/hmgb1-anti-hmgb1-antibodies-define-a-molecular-signature-of-early-stages-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-isorders-hand
#16
Marie-Lise Gougeon, Béatrice Poirier-Beaudouin, Jacques Durant, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Héla Saïdi, Valérie Seffer, Michel Ticchioni, Stephane Chanalet, Helene Carsenti, Alexandra Harvey-Langton, Muriel Laffon, Jacqueline Cottalorda, Christian Pradier, Pierre Dellamonica, Matteo Vassallo
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in the post-HAART era, characterized by asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorders (MND). High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone chromosomal protein widely expressed in the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells, including brain cells, which acts as a potent proinflammatory cytokine when actively secreted from immune cells. Recent reports suggested that HMGB1 acts on microglial cells to promote neuroinflammation...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222921/relationships-between-left-ventricular-structure-and-function-according-to-cardiac-mri-and-cardiac-biomarkers-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#17
Bryan A Ross, Ron Wald, Marc B Goldstein, Darren A Yuen, Jonathon Leipsic, Mercedeh Kiaii, Andrea Rathe, Djeven P Deva, Anish Kirpalani, Olugbenga O Bello, John J Graham, Howard Leong-Poi, Kim A Connelly, Andrew T Yan
BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the relationships between left ventricular (LV) remodelling and the mechanical and uremic stressors in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: In this prospective 2-centre cohort study, 67 prevalent hemodialysis patients were followed for 1 year. Data on routine bloodwork and predialysis blood pressure (BP) measurements were collected over a 12-week period. LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV mass (LVM) were measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and indexed...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166312/association-between-subclinical-cardiac-biomarkers-and-clinically-manifest-cardiac-diseases-with-cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts
#18
Saima Hilal, Yuek Ling Chai, Susanne van Veluw, Muhammad Amin Shaik, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Arthur Mark Richards, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher Chen
Importance: Subclinical and clinical cardiac diseases have been previously linked to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestations of cerebrovascular disease, such as lacunes and white matter hyperintensities, as well as dementia. Cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs), a novel MRI marker of cerebral vascular disease, have not been studied, to date, in relation to subclinical and clinical cardiac diseases. Objective: To examine the association of blood biomarkers of subclinical cardiac disease and clinically manifest cardiac diseases with CMIs graded on 3-T MRI in a memory clinic population...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147421/blood-biomarkers-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-after-cardiac-arrest
#19
Pascal Stammet
Biomarkers are part of the recommended outcome predictors after cardiac arrest. In general, blood biomarkers can easily be performed as routine laboratory tests, and they are unaffected by sedation, but bear the potential risk of laboratory errors. Nonetheless, if used properly, with the potential limitations in mind, they certainly help predict outcome after cardiac arrest. Among the routinely used and available blood biomarkers, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) has the best predictive value for poor outcome if measured serially from 24 to 72 hours...
February 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140672/head-injury-serum-markers-for-assessing-response-to-trauma-design-of-the-headsmart-study
#20
Matthew E Peters, Vani Rao, Kathleen T Bechtold, Durga Roy, Haris I Sair, Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Robert D Stevens, D Scott Batty, Hayley Falk, Christopher Fernandez, Uju Ofoche, Alexandra Vassila, Anna J Hall, Braden Anderson, Edward Bessman, Constantine G Lyketsos, Allen D Everett, Jennifer Van Eyk, Frederick K Korley
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis and risk stratification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) at time of presentation remains a clinical challenge. The Head Injury Serum Markers for Assessing Response to Trauma study (HeadSMART) aims to examine blood-based biomarkers for diagnosing and determining prognosis in TBI. METHODS: HeadSMART is a 6-month prospective cohort study comparing emergency department patients evaluated for TBI (exposure group) to (1) emergency department patients evaluated for traumatic injury without head trauma and (2) healthy persons...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
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