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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309521/long-term-effectiveness-of-the-live-zoster-vaccine-in-preventing-shingles-a-cohort-study
#1
Roger Baxter, Joan Bartlett, Bruce Fireman, Morgan Marks, John Hansen, Edwin Lewis, Laurie Aukes, Yong Chen, Nicola P Klein, Patricia Saddier
A live attenuated zoster vaccine was licensed in the United States in 2006 for prevention of shingles in persons aged 60 years or older; the indication was extended in 2011 to cover those aged 50-59 years. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against shingles for 8 years after immunization at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. VE was estimated by Cox regression with a calendar timeline that was stratified by birth year. We adjusted for demographics and time-varying covariates, including comorbidities and immune compromise...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305370/varicella-zoster-meningitis-an-atypical-case-of-zoster-reactivation-in-immunocompetent-young-adult
#2
Muhammad Farhan Khaliq, Tanureet Kochar, Molly John
Varicella virus is a neurotropic virus that can reactivate later in life to cause zoster or shingles. Typically, it affects elderly, immunocompromised population. We report an unusual case of an immunocompetent young adult presenting with occipital headache and zoster rash, without preherpetic and postherpetic neuralgia, who was diagnosed with varicella meningitis on Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). He was treated with intravenous acyclovir and later discharged on famciclovir. Diagnosis of varicella meningitis is difficult in the absence of typical features of zoster rash and requires high index of suspicion...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243825/dermatologic-manifestations-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-in-morocco-and-association-with-immune-status
#3
Hicham Titou, Christelle Ebongo, Naoufal Hjira
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine if the type and number of skin diseases can be clinical indicators of underlying immune status in HIV1 disease by estimating and correlating with the CD4 count and CDC stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study. All consecutive patients infected with HIV1 followed at the Dermatology Department of Rabat Military Hospital between January 2008 and January 2017 were studied for dermatological manifestations, CD4 count and CDC clinical stage...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242077/vaccine-type-mutations-identified-in-varicella-zoster-virus-passaged-in-cell-culture
#4
Seok Cheon Kim, Youn Hee Won, Ji Seon Park, Jeong Seon Jeon, Jin Hyun Ahn, Moon Jung Song, Ok Sarah Shin, Chan Hee Lee
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and shingles. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of clinical and vaccine strains suggested potential sites responsible for attenuation. In this study, low and high passages of two VZV clinical strains cultured in human fibroblast cells were compared for genomic DNA sequences and growth characteristics. Mutations were detected at 187 and 162 sites in the strain YC01 and YC02, respectively. More than 86% of mutations were found in open reading frames, and ORF62 exhibited highest frequency of mutations...
December 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216315/the-pul37-tegument-protein-guides-alpha-herpesvirus-retrograde-axonal-transport-to-promote-neuroinvasion
#5
Alexsia L Richards, Patricia J Sollars, Jared D Pitts, Austin M Stults, Ekaterina E Heldwein, Gary E Pickard, Gregory A Smith
A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197841/haemorrhagic-conversion-of-infectious-myelitis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#6
Michael Stephen Pohlen, Jonathan Sunwei Lin, Kevin Yuqi Wang, Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad, Christie M Lincoln
A 28-year-old man recently diagnosed with HIV (CD4 19 cells/mm3, viral load 3.6 million copies/mL, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy on initial diagnosis at outside hospital), disseminated histoplasmosis, shingles and syphilis presented with paraplegia developing over 3 days. Spine MRI demonstrated a longitudinally extensive cord lesion extending from C3 to the tip of the conus. Brain MRI was consistent with meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid findings were notable for positive varicella zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCRs as well as a Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titre of 1:2...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173081/varicella-virus-vaccination-in-the-united-states
#7
Jana Shaw, Anne A Gershon
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster), and was once responsible for over 4 million infections in the United States annually. The development of a live attenuated VZV vaccine was initially viewed with extreme skepticism. Nonetheless, a VZV vaccine was developed in the 1970s by Takahashi and his colleagues in Japan and was eventually licensed in the US. It is now known to be one of the safest and most effective vaccines available and is administered worldwide...
November 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168888/apparent-seronegative-maternal-shingles-with-post-natal-mother-to-baby-transmission-of-varicella-zoster-virus
#8
Lin Pan, Nitesh Singh, Ruth Cannon, Joe Fawke, Julian W Tang
We present an unusual case of varicella zoster (VZ) virus IgG negative, yet clinically apparent, maternal shingles, which prompted the administration of VZ immunoglobulin to the newborn. The mother had no previous VZ vaccination. Eleven days later the baby developed a primary VZ infection, with only mild disease, likely as a result of the VZ immunoglobulin. The variable sensitivity of VZV IgG-specific assays is well-recognised. Thus, the ability of this particular VZV IgG assay to detect both maternal and infant VZV IgG, post-natally, suggests that the earlier VZV IgG negative results were due to lower circulating levels of maternal antibody...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162571/classroom-promotion-of-oral-language-cpol-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-school-based-intervention-to-improve-children-s-literacy-outcomes-at-grade-3-oral-language-and-mental-health
#9
Sharon Goldfeld, Pamela Snow, Patricia Eadie, John Munro, Lisa Gold, Ha N D Le, Francesca Orsini, Beth Shingles, Katherine Lee, Judy Connell, Amy Watts
INTRODUCTION: Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children's developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children, compared with usual practice...
November 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153126/cost-effectiveness-of-a-shingles-vaccine-booster-for-currently-vaccinated-adults-in-the-u-s
#10
Phuc Le, Michael B Rothberg
INTRODUCTION: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends a single dose of the live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine in people aged ≥60 years. Because vaccine-induced protection decreases to zero after 10 years, many vaccinated people will soon be subject to an increased risk of the disease. The study objective was to determine the cost effectiveness of a herpes zoster vaccine booster and its optimal timing among immunocompetent adults first vaccinated at aged ≥60 years...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134428/the-influence-of-hepatic-and-renal-impairment-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-a-treatment-for-herpes-zoster-amenamevir-asp2151-phase-1-open-label-single-dose-parallel-group-studies
#11
Tomohiro Kusawake, Donna Kowalski, Akitsugu Takada, Kota Kato, Masataka Katashima, James J Keirns, Michaelene Lewand, Kenneth C Lasseter, Thomas C Marbury, Richard A Preston
INTRODUCTION: Amenamevir (ASP2151) is a nonnucleoside human herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor that was approved in Japan for the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles) in 2017. This article reports the results of two clinical trials that investigated the effects of renal and hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of amenamevir. METHODS: These studies were phase 1, open-label, single-dose (oral 400 mg), parallel-group studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of amenamevir in healthy participants and participants with moderate hepatic impairment and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment...
November 13, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128385/the-effectiveness-of-shingles-vaccine-among-albertans-aged-50%C3%A2-years-or-older-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Bruce M McDonald, Douglas C Dover, Kimberley A Simmonds, Christopher A Bell, Lawrence W Svenson, Margaret L Russell
PURPOSE: We assessed the effectiveness of shingles vaccine in preventing incident shingles among Alberta residents aged 50 years or older over the period 2009 - 2015, using administrative health data. METHODS: The cohort comprised of Albertans from the Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan Registry (AHCIP) as of June 30, 2009 and aged 50 years or older. Those who received shingles vaccine were identified from the provincial pharmaceutical information network. The occurrence of incident shingles was identified through both inpatient and outpatients/community care data...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116592/varicella-zoster-virus-orf7-interacts-with-orf53-and-plays-a-role-in-its-trans-golgi-network-localization
#13
Wei Wang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Che Liu, Yuqiong Que, Ningshao Xia, Hua Zhu, Tong Cheng
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. ORF7 is an important virulence determinant of VZV in both human skin and nerve tissues, however, its specific function and involved molecular mechanism in VZV pathogenesis remain largely elusive. Previous yeast two-hybrid studies on intraviral protein-protein interaction network in herpesviruses have revealed that VZV ORF7 may interact with ORF53, which is a virtually unstudied but essential viral protein. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize VZV ORF53, and to investigate its relationship with ORF7...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094693/a-kilonova-as-the-electromagnetic-counterpart-to-a-gravitational-wave-source
#14
S J Smartt, T-W Chen, A Jerkstrand, M Coughlin, E Kankare, S A Sim, M Fraser, C Inserra, K Maguire, K C Chambers, M E Huber, T Krühler, G Leloudas, M Magee, L J Shingles, K W Smith, D R Young, J Tonry, R Kotak, A Gal-Yam, J D Lyman, D S Homan, C Agliozzo, J P Anderson, C R Angus, C Ashall, C Barbarino, F E Bauer, M Berton, M T Botticella, M Bulla, J Bulger, G Cannizzaro, Z Cano, R Cartier, A Cikota, P Clark, A De Cia, M Della Valle, L Denneau, M Dennefeld, L Dessart, G Dimitriadis, N Elias-Rosa, R E Firth, H Flewelling, A Flörs, A Franckowiak, C Frohmaier, L Galbany, S González-Gaitán, J Greiner, M Gromadzki, A Nicuesa Guelbenzu, C P Gutiérrez, A Hamanowicz, L Hanlon, J Harmanen, K E Heintz, A Heinze, M-S Hernandez, S T Hodgkin, I M Hook, L Izzo, P A James, P G Jonker, W E Kerzendorf, S Klose, Z Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, M Kowalski, M Kromer, H Kuncarayakti, A Lawrence, T B Lowe, E A Magnier, I Manulis, A Martin-Carrillo, S Mattila, O McBrien, A Müller, J Nordin, D O'Neill, F Onori, J T Palmerio, A Pastorello, F Patat, G Pignata, Ph Podsiadlowski, M L Pumo, S J Prentice, A Rau, A Razza, A Rest, T Reynolds, R Roy, A J Ruiter, K A Rybicki, L Salmon, P Schady, A S B Schultz, T Schweyer, I R Seitenzahl, M Smith, J Sollerman, B Stalder, C W Stubbs, M Sullivan, H Szegedi, F Taddia, S Taubenberger, G Terreran, B van Soelen, J Vos, R J Wainscoat, N A Walton, C Waters, H Weiland, M Willman, P Wiseman, D E Wright, Ł Wyrzykowski, O Yaron
Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046461/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neurons-are-highly-permissive-for-varicella-zoster-virus-lytic-infection
#15
Tomohiko Sadaoka, Cindi L Schwartz, Labchan Rajbhandari, Arun Venkatesan, Jeffrey I Cohen
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is highly cell-associated when grown in culture and has a much higher (4,000 to 20,000-fold increased) particle-to-plaque forming unit (PFU) ratio in vitro than herpes simplex virus (HSV). In contrast, VZV is highly infectious in vivo by airborne transmission. Neurons are major targets for VZV in vivo, in which the virus can establish latency and reactivate to produce infectious virus. Using neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and cell-free wild-type (WT) VZV, we demonstrate that neurons are nearly 100 times more permissive for WT VZV infection than very early passage human embryonic lung cells or MRC-5 diploid human fibroblasts, the cells used for vaccine production or virus isolation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928442/genome-wide-association-and-hla-region-fine-mapping-studies-identify-susceptibility-loci-for-multiple-common-infections
#16
Chao Tian, Bethann S Hromatka, Amy K Kiefer, Nicholas Eriksson, Suzanne M Noble, Joyce Y Tung, David A Hinds
Infectious diseases have a profound impact on our health and many studies suggest that host genetics play a major role in the pathogenesis of most of them. We perform 23 genome-wide association studies for common infections and infection-associated procedures, including chickenpox, shingles, cold sores, mononucleosis, mumps, hepatitis B, plantar warts, positive tuberculosis test results, strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, tonsillectomy, childhood ear infections, myringotomy, measles, hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, common colds, rubella and chronic sinus infection, in over 200,000 individuals of European ancestry...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910710/outer-nuclear-membrane-fusion-of-adjacent-nuclei-in-varicella-zoster-virus-induced-syncytia
#17
Wei Wang, Lianwei Yang, Xiumin Huang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Ningshao Xia, Tong Cheng, Hua Zhu
Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo...
December 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895088/prevalence-of-a-history-of-prior-varicella-herpes-zoster-infection-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Ali Manouchehrinia, Radu Tanasescu, Huner Kareem, Oltita P Jerca, Fouzia Jabeen, Rachelle Shafei, Judith Breuer, Keith Neal, William Irving, Cris S Constantinescu
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), but direct causal involvement has been disputed. Nevertheless, knowledge of VZV exposure is important, given the risk of serious complications of first exposure while undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, in particular with fingolimod. We distributed questionnaires to MS clinic patients, requesting information about history of chickenpox, sibling/household/occupational exposure, history of zoster (shingles), and disease-modifying treatment...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871477/-diagnostics-and-management-of-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus
#19
R N Werner, N-I Steinhorst, A Nast, U Pleyer
Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) represents the secondary manifestation of an infection with varicellazoster virus (VZV). A reactivation of dormant VZV in the ophthalmic branch of the fifth cranial nerve leads to ophthalmic HZ (HZO). The predominantly older and immune compromised patients often present with eye involvement (approximately 50%) as well as characteristic skin changes. Clinical manifestations include the cornea and conjunctiva but anterior uveitis and (rarely) acute retinal necrosis may also occur...
October 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853191/a-national-survey-of-nurse-training-confidence-and-competence-in-educating-patients-commencing-methotrexate-therapy
#20
Sandra Robinson, Andrew Hassell, Sarah Ryan, Nicola Adams, David Walker
INTRODUCTION: Methotrexate is routinely used to treat active disease in inflammatory arthritis. There have previously been patient safety concerns associated with methotrexate usage in practice. Most patients commencing methotrexate treatment are seen by the rheumatology nurse, to receive education (often referred to as drug counselling) on this agent prior to starting treatment. Yet, there are no recommended criteria regarding education or experience to ensure minimum competence of the rheumatology nurse...
August 29, 2017: Musculoskeletal Care
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