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Snehal Shah, Sasidhar Singaraju, A Einstein, Ashish Sharma
Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Peng-Jun Lu, Alissa O'Halloran, Walter W Williams, Rafael Harpaz
INTRODUCTION: Shingles (herpes zoster) causes substantial morbidity, especially among older adults. The shingles vaccine has been recommended for people aged ≥60 years since 2006. This study assessed recent shingles vaccination at national and state levels among adults aged ≥60 years. METHODS: The 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed in 2015 to assess shingles vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥60 years at national and state levels...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Theresa Mallick-Searle, Brett Snodgrass, Jeannine M Brant
Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a distinctive clinical condition caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster (chickenpox) virus following an initial infection. Approximately 1 million cases of herpes zoster occur annually in the US, and one in every three people develops herpes zoster during their lifetime. Postherpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome characterized by pain that persists for months to years after resolution of the herpes zoster rash. It stems from damage to peripheral and central neurons that may be a byproduct of the immune/inflammatory response accompanying varicella zoster virus reactivation...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Lawrence Herman, Myron J Levin, Susan Rehm
Shingles, or herpes zoster (HZ), is a common secondary infection caused by a reactivated varicella zoster virus (VZV). More than 95% of immunocompetent individuals aged at least 50 years are seropositive for VZV and are therefore at risk for developing HZ. Age-related increased incidence of HZ and its complications are thought to be related to the decline in cell-mediated immunity. Complications of HZ, which create a significant patient and economic burden, may be neurological, ophthalmological, dermatological, or visceral...
October 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Kathleen M Neuzil, Marie R Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Douglas E Hoch
On December 3, 2015, Public Health-Muskegon County (PHMC) in Michigan was notified by a local kindergarten-grade 2 school that a student aged 8 years (the index patient) had been sent home because of a rash suspected to be varicella (chickenpox); the rash had not been observed the previous day. Investigation by PHMC revealed that the student was one of five siblings in household A, none of whom had a history of having received any immunizations. During the preceding month the index patient's two older siblings (aged 12 years and 25 years) and two younger siblings (twins, aged 4 years) had been excluded from other schools in this rural district because of rashes that also were suspected to be varicella...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Timothy P Crowley, Susan Stevenson
Chemical burns secondary to hair dye are very rare but have been reported. Here, we present a case of herpes zoster, which was initially mistaken for a chemical burn. Herpes zoster reactivation (shingles) is common and can give rise to skin loss clinically similar to that of a burn. It is important that clinicians consider this alternative diagnosis to ensure that timely antiviral therapy is initiated so as to reduce further skin loss and future scarring.
August 18, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Justin Côté-Daigneault, Farhad Peerani, Eithne MacMahon, Emmanuel Delaporte, Jean-François Rahier, Jean-Frédéric Colombel
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the 2 main clinical phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are diseases that result from a dysregulated immune response to gut microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts. This aberrant immune response may intrinsically predispose IBD patients to infectious complications. Moreover, immunosuppressive medications used to treat IBD including corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, calcineurin inhibitors, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents and other biologics, further increase patients' susceptibility to opportunistic infections...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
P Srinivas Chakravarthi, Avani Ganta, Vivekanand S Kattimani, Rahul V C Tiwari
Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines...
July 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
R N Werner, A F Nikkels, B Marinović, M Schäfer, M Czarnecka-Operacz, A M Agius, Z Bata-Csörgő, J Breuer, G Girolomoni, G E Gross, S Langan, R Lapid-Gortzak, T H Lesser, U Pleyer, J Sellner, G M Verjans, P Wutzler, C Dressler, R Erdmann, S Rosumeck, A Nast
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is a frequent medical condition which may severely impact the quality of life of affected patients. Different therapeutic approaches to treat acute HZ are available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this European project was the elaboration of a consensus-based guideline on the management of patients who present with HZ, considering different patient populations and different localisations. This interdisciplinary guideline aims at an improvement of the outcomes of the acute HZ management concerning disease duration, acute pain and quality of life of the affected patients and at a reduction of the incidence of PHN and other complications...
August 31, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Massimo De Paschale, Pierangelo Clerici
Varicella-zoster virus, which is responsible for varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles), is ubiquitous and causes an acute infection among children, especially those aged less than six years. As 90% of adults have had varicella in childhood, it is unusual to encounter an infected pregnant woman but, if the disease does appear, it can lead to complications for both the mother and fetus or newborn. The major maternal complications include pneumonia, which can lead to death if not treated. If the virus passes to the fetus, congenital varicella syndrome, neonatal varicella (particularly serious if maternal rash appears in the days immediately before or after childbirth) or herpes zoster in the early years of life may occur depending on the time of infection...
August 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
Samiul Muquit, Ahmad Abdelhai Moussa, Surajit Basu
Failure of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be due to hardware problems, migration of electrodes and, in the long-term, plasticity in the spinal cord with habituation to the stimulation current. We describe a series of seven patients who experienced acute therapeutic loss of SCS effects following an acute nociceptive event unrelated to primary pathology. There were no hardware problems. We called this 'Pseudofailure', as the effective stimulation returned in all patients following a period off stimulation or reprogramming...
May 2016: British Journal of Pain
G D Schott
The term 'zoster' is nowadays associated with 'herpes zoster', the condition resulting from reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus which causes shingles. But in antiquity the meaning of 'zoster', a Latin word originating from the Greek for a belt or girdle, was variously associated in men with a form of body armour which could enclose just one half of the body; in women with a garment worn around the waist and sometimes called a 'zona'; and with a place, Zoster, linked mythologically then with the goddess Leto and her zona...
August 12, 2016: Medical Humanities
Rebecca A Hess, Kyle Gunnerson, John Kahler
Herpes zoster, commonly called shingles, is a disease that results from the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. Local trauma has been reported as a precipitant for reactivation, but this condition is rarely seen localized to a fresh surgical incision. We present the case of a patient who developed shingles overlying the incision site of a recently buried central venous access port, illustrating the need to consider this diagnosis as a unique imposter of localized infection or reaction at sites of recent procedural trauma...
July 27, 2016: CJEM
Elizabeth MacLean, Jack Mardekian, Laura A Cisar, Caroline J Hoang, James Harnett
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib and pazopanib are among the most prescribed targeted therapies for the systemic management of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but published cost comparisons between the 2 agents are few and limited by methodological and population differences. Also, sunitinib is administered on a 4-week on/2-week off cycle, and pazopanib is taken continuously. Thus, appropriate use and cost comparisons between the 2 drugs require methodological approaches to account for these differences...
August 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
David Acierto, Stephen Savioli, Nicholas M Studer
BACKGROUND: Infection with the varicella zoster virus, a type of herpesvirus, causes chickenpox in children and herpes zoster (commonly known as shingles) in adults. CASE PRESENTATION: Two 20-year-old male Soldiers returned from an outpost with a rash consistent with herpes zoster. Two other Soldiers with whom they were in close had had a similar rash 2 weeks earlier, which had since resolved at the time of initial presentation. Management and Outcome: Both Soldiers were started on an antiviral regimen and released to duty...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Sylvie François, Nandini Sen, Bryan Mitton, Xiangshu Xiao, Kathleen M Sakamoto, Ann Arvin
UNLABELLED: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection and zoster upon reactivation from latency in sensory ganglion neurons. The replication of herpesviruses requires manipulation of cell signaling pathways. Notably, CREB, a factor involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, is activated upon infection of T cells with VZV. Here, we report that VZV infection also induced CREB phosphorylation in fibroblasts and that XX-650-23, a newly identified inhibitor of the phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) interaction with p300/CBP, restricted cell-cell spread of VZV in vitro CREB phosphorylation did not require the viral open reading frame 47 (ORF47) and ORF66 kinases encoded by VZV...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Daniel P Depledge, Koichi Yamanishi, Yasuyuki Gomi, Anne A Gershon, Judith Breuer
UNLABELLED: The continued success of the live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine in preventing varicella-zoster and herpes zoster is well documented, as are many of the mutations that contribute to the attenuation of the vOka virus for replication in skin. At least three different preparations of vOka are marketed. Here, we show using deep sequencing of seven batches of vOka vaccine (including ZostaVax, VariVax, VarilRix, and the Oka/Biken working seed) from three different manufacturers (VariVax, GSK, and Biken) that 137 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations are present in all vaccine batches...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Timothy Ross Elliott, Charles Miller, Finlay A Macrae
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly those on immunosuppressive medications, suffer a high incidence of, and worse clinical outcomes relating to, herpes zoster (HZ) reactivation. We report on the presentation and management of a patient with Crohn's disease who developed severe perianal HZ after starting azathioprine and oral budesonide treatment. The zoster vaccine may prevent such zoster reactivation in patients with IBD. The zoster vaccine is effective in decreasing the risk of HZ in older adults but its role in younger adults and those with IBD has not been tested prospectively...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
P W Atipo-Tsiba, E S Kombo Bayonne
BACKGROUND: In countries with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection, particularly in black Africa, shingles is one of the main opportunistic infections during immunosuppression due to AIDS in young patients. If immunological weakness is important, usually when the CD4 cell count is less than 100 cells/mm(3), the risk of inflammatory reactions in the first three months after initiating of antiretroviral treatment (ART) is very high. This inflammatory reaction is called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)...
May 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
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