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Amro Ali, Malka Davina Kirschenbaum, Sansar Sharma, Thaddeus L Wandel
PURPOSE: To the best of our knowledge, we present a rare case report describing an occurrence of acute retinal necrosis in an otherwise healthy individual who received the shingles vaccine. METHODS: Observational case report. PATIENT: A 63-year-old healthy and immunocompetent white man presented with change of vision in the left eye after blunt trauma. A diagnosis of corneal abrasion was made. During follow-up, a detailed history discovered a progressive deterioration in vision over the past few weeks...
March 8, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Geraldine Miller, Heidi Schaefer, Sandra Yoder, Rachel Miller, Patricia Winokur, Karen Kotloff, David Klassen, Michael Wierzbicki, Cyrille Amegashie, Kathryn Edwards
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk for reactivation of herpes zoster, or shingles, and have a higher frequency of serious complications including post-herpetic neuralgia. A live, attenuated shingles vaccine is effective and approved for individuals 50 years and older. The vaccine is contraindicated following transplantation but may be used in patients with renal failure. Utilization of the vaccine has been poor in patients with end-stage renal disease, including those awaiting transplant, due to concerns for safety, efficacy, and potential sensitization prior to transplant...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Doug Campos-Outcalt
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices made relatively few new vaccine recommendations in 2017. One pertained to prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in infants born to HBV-infected mothers. Another recommended a new vaccine to prevent shingles. A third advised considering an additional dose of mumps vaccine during an outbreak.
March 2018: Journal of Family Practice
Christopher D Conrady, Richard M Feist, Alison Crum
Purpose: Orbital myositis is characterized by pain with eye movements, gaze restriction, diplopia, and enlargement of extraocular muscles on imaging. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an extremely rare cause of the disease in the elderly and has never been reported in a patient younger than forty-five years old such as the adolescent described herein. We present this case to raise awareness of an entity that will likely become more prevalent due to current vaccine strategies. Observation: We present the case of a 13-year-old girl with VZV-associated orbital myositis and meningitis that had a quick and complete recovery following IV acyclovir and oral steroids...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Giulia Freer, Mauro Pistello
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of varicella (chicken pox), a childhood exanthematic disease that develops as a result of primary infection, and zoster (shingles), caused by reactivation of the virus persisting in a latent form in the dorsal sensory ganglia. Although varicella is generally a mild self-limiting illness, in immunocompromised subjects and adults it can have a serious clinical course that can lead to permanent damage of the central nervous system. In these and in most zoster cases, treatment with anti-herpetic drugs and/or immunotherapy is necessary...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
Michele B Kaufman
Zoster vaccine recombinant, adjuvanted (Shingrix) for the prevention of shingles in adults; angiotensin II injection (Giapreza) to increase blood pressure in adults with septic or other distributive shock; and glycopyrrolate inhalation solution (Lonhala Magnair) for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
March 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Stephanie F James, Elias B Chahine, Allana J Sucher, Cassandra Hanna
OBJECTIVES: To review the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) for use in adult patients for the prevention of shingles. DATA SOURCES: A literature search through PubMed was conducted (June 2008 to October 2017) using the terms shingles vaccine and varicella zoster virus. References from retrieved articles and the prescribing information were also reviewed for any additional material. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: The literature search was limited to human studies published in English...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Aaron Saguil, Shawn Kane, Michael Mercado, Rebecca Lauters
Herpes zoster, or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. There are an estimated 1 million cases in the Unites States annually, with an individual lifetime risk of 30%. Patients with conditions that decrease cell-mediated immunity are 20 to 100 times more likely to develop herpes zoster. Patients may present with malaise, headache, low-grade fever, and abnormal skin sensations for two to three days before the classic maculopapular rash appears. The rash is usually unilateral, confined to a single dermatome, and typically progresses to clear vesicles that become cloudy and crust over in seven to 10 days...
November 15, 2017: American Family Physician
I M Wichers, W Opstelten
Dr Robert Edgar Hope-Simpson (1908-2003) was a British general practitioner, who has laid the foundation for unravelling the pathogenesis of shingles. At the beginning of the 20th century, both conditions were known to be related, but the precise relationship was unclear. It was assumed that chickenpox could originate after infection by both a person with shingles or someone with chickenpox, but that both diseases were caused by different viruses. Through rigorous observations in his GP practice and during his field work on the island of Yell, Hope-Simpson developed his hypothesis about the - now scientifically accepted - pathogenesis of shingles...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
E H Pieter van Dijkhuizen, Tsipi Egert, Yona Egert, Wendy Costello, Casper Schoemaker, Marlous Fernhout, Mirjam Kepic, Alberto Martini, Silvia Scala, Ingrid Rotstein-Grein, Sebastiaan J Vastert, Nico M Wulffraat
BACKGROUND: To assess the views of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and their parents on the care and treatment they receive in referral pediatric rheumatology centers throughout Europe. METHODS: In a collaboration between physicians and patient associations, a questionnaire was developed, covering various domains of JIA care, including demographics, diagnosis, referrals to various health care professionals, access to pain and fatigue management and support groups, information they received about the disease and awareness of and participation in research...
February 8, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Eric S Swirsky, Chinami Michaels, Sara Stuefen, Michael Halasz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Muhammad Adnan Saleem, Zeeshan Mustafa, Noman Qayyum, Muhammad Badar Ganaie
Hemidiaphragmatic paralysis is usually caused by surgery, malignancy or trauma and rarely by viral infections. Herpes zoster (shingles) results in varied neurological complications, but peripheral motor involvement or diaphragmatic paralysis is rare. We report the case of an 87-year-old male who presented with worsening breathlessness soon after an episode of shingles, affecting his right neck and upper chest. He had no alarm symptoms, history of trauma or malignancy. Skin lesions resolved after a few weeks, but his breathing did not improve...
January 23, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Maike Kuhn, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Manas K Akmatov, Frank Klawonn, Junxi Wang, Thomas Skripuletz, Volkhard Kaever, Martin Stangel, Frank Pessler
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation spans the spectrum from uncomplicated segmental herpes zoster to life-threatening disseminated CNS infection. Moreover, in the absence of a small animal model for this human pathogen, studies of pathogenesis at the organismal level depend on analysis of human biosamples. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect critical aspects of host responses and end-organ damage in neuroinfection and neuroinflammation. We therefore applied a targeted metabolomics screen of CSF to three clinically distinct forms of VZV reactivation and infectious and non-infectious disease controls in order to identify biomarkers for CNS involvement in VZV reactivation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Eduardo de Gomensoro, Giuseppe Del Giudice, T Mark Doherty
Life-long primary prevention interventions beginning and continuing throughout an individual's lifetime are increasingly seen as key to meeting the global healthcare challenges that accompany demographic changes - a concept referred to as "Healthy aging". In this perspective, vaccination is seen as part of a triad, together with healthy diet and exercise. Current adult vaccine coverage is lower than target vaccination rates in most developed countries, and so vaccine preventable diseases continue to present a substantial burden on health and healthcare resources, especially in older individuals...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Mélanie Mercier-Darty, David Boutolleau, Raphaël Lepeule, Christophe Rodriguez, Sonia Burrel
We report the first application of ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypic antiviral testing in a case of acyclovir-resistant VZV infection initially detected by Sanger sequencing within a deeply immunocompromised heart transplant recipient. As added-value compared to Sanger analysis, UDS revealed complex dynamics of viral population under antiviral pressure. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus affecting populations worldwide. VZV is commonly acquired in youth whose primary infection usually manifests as benign varicella (chickenpox)...
January 12, 2018: Antiviral Research
Roger Baxter, Joan Bartlett, Bruce Fireman, Morgan Marks, John Hansen, Edwin Lewis, Laurie Aukes, Yong Chen, Nicola P Klein, Patricia Saddier
A live attenuated zoster vaccine was licensed in the United States in 2006 for prevention of shingles in persons aged 60 years or older; the indication was extended in 2011 to cover those aged 50-59 years. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against shingles for 8 years after immunization at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. VE was estimated by Cox regression with a calendar timeline that was stratified by birth year. We adjusted for demographics and time-varying covariates, including comorbidities and immune compromise...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Muhammad Farhan Khaliq, Tanureet Kochar, Molly John
Varicella virus is a neurotropic virus that can reactivate later in life to cause zoster or shingles. Typically, it affects elderly, immunocompromised population. We report an unusual case of an immunocompetent young adult presenting with occipital headache and zoster rash, without preherpetic and postherpetic neuralgia, who was diagnosed with varicella meningitis on Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). He was treated with intravenous acyclovir and later discharged on famciclovir. Diagnosis of varicella meningitis is difficult in the absence of typical features of zoster rash and requires high index of suspicion...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Hicham Titou, Christelle Ebongo, Naoufal Hjira
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine if the type and number of skin diseases can be clinical indicators of underlying immune status in HIV1 disease by estimating and correlating with the CD4 count and CDC stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study. All consecutive patients infected with HIV1 followed at the Dermatology Department of Rabat Military Hospital between January 2008 and January 2017 were studied for dermatological manifestations, CD4 count and CDC clinical stage...
February 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Seok Cheon Kim, Youn Hee Won, Ji Seon Park, Jeong Seon Jeon, Jin Hyun Ahn, Moon Jung Song, Ok Sarah Shin, Chan Hee Lee
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and shingles. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of clinical and vaccine strains suggested potential sites responsible for attenuation. In this study, low and high passages of two VZV clinical strains cultured in human fibroblast cells were compared for genomic DNA sequences and growth characteristics. Mutations were detected at 187 and 162 sites in the strain YC01 and YC02, respectively. More than 86% of mutations were found in open reading frames, and ORF62 exhibited highest frequency of mutations...
February 2, 2018: Virus Research
Alexsia L Richards, Patricia J Sollars, Jared D Pitts, Austin M Stults, Ekaterina E Heldwein, Gary E Pickard, Gregory A Smith
A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector...
December 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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