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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127844/the-role-of-a-to-i-rna-editing-in-cancer-development
#1
REVIEW
Xiaoyan Xu, Yumeng Wang, Han Liang
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is the most common type of post-transcriptional nucleotide modification in humans, which is catalyzed in ADAR enzymes. Recent genomic studies have revealed thousands of altered RNA editing events in various cancer tissues, leading to diverse functional consequences. A critical role of individual A-to-I RNA editing events in cancer has been reported. Here, we review the current state of our knowledge on key A-to-I RNA editing events in coding and non-coding regions for their roles in cancer development and discuss their potential clinical utility...
November 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127211/mechanistic-implications-of-enhanced-editing-by-a-hypertribe-rna-binding-protein
#2
Weijin Xu, Reazur Rahman, Michael Rosbash
We previously developed TRIBE, a method for the identification of cell-specific RNA binding protein targets. TRIBE expresses an RBP of interest fused to the catalytic domain (cd) of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR and performs Adenosine-to-Inosine editing on RNA targets of the RBP. However, target identification is limited by the low editing efficiency of the ADARcd. Here we describe HyperTRIBE, which carries a previously characterized hyperactive mutation (E488Q) of the ADARcd. HyperTRIBE identifies dramatically more editing sites, many of which are also edited by TRIBE but at a much lower editing frequency...
November 10, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102695/modeling-sewage-leakage-and-transport-in-carbonate-aquifer-using-carbamazepine-as-an-indicator
#3
Noam Zach Dvory, Michael Kuznetsov, Yakov Livshitz, Guy Gasser, Irena Pankratov, Ovadia Lev, Eilon Adar, Alexander Yakirevich
The Western Mountain Aquifer (Yarkon-Taninim) of Israel is one of the country's major water resources and partially flows through a karst system. During late winter 2013, maintenance actions were performed on a central sewage pipe that caused sewage to leak into the creek located in the study area. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was used as an indicator for the presence of sewage in the groundwater. The research goal was to develop a mathematical model for quantifying flow and contaminant transport processes in the karst/fractured-porous unsaturated zone and groundwater system...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095741/eccrine-centric-melanocytic-nevus
#4
Raymond M Fertig, Adar Berghoff, Jessica Cervantes, Evan Darwin, Drazen Jukic
Benign melanocytic neoplasms present with a diverse array of well-known histopathologic patterns. It is imperative to recognize the benign patterns to render accurate diagnoses. We describe here an interesting and hitherto not described low-power architectural pattern of a benign melanocytic lesion: eccrine-centric melanocytic nevus. The patient was a 50-year-old African American woman who noticed a new mole on her foot that began as a dark speck but quickly grew larger. The lesion was excised to exclude the possibility of melanoma...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093448/structure-mediated-modulation-of-mrna-abundance-by-a-to-i-editing
#5
Anneke Brümmer, Yun Yang, Tracey W Chan, Xinshu Xiao
RNA editing introduces single nucleotide changes to RNA, thus potentially diversifying gene expression. Recent studies have reported significant changes in RNA editing profiles in disease and development. The functional consequences of these widespread alterations remain elusive because of the unknown function of most RNA editing sites. Here, we carry out a comprehensive analysis of A-to-I editomes in human populations. Surprisingly, we observe highly similar editing profiles across populations despite striking differences in the expression levels of ADAR genes...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092731/bioequivalence-of-cyclobenzaprine-hydrochloride-extended-release-capsule-taken%C3%A2-intact-or-sprinkled-over-applesauce%C3%A2
#6
Liat Adar, William Zarycranski, Jill B Conner, Jeffrey Dragone, Lindsay Janka, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt
OBJECTIVE: Difficulty swallowing pills can compromise pain control in painful musculoskeletal disorders. This open-label, 2-period crossover study assessed pharmacokinetics and safety of cyclobenzaprine extended-release (CER) 30-mg capsule contents sprinkled over applesauce compared with intact capsules in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 subjects were randomized to treatment sequences AB or BA (A = single CER intact capsule; B = single CER capsule contents sprinkled over applesauce (15 mL))...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064987/commentary-on-male-surgical-neck-rejuvenation
#7
COMMENT
Juliya Fisher, Tony Adar, Daniel M Siegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061182/editing-inducer-elements-increases-a-to-i-editing-efficiency-in-the-mammalian-transcriptome
#8
Chammiran Daniel, Albin Widmark, Ditte Rigardt, Marie Öhman
BACKGROUND: Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing has been shown to be an essential event that plays a significant role in neuronal function, as well as innate immunity, in mammals. It requires a structure that is largely double-stranded for catalysis but little is known about what determines editing efficiency and specificity in vivo. We have previously shown that some editing sites require adjacent long stem loop structures acting as editing inducer elements (EIEs) for efficient editing...
October 23, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061157/promoting-rna-editing-by-adar-attraction
#9
Miri Danan-Gotthold, Erez Y Levanon
Concentration is important and not only while driving; a new study indicates how an adjacent genomic element helps to increase the efficiency of a specific adenosine to inosine RNA editing reaction, by providing a means to increase the local concentration of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR.
October 23, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040386/robust-distributed-lag-models-using-data-adaptive-shrinkage
#10
Yin-Hsiu Chen, Bhramar Mukherjee, Sara D Adar, Veronica J Berrocal, Brent A Coull
Distributed lag models (DLMs) have been widely used in environmental epidemiology to quantify the lagged effects of air pollution on an outcome of interest such as mortality or cardiovascular events. Generally speaking, DLMs can be applied to time-series data where the current measure of an independent variable and its lagged measures collectively affect the current measure of a dependent variable. The corresponding distributed lag (DL) function represents the relationship between the lags and the coefficients of the lagged exposure variables...
October 12, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034793/patient-s-utilization-of-primary-care-a-profile-of-clinical-and-administrative-reasons-for-visits-in-israel
#11
Tamar Adar, Inbar Levkovich, Orit Cohen Castel, Khaled Karkabi
BACKGROUND: Data on patients' utilization of health services in primary care is relevant to planning healthcare. Data may be collected by numerous methods, but obtaining a true picture of content of care has practical difficulties. OBJECTIVES: To describe patient's reasons for visits to primary care physicians (PCPs) as presented by the patient; and to examine the effect of patient-, doctor- and clinic-related variables on the reasons for the visit. METHODS: Visits to PCPs were observed by peer doctors during 2014, at primary care clinics in Israel...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030706/rare-adar-and-rnaseh2b-variants-and-a-type-i-interferon-signature-in-glioma-and-prostate-carcinoma-risk-and-tumorigenesis
#12
Ulrike Beyer, Frank Brand, Helge Martens, Julia Weder, Arne Christians, Natalie Elyan, Bettina Hentschel, Manfred Westphal, Gabriele Schackert, Torsten Pietsch, Bujung Hong, Joachim K Krauss, Amir Samii, Peter Raab, Anibh Das, Claudia A Dumitru, I Erol Sandalcioglu, Oliver W Hakenberg, Andreas Erbersdobler, Ulrich Lehmann, Guido Reifenberger, Michael Weller, Martin A M Reijns, Matthias Preller, Bettina Wiese, Christian Hartmann, Ruthild G Weber
In search of novel germline alterations predisposing to tumors, in particular to gliomas, we studied a family with two brothers affected by anaplastic gliomas, and their father and paternal great-uncle diagnosed with prostate carcinoma. In this family, whole-exome sequencing yielded rare, simultaneously heterozygous variants in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) genes ADAR and RNASEH2B co-segregating with the tumor phenotype. AGS is a genetically induced inflammatory disease particularly of the brain, which has not been associated with a consistently increased cancer risk to date...
October 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022589/dynamic-landscape-and-regulation-of-rna-editing-in-mammals
#13
Meng How Tan, Qin Li, Raghuvaran Shanmugam, Robert Piskol, Jennefer Kohler, Amy N Young, Kaiwen Ivy Liu, Rui Zhang, Gokul Ramaswami, Kentaro Ariyoshi, Ankita Gupte, Liam P Keegan, Cyril X George, Avinash Ramu, Ni Huang, Elizabeth A Pollina, Dena S Leeman, Alessandra Rustighi, Y P Sharon Goh, Ajay Chawla, Giannino Del Sal, Gary Peltz, Anne Brunet, Donald F Conrad, Charles E Samuel, Mary A O'Connell, Carl R Walkley, Kazuko Nishikura, Jin Billy Li
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a conserved post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes that diversifies the transcriptome by altering selected nucleotides in RNA molecules. Although many editing sites have recently been discovered, the extent to which most sites are edited and how the editing is regulated in different biological contexts are not fully understood. Here we report dynamic spatiotemporal patterns and new regulators of RNA editing, discovered through an extensive profiling of A-to-I RNA editing in 8,551 human samples (representing 53 body sites from 552 individuals) from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and in hundreds of other primate and mouse samples...
October 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017946/cloning-and-expression-of-malabar-grouper-epinephelus-malabaricus-adar1-gene-in-response-to-immune-stimulants-and-nervous-necrosis-virus
#14
Thirunavukkarasu Periyasamy, Joan Tang Xiao Joe, Ming-Wei Lu
ADARs are RNA editing catalysts that bind double-stranded RNA and convert adenosine to inosine, a process that can lead to destabilization of dsRNA structures and suppression of mRNA translation. In mammals, ADAR1 genes are involved in various cellular pathways, including interferon (IFN)-mediated response. However, the function of fish ADAR1 remains unclear. We report here the cloning of ADAR1 in Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) (MgADAR1) and its response to various immune stimulants. The MgADAR1 cDNA is 5371-bp long, consisting of an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 1381 amino acids, a 235-nt 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), and a 990-nt 3'-UTR...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016369/newly-developed-left-ventricular-apical-thrombus-under-dabigatran-treatment
#15
Adem Adar, Orhan Onalan, Fahri Cakan
: Left ventricular (LV) thrombi are mostly formed in the aneurysmal or akinetic segment of the LV apex. Thromboembolism to the brain is usually fatal. There is not enough information available regarding the use of these new oral anticoagulant agents in LV thrombi. In this case, we present a 56-year-old male patient who was given dabigatran (150 mg, twice a day) for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after experiencing anterior myocardial infarction. During the use of dabigatran, thrombus formation, which was not present earlier, was observed in the LV apical aneurysm...
October 7, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985428/an-rna-editing-dsrna-binding-independent-gene-regulatory-mechanism-of-adars-and-its-clinical-implication-in-cancer
#16
Lihua Qi, Yangyang Song, Tim Hon Man Chan, Henry Yang, Chi Ho Lin, Daryl Jin Tai Tay, HuiQi Hong, Sze Jing Tang, Kar Tong Tan, Xi Xiao Huang, Jaymie Siqi Lin, Vanessa Hui En Ng, Julien Jean Pierre Maury, Daniel G Tenen, Leilei Chen
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalyzed by Adenosine DeAminases acting on double-stranded RNA(dsRNA) (ADAR), occurs predominantly in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of spliced mRNA. Here we uncover an unanticipated link between ADARs (ADAR1 and ADAR2) and the expression of target genes undergoing extensive 3'UTR editing. Using METTL7A (Methyltransferase Like 7A), a novel tumor suppressor gene with multiple editing sites at its 3'UTR, we demonstrate that its expression could be repressed by ADARs beyond their RNA editing and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding functions...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974449/mechanisms-and-implications-of-adar-mediated-rna-editing-in-cancer
#17
Chen Wang, Jun Zou, Xiangyi Ma, Edward Wang, Guang Peng
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in double-stranded RNAs. Inosine exhibits similar properties as guanosine. As a result, A-to-I editing has a great impact on edited RNAs, not only affecting the base pairing properties, but also altering codons after translation. A-to-I editing are known to mediate and diversify transcripts. However, the overall biological effect of ADARs are still largely unknown. Aberrant ADAR activity and editing dysregulation are present in a variety of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia, glioblastoma and melanoma...
September 30, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969707/massive-a-to-i-rna-editing-is-common-across-the-metazoa-and-correlates-with-dsrna-abundance
#18
Hagit T Porath, Binyamin A Knisbacher, Eli Eisenberg, Erez Y Levanon
BACKGROUND: Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification catalyzed by the ADAR (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA) enzymes, which are ubiquitously expressed among metazoans. Technical requirements have limited systematic mapping of editing sites to a small number of organisms. Thus, the extent of editing across the metazoan lineage is largely unknown. RESULTS: Here, we apply a computational procedure to search for RNA-sequencing reads containing clusters of editing sites in 21 diverse organisms...
October 2, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968662/large-scale-prediction-of-adar-mediated-effective-human-a-to-i-rna-editing
#19
Li Yao, Heming Wang, Yuanyuan Song, Zhen Dai, Hao Yu, Ming Yin, Dongxu Wang, Xin Yang, Jinlin Wang, Tiedong Wang, Nan Cao, Jimin Zhu, Xizhong Shen, Guangqi Song, Yicheng Zhao
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing by adenosine deaminase acting on the RNA (ADAR) proteins is one of the most frequent modifications during post- and co-transcription. To facilitate the assignment of biological functions to specific editing sites, we designed an automatic online platform to annotate A-to-I RNA editing sites in pre-mRNA splicing signals, microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA target untranslated regions (3' UTRs) from human (Homo sapiens) high-throughput sequencing data and predict their effects based on large-scale bioinformatic analysis...
August 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966805/cancer-and-aging-the-inflammatory-connection
#20
REVIEW
Adar Zinger, William C Cho, Arie Ben-Yehuda
Aging and cancer are highly correlated biological phenomena. Various cellular processes such as DNA damage responses and cellular senescence that serve as tumor suppressing mechanisms throughout life result in degenerative changes and contribute to the aging phenotype. In turn, aging is considered a pro-tumorigenic state, and constitutes the single most important risk factor for cancer development. However, the causative relations between aging and cancer is not straight forward, as these processes carry contradictory hallmarks; While aging is characterized by tissue degeneration and organ loss of function, cancer is a state of sustained cellular proliferation and gain of new functions...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
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