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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770436/all-i-s-on-the-radar-role-of-adar-in-gene-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Galina Shevchenko, Kevin V Morris
Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing is the most abundant form of RNA modification in mammalian cells, which is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on the double-stranded RNA (ADAR) protein family. A-to-I editing is currently known to be involved in the regulation of the immune system, RNA splicing, protein recoding, microRNA biogenesis, and formation of heterochromatin. Editing occurs within regions of double-stranded RNA, particularly within inverted Alu repeats, and is associated with many diseases including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic syndromes...
May 16, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769310/tumor-associated-intronic-editing-of-hnrpll-generates-a-novel-splicing-variant-linked-to-cell-proliferation
#2
Yi-Tung Chen, Ian Yi-Feng Chang, Hsuan Liu, Chung-Pei Ma, Yu-Ping Kuo, Chieh-Tien Shih, Ying-Hsin Shih, Lin Kang, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan
Processing of the eukaryotic transcriptome is a dynamic regulatory mechanism that confers genetic diversity, and splicing and A-to-I RNA editing are well-characterized examples of such processing. Growing evidence reveals the crosstalk between the splicing and RNA editing, but there is a paucity of substantial evidence for its mechanistic details and contribution in a physiological context. Here, our findings demonstrate that tumor-associated differential RNA editing, in conjunction with splicing machinery, regulates the expression of variants of HNRPLL, a gene encoding splicing factor...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765656/the-rise-and-fall-of-an-ancient-ad%C3%A3-lie-penguin-supercolony-at-cape-adare-antarctica
#3
Steven D Emslie, Ashley McKenzie, William P Patterson
We report new discoveries and radiocarbon dates on active and abandoned Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae ) colonies at Cape Adare, Antarctica. This colony, first established at approximately 2000 BP (calendar years before present, i.e. 1950), is currently the largest for this species with approximately 338 000 breeding pairs, most located on low-lying Ridley Beach. We hypothesize that this colony first formed after fast ice began blocking open-water access by breeding penguins to the Scott Coast in the southern Ross Sea during a cooling period also at approximately 2000 BP...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750335/universal-screening-of-both-endometrial-and-colon-cancers-increases-the-detection-of-lynch-syndrome
#4
Tomer Adar, Linda H Rodgers, Kristen M Shannon, Makoto Yoshida, Tianle Ma, Anthony Mattia, Gregory Y Lauwers, Anthony J Iafrate, Nicole M Hartford, Esther Oliva, Daniel C Chung
BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). Screening of all CRCs for LS is currently recommended, but screening of ECs is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine the added value of screening both CRC and EC tumors in the same population. METHODS: A prospective, immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based screening program for all patients with newly diagnosed CRCs and ECs was initiated in 2011 and 2013, respectively, at 2 centers (primary and tertiary)...
May 11, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733375/tissue-selective-restriction-of-rna-editing-of-cav1-3-by-splicing-factor-srsf9
#5
Hua Huang, Katannya Kapeli, Wenhao Jin, Yuk Peng Wong, Thiruma Valavan Arumugam, Joanne Huifen Koh, Sumitra Srimasorn, Karthik Mallilankaraman, John Jia En Chua, Gene W Yeo, Tuck Wah Soong
Adenosine DeAminases acting on RNA (ADAR) catalyzes adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) conversion within RNA duplex structures. While A-to-I editing is often dynamically regulated in a spatial-temporal manner, the mechanisms underlying its tissue-selective restriction remain elusive. We have previously reported that transcripts of voltage-gated calcium channel CaV1.3 are subject to brain-selective A-to-I RNA editing by ADAR2. Here, we show that editing of CaV1.3 mRNA is dependent on a 40 bp RNA duplex formed between exon 41 and an evolutionarily conserved editing site complementary sequence (ECS) located within the preceding intron...
May 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719497/adar3-is-involved-in-learning-and-memory-in-mice
#6
Dessislava Mladenova, Guy Barry, Lyndsey M Konen, Sandy S Pineda, Boris Guennewig, Lotta Avesson, Raphael Zinn, Nicole Schonrock, Maina Bitar, Nicky Jonkhout, Lauren Crumlish, Dominik C Kaczorowski, Andrew Gong, Mark Pinese, Gloria R Franco, Carl R Walkley, Bryce Vissel, John S Mattick
The amount of regulatory RNA encoded in the genome and the extent of RNA editing by the post-transcriptional deamination of adenosine to inosine (A-I) have increased with developmental complexity and may be an important factor in the cognitive evolution of animals. The newest member of the A-I editing family of ADAR proteins, the vertebrate-specific ADAR3, is highly expressed in the brain, but its functional significance is unknown. In vitro studies have suggested that ADAR3 acts as a negative regulator of A-I RNA editing but the scope and underlying mechanisms are also unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692414/a-to-i-rna-editing-immune-protector-and-transcriptome-diversifier
#7
REVIEW
Eli Eisenberg, Erez Y Levanon
Modifications of RNA affect its function and stability. RNA editing is unique among these modifications because it not only alters the cellular fate of RNA molecules but also alters their sequence relative to the genome. The most common type of RNA editing is A-to-I editing by double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR) enzymes. Recent transcriptomic studies have identified a number of 'recoding' sites at which A-to-I editing results in non-synonymous substitutions in protein-coding sequences. Many of these recoding sites are conserved within (but not usually across) lineages, are under positive selection and have functional and evolutionary importance...
April 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691886/cutaneous-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-presenting-with-hypopigmented-lesions-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#8
Shoko Mori, Tony Adar, Viktoryia Kazlouskaya, Jaime B Alexander, Edward Heilman, Sharon A Glick
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare group of disorders that results from the abnormal proliferation and accumulation of dendritic-derived cells in various organs of the body, such as the skin and bones. Hypopigmented macules are a rare cutaneous presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that may pose a diagnostic dilemma when no other findings of Langerhans cell histiocytosis are present at the time of examination. We present 2 cases of the hypopigmented variant of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, including a case with histopathologic features of regression, and a review of the literature...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617672/increased-rna-editing-may-provide-a-source-for-autoantigens-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#9
Shalom Hillel Roth, Miri Danan-Gotthold, Meirav Ben-Izhak, Gideon Rechavi, Cyrille J Cohen, Yoram Louzoun, Erez Y Levanon
RNA-editing mechanisms, which induce nucleotide substitution in the RNA, increase transcript and protein diversities. Editing dysregulation has been shown to lead to grave outcomes, and transcriptome-wide aberrant RNA editing has been found in tumors. However, little is known about the involvement of editing in other diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic autoimmune disease characterized by a loss of tolerance for autoantigens from various tissues and the production of multiple autoantibodies...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575360/effects-of-fenoldopam-on-kidney-function-parameters-and-its-therapeutic-efficacy-in-the-management-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-dogs-with-heatstroke
#10
Gilad Segev, Yaron Bruchim, Noga Berl, Adar Cohen, Itamar Aroch
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in dogs, but evidence of efficacy of its treatment is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of fenoldopam in the management of AKI. ANIMALS: Forty dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke. METHODS: Dogs were prospectively enrolled and divided into treatment and the placebo groups (fenoldopam, constant rate infusion [CRI] of 0.1 µg/kg/min or saline, respectively)...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567676/cancer-associated-rs6983267-snp-and-its-accompanying-long-noncoding-rna-ccat2-induce-myeloid-malignancies-via-unique-snp-specific-rna-mutations
#11
Maitri Y Shah, Manuela Ferracin, Valentina Pileczki, Baoqing Chen, Roxana Redis, Linda Fabris, Xinna Zhang, Cristina Ivan, Masayoshi Shimizu, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Mihnea Dragomir, Katrien Van Roosbroeck, Maria Ines Almeida, Maria Ciccone, Daniela Nedelcu, Maria Angelica Cortez, Taghi Manshouri, Steliana Calin, Muharrem Muftuoglu, Pinaki P Banerjee, Mustafa H Badiwi, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Asha Multani, James William Welsh, Marcos Roberto Estecio, Hui Ling, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Delia Dima, Hui Yang, Hector Alvarez, M James You, Milan Radovich, Elizabeth Shpall, Muller Fabbri, Katy Rezvani, Leonard Girnita, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Anirban Maitra, Srdan Verstovsek, Riccardo Fodde, Carlos Bueso-Ramos, Mihai Gagea, Guillermo Garcia Manero, George A Calin
The cancer-risk-associated rs6983267 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the accompanying long noncoding RNA CCAT2 in the highly amplified 8q24.21 region have been implicated in cancer predisposition, although causality has not been established. Here, using allele-specific CCAT2 transgenic mice, we demonstrate that CCAT2 overexpression leads to spontaneous myeloid malignancies. We further identified that CCAT2 is overexpressed in bone marrow and peripheral blood of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) patients...
March 22, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552271/ocular-injury-in-cosmetic-laser-treatments-of-the-face
#12
REVIEW
Amy Huang, Arianna Phillips, Tony Adar, Andrea Hui
BACKGROUND: The eye is a vulnerable and commonly injured organ in cosmetic laser procedures of the face. Treatment of the eyelids and periorbital areas increases this risk, especially when ocular protection devices are not used or are removed during the procedure. A study has shown that injury from laser epilation of the periocular areas is one of the most common causes of litigation in cutaneous laser surgery. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review is to determine the causes of ocular injury in cosmetic laser procedures and derive lessons on critical safety elements to prevent future injury...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491134/a-radar-defense-against-rnai
#13
REVIEW
Amy E Pasquinelli
Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosines (A) to inosines (I) in stretches of dsRNA. The biological purpose of these editing events for the vast majority of ADAR substrates is largely unknown. In this issue of Genes & Development, Reich and colleagues (pp. 271-282) demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans , A-to-I editing in double-stranded regions of protein-coding transcripts protects these RNAs from targeting by the RNAi pathway. Disruption of this safeguard through loss of ADAR activity coupled with enhanced RNAi results in developmental abnormalities and profound changes in gene expression that suggest aberrant induction of an antiviral response...
February 1, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488296/intramolecular-aza-diels-alder-reactions-of-ortho-quinone-methide-imines-rapid-catalytic-and-enantioselective-assembly-of-benzannulated-quinolizidines
#14
Martin Kretzschmar, Fabian Hofmann, Daniel Moock, Christoph Schneider
Aza-Diels-Alder reactions (ADARs) are powerful processes that furnish N-heterocycles in a straightforward fashion. Intramolecular variants offer the additional possibility of generating bi- and polycyclic systems with high stereoselectivity. We report herein a novel Brønsted acid catalyzed process in which ortho-quinone methide imines tethered to the dienophile via the N substituent react in an intramolecular ADAR to form complex quinolizidines and oxazinoquinolines in a one-step process. The reactions proceed under very mild conditions, with very good yields and good to very good diastereo- and enantioselectivities...
April 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483948/prevalence-and-predictors-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-plwhiv
#15
Dula Dessalegn Bosho, Lemessa Dube, Teshale Ayele Mega, Dawit Abera Adare, Mikyas Gashaw Tesfaye, Tesfahun Chanie Eshetie
Background: Use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led to significant reductions in morbidity and mortality. However, there is a growing concern about metabolic syndromes (MS), among patients receiving cART. Despite this fact, there is limited evidence for the prevalence of the MS among HIV-infected persons receiving cART in developing countries, particularly Ethiopia. Objective: To determine the prevalence and predictors of MS among people living with HIV/AIDS in Jimma health centre, Jimma Zone south west Ethiopia...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483152/-c-elegans-adars-antagonize-silencing-of-cellular-dsrnas-by-the-antiviral-rnai-pathway
#16
Daniel P Reich, Katarzyna M Tyc, Brenda L Bass
Cellular dsRNAs are edited by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). While editing can alter mRNA-coding potential, most editing occurs in noncoding sequences, the function of which is poorly understood. Using dsRNA immunoprecipitation (dsRIP) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we identified 1523 regions of clustered A-to-I editing, termed editing-enriched regions (EERs), in four stages of Caenorhabditis elegans development, often with highest expression in embryos. Analyses of small RNA-seq data revealed 22- to 23-nucleotide (nt) siRNAs, reminiscent of viral siRNAs, that mapped to EERs and were abundant in adr-1;adr-2 mutant animals...
February 1, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474409/a-generative-model-for-scientific-concept-hierarchies
#17
Srayan Datta, Eytan Adar
In many scientific disciplines, each new 'product' of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings-leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471580/prevalence-of-early-and-late-prematurity-is-similar-among-pediatric-type-1-diabetes-patients-and-the-general-population
#18
Adi Adar, Shlomit Shalitin, Ori Eyal, Neta Loewenthal, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Milana Levy, Orna Dally-Gottfried, Zohar Landau, Amnon Zung, Floris Levy-Khademi, David Zangen, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover, Marianna Rachmiel
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased in recent decades, as has the incidence of preterm births (<37 weeks). We aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of prematurity and early prematurity (<34 weeks) and birth season variability among T1DM and non-T1DM children. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted, with linkage of data from 13 paediatric diabetes centers and Israeli National Registries, including T1DM patients and general non-T1DM population, born during 2000 to 2013...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470549/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-a-to-i-rna-editing-events-in-bovine-by-transcriptome-sequencing
#19
Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh, Abdolreza Salehi, Rocío Melissa Rivera
RNA editing increases the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is the predominant type of RNA editing in mammals and it is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) family. Here, we used a largescale computational analysis of transcriptomic data from brain, heart, colon, lung, spleen, kidney, testes, skeletal muscle and liver, from three adult animals in order to identify RNA editing sites in bovine. We developed a computational pipeline and used a rigorous strategy to identify novel editing sites from RNA-Seq data in the absence of corresponding DNA sequence information...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463826/vps4-is-a-dynamic-component-of-the-centrosome-that-regulates-centrosome-localization-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-centriolar-satellite-stability-and-ciliogenesis
#20
Carolyn Ott, Dikla Nachmias, Shai Adar, Michal Jarnik, Shachar Sherman, Ramon Y Birnbaum, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Natalie Elia
The hexameric AAA ATPase VPS4 facilitates ESCRT III filament disassembly on diverse intracellular membranes. ESCRT III components and VPS4 have been localized to the ciliary transition zone and spindle poles and reported to affect centrosome duplication and spindle pole stability. How the canonical ESCRT pathway could mediate these events is unclear. We studied the association of VPS4 with centrosomes and found that GFP-VPS4 was a dynamic component of both mother and daughter centrioles. A mutant, VPS4EQ , which can't hydrolyze ATP, was less dynamic and accumulated at centrosomes...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
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