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Amy E Pasquinelli
Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosines (A) to inosines (I) in stretches of dsRNA. The biological purpose of these editing events for the vast majority of ADAR substrates is largely unknown. In this issue of Genes & Development, Reich and colleagues (pp. 271-282) demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans , A-to-I editing in double-stranded regions of protein-coding transcripts protects these RNAs from targeting by the RNAi pathway. Disruption of this safeguard through loss of ADAR activity coupled with enhanced RNAi results in developmental abnormalities and profound changes in gene expression that suggest aberrant induction of an antiviral response...
February 1, 2018: Genes & Development
Christoph Schneider, Martin Kretzschmar, Fabian Hofmann, Daniel Moock
Aza-Diels-Alder-Reaktionen (ADAR) sind leistungsfähige Prozesse zum schnellen und stereoselektiven Aufbau von Stickstoff-Heterocyclen. Intramolekulare Varianten bieten darüber hinaus die Möglichkeit, bi- und polycyclische Ringsysteme in einem Schritt mit hoher Stereoselektivität zu generieren. In dem hier entwickelten Brønsted-Säure-katalysierten Verfahren können nun erstmals ortho-Chinonmethidimine, die über den Iminsubstituenten an ein Dienophil gebunden sind, in einer enantioselektiven ADAR mit inversem Elektronenbedarf zu komplexen Chinolizidin- und Oxazinochinolin-Ringsystemen umgesetzt werden...
February 28, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Dula Dessalegn Bosho, Lemessa Dube, Teshale Ayele Mega, Dawit Abera Adare, Mikyas Gashaw Tesfaye, Tesfahun Chanie Eshetie
Background: Use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led to significant reductions in morbidity and mortality. However, there is a growing concern about metabolic syndromes (MS), among patients receiving cART. Despite this fact, there is limited evidence for the prevalence of the MS among HIV-infected persons receiving cART in developing countries, particularly Ethiopia. Objective: To determine the prevalence and predictors of MS among people living with HIV/AIDS in Jimma health centre, Jimma Zone south west Ethiopia...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Daniel P Reich, Katarzyna M Tyc, Brenda L Bass
Cellular dsRNAs are edited by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). While editing can alter mRNA-coding potential, most editing occurs in noncoding sequences, the function of which is poorly understood. Using dsRNA immunoprecipitation (dsRIP) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we identified 1523 regions of clustered A-to-I editing, termed editing-enriched regions (EERs), in four stages of Caenorhabditis elegans development, often with highest expression in embryos. Analyses of small RNA-seq data revealed 22- to 23-nucleotide (nt) siRNAs, reminiscent of viral siRNAs, that mapped to EERs and were abundant in adr-1;adr-2 mutant animals...
February 26, 2018: Genes & Development
Srayan Datta, Eytan Adar
In many scientific disciplines, each new 'product' of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings-leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept...
2018: PloS One
Adi Adar, Shlomit Shalitin, Ori Eyal, Neta Loewenthal, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Milana Levy, Orna Dally-Gottfried, Zohar Landau, Amnon Zung, Floris Levy-Khademi, David Zangen, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover, Marianna Rachmiel
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased in recent decades, as has the incidence of preterm births (<37 weeks). We aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of prematurity and early prematurity (<34 weeks) and birth season variability among T1DM and non-T1DM children. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted, with linkage of data from 13 pediatric diabetes centers and Israeli National Registries, including T1DM patients and general non-T1DM population, born during 2000-2013...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh, Abdolreza Salehi, Rocío Melissa Rivera
RNA editing increases the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is the predominant type of RNA editing in mammals and it is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) family. Here, we used a largescale computational analysis of transcriptomic data from brain, heart, colon, lung, spleen, kidney, testes, skeletal muscle and liver, from three adult animals in order to identify RNA editing sites in bovine. We developed a computational pipeline and used a rigorous strategy to identify novel editing sites from RNA-Seq data in the absence of corresponding DNA sequence information...
2018: PloS One
Carolyn Ott, Dikla Nachmias, Shai Adar, Michal Jarnik, Shachar Sherman, Ramon Y Birnbaum, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Natalie Elia
The hexameric AAA ATPase VPS4 facilitates ESCRT III filament disassembly on diverse intracellular membranes. ESCRT III components and VPS4 have been localized to the ciliary transition zone and spindle poles and reported to affect centrosome duplication and spindle pole stability. How the canonical ESCRT pathway could mediate these events is unclear. We studied the association of VPS4 with centrosomes and found that GFP-VPS4 was a dynamic component of both mother and daughter centrioles. A mutant, VPS4EQ , which can't hydrolyze ATP, was less dynamic and accumulated at centrosomes...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mansha Mirza, Elizabeth Adare Harrison
Nearly one in ten US residents have difficulty speaking and understanding English and are deemed to have limited English proficiency (LEP). Despite federal mandates for provision of interpreters and other language access services, individuals with LEP experience notable health disparities. Occupational therapists must be prepared to equitably serve this population, however there is a dearth of research evidence and practical recommendations about our profession's readiness to serve this growing population. This paper maps the current healthcare policy environment and existing language access research relevant to occupational therapy...
February 20, 2018: Occupational Therapy in Health Care
Yuru Wang, SeHee Park, Peter A Beal
Adenosine deamination is one of the most prevalent post-transcriptional modifications in mRNA and is catalyzed by ADAR1 and ADAR2 in humans. ADAR1 and ADAR2 have different substrate selectivity, which is believed to mainly originate from the proteins' deaminase domains (hADAR1d and hADAR2d, respectively). RNA-seq of the S. cerevisiae transcriptome subjected to ADAR-catalyzed RNA editing identified substrates with common secondary structure features preferentially edited by hADAR1d over hADAR2d. The relatively small size and efficient reaction of one of these substrates suggested it could be useful for further study of the hADAR1d reaction...
February 19, 2018: Biochemistry
Nurhayat Ozkan Sevencan, Serkan Bakirdogen, Adem Adar, Burcak Kayhan
Suttonella indologenes is a Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus of Cardiobacteriaceae family and its natural habitat is the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory system. The literature includes limited number of case reports concerning fatal endocarditis due to infection in the prosthetic heart valves caused by the aforementioned microorganism. However, there is no information on extracardiac involvement due to this microorganism. Here, we present a peritonitis case caused by Suttonella indologenes in a patient receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Danielle Sitry-Shevah, Sharon Kaisari, Adar Teichner, Shirly Miniowitz-Shemtov, Avram Hershko
The mitotic checkpoint system ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis by preventing premature initiation of anaphase until correct bipolar attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle is reached. It promotes the assembly of a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), composed of BubR1, Bub3, Cdc20, and Mad2, which inhibits the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. When the checkpoint is satisfied, anaphase is initiated by the disassembly of MCC. Previous studies indicated that the dissociation of APC/C-bound MCC requires ubiquitylation and suggested that the target of ubiquitylation is the Cdc20 component of MCC...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alice Filippini, Daniela Bonini, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Luca La Via, Fabrizio Gangemi, Marina Colombi, Alessandro Barbon
In mammals, adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing is performed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR), ADAR1 and ADAR2 enzymes, encoded by mRNAs that might undergo splicing process. In rat, two splicing events produce several isoforms of ADAR2, called ADAR2a, ADAR2b, ADAR2e, and ADAR2f, but only ADAR2a and ADAR2b are translated into an active protein. In particular, they differ for ten amino acids located in the catalytic domain of ADAR2b. Here, we focused on these two isoforms, analyzing the splicing pattern and their different function during rat neuronal maturation...
February 8, 2018: Genes
Amanda M Fretts, Mihriye Mete, Barbara V Howard, Lyle G Best, David S Siscovick, Sigal Eilat-Adar, Jinying Zhao
Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with many chronic diseases, but its relations with physical activity remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of objectively measured ambulatory activity with leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of biological aging, among American Indians. This cross-sectional study included 2312 AI participants from the Strong Heart Family Study. Steps per day were measured using Accusplit AE120 pedometers. Quantitative PCR was used to measure LTL...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Evan Austin, Amy Huang, Tony Adar, Erica Wang, Jared Jagdeo
OBJECTIVES: Our skin is constantly exposed to light from solar radiation and electronic devices, which impact skin physiology and aging. The biological altering properties of ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation on skin have been well established. There is significant scientific and public interest on the effects of electronic device generated light (EDGL) on skin. Currently, the effects of EDGL on skin are largely unknown. EDGL includes UV, visible, and infrared light from consumer electronics such as smartphones, computers, and televisions...
February 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Elisa Orecchini, Loredana Frassinelli, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè, Alessandro Michienzi
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons represent the only functional family of autonomous transposable elements in humans and formed 17% of our genome. Even though most of the human L1 sequences are inactive, a limited number of copies per individual retain the ability to mobilize by a process termed retrotransposition. The ongoing L1 retrotransposition may result in insertional mutagenesis that could lead to negative consequences such as genetic disease and cancer. For this reason, cells have evolved several mechanisms of defense to restrict L1 activity...
February 2, 2018: Chromosome Research
Ram M Adar, David Andelman
The properties of ionic solutions between charged surfaces are often studied within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework, by finding the electrostatic potential profile. For example, the osmotic pressure between two charged planar surfaces can be evaluated by solving coupled equations for the electrostatic potential and osmotic pressure. Such a solution relies on symmetry arguments and is restricted to either equally or oppositely charged surfaces. Here, we provide a different and more efficient scheme to derive the osmotic pressure straightforwardly, without the need to find the electrostatic potential profile...
January 29, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Yingying Cao, Ruiyuan Cao, Yaowei Huang, Hongxia Zhou, Yuanhua Liu, Xuan Li, Wu Zhong, Pei Hao
BACKGROUND: RNA editing is an important mechanism that expands the diversity and complexity of genetic codes. The conversions of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) and cytosine (C) to uridine (U) are two prominent types of RNA editing in animals. The roles of RNA editing events have been implicated in important biological pathways. Cellular RNA editing activity in response to influenza A virus infection has not been fully characterized in human and avian hosts. This study was designed as a big data analysis to investigate the role and response of RNA editing in epithelial cells during the course of infection with various subtypes of influenza A viruses...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yaowei Huang, Yingying Cao, Jiarui Li, Yuanhua Liu, Wu Zhong, Xuan Li, Chen Chen, Pei Hao
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes, which induces alterations in mRNA sequence. It has been shown that A-to-I RNA editing events are of significance in the cell's innate immunity and cellular response to viral infections. However, whether RNA editing plays a role in cellular response to microorganism/fungi infection has not been determined. Candida albicans, one of the most prevalent human pathogenic fungi, usually act as a commensal on skin and superficial mucosal, but has been found to cause candidiasis in immunosuppression patients...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yan Chevalier, Matthias F Pietschmann, Christoph Thorwächter, Ofir Chechik, Eliyahu Adar, Assaf Dekel, Peter E Müller
BACKGROUND: Failure after rotator cuff repair remains a major clinical problem and could be related to excessive pressures from the acromion. Previous studies with irreparable tears showed good clinical results of tendon healing with arthroscopic insertion of a protective biodegradable spacer balloon between the repaired tendon and the acromion. One hypothesis is that compression pressures on the repaired tendon will be reduced by the spacer. This cadaver study aimed to investigate the effects of this subacromial spacer on compression pressures over a repaired supraspinatus tendon in passive motion...
December 18, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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