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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310578/a-to-i-rna-editing-in-the-rat-brain-is-age-dependent-region-specific-and-sensitive-to-environmental-stress-across-generations
#1
Hiba Zaidan, Gokul Ramaswami, Yaela N Golumbic, Noa Sher, Assaf Malik, Michal Barak, Dalia Galiani, Nava Dekel, Jin B Li, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an epigenetic modification catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), and is especially prevalent in the brain. We used the highly accurate microfluidics-based multiplex PCR sequencing (mmPCR-seq) technique to assess the effects of development and environmental stress on A-to-I editing at 146 pre-selected, conserved sites in the rat prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Furthermore, we asked whether changes in editing can be observed in offspring of stress-exposed rats...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304330/n6-methyladenosines-modulate-a-to-i-rna-editing
#2
Jian-Feng Xiang, Qin Yang, Chu-Xiao Liu, Man Wu, Ling-Ling Chen, Li Yang
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing are two of the most abundant RNA modifications, both at adenosines. Yet, the interaction of these two types of adenosine modifications is largely unknown. Here we show a global A-to-I difference between m6A-positive and m6A-negative RNA populations. Both the presence and extent of A-to-I sites in m6A-negative RNA transcripts suggest a negative correlation between m6A and A-to-I. Suppression of m6A-catalyzing enzymes results in global A-to-I RNA editing changes...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280160/when-micrornas-meet-rna-editing-in-cancer-a-nucleotide-change-can-make-a-difference
#3
Yumeng Wang, Han Liang
RNA editing is a major post-transcriptional mechanism that changes specific nucleotides at the RNA level. The most common RNA editing type in humans is adenosine (A) to inosine (I) editing, which is mediated by ADAR enzymes. RNA editing events can not only change amino acids in proteins, but also affect the functions of non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs. Recent studies have characterized thousands of miRNA RNA editing events across different cancer types. Importantly, individual cases of miRNA editing have been reported to play a role in cancer development...
December 27, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273356/global-transcriptome-analysis-of-rna-abundance-regulation-by-adar-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#4
Michael F Sharpnack, Bin Chen, Dvir Aran, Idit Kosti, Douglas D Sharpnack, David P Carbone, Parag Mallick, Kun Huang
Despite tremendous advances in targeted therapies against lung adenocarcinoma, the majority of patients do not benefit from personalized treatments. A deeper understanding of potential therapeutic targets is crucial to increase the survival of patients. One promising target, ADAR, is amplified in 13% of lung adenocarcinomas and in-vitro studies have demonstrated the potential of its therapeutic inhibition to inhibit tumor growth. ADAR edits millions of adenosines to inosines within the transcriptome, and while previous studies of ADAR in cancer have solely focused on protein-coding edits, >99% of edits occur in non-protein coding regions...
December 6, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221912/variable-clinical-phenotype-in-two-siblings-with-aicardi-gouti%C3%A3-res-syndrome-type-6-and-a-novel-mutation-in-the-adar-gene
#5
Lisa Schmelzer, Martin Smitka, Christine Wolf, Nadja Lucas, Victoria Tüngler, Gabriele Hahn, Andreas Tzschach, Nataliya Di Donato, Min Ae Lee-Kirsch, Maja von der Hagen
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a hereditary inflammatory encephalopathy resulting in severe neurological damage in the majority of cases. We report on two siblings with AGS6 due to compound heterozygosity for a known and a novel mutation in the ADAR gene and a strikingly variable phenotype. The first sibling presented at 12 months of age with a subacute encephalopathy following a mild respiratory infection. The child developed a spastic tetraparesis, generalized dystonia and dysarthria. In contrast, the younger sibling presented with an acute episode of neurological impairment in his third year of life, from which he recovered without sequelae within a few weeks...
November 22, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221673/mother-doesn-t-always-know-best-maternal-wormlion-choice-of-oviposition-habitat-does-not-match-larval-habitat-choice
#6
Shay Adar, Roi Dor
Habitat choice is an important decision that influences animals' fitness. Insect larvae are less mobile than the adults. Consequently, the contribution of the maternal choice of habitat to the survival and development of the offspring is considered to be crucial. According to the "preference-performance hypothesis", ovipositing females are expected to choose habitats that will maximize the performance of their offspring. We tested this hypothesis in wormlions (Diptera: Vermileonidae), which are small sand-dwelling insects that dig pit-traps in sandy patches and ambush small arthropods...
December 5, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203771/alu-dependent-rna-editing-of-gli1-promotes-malignant-regeneration-in-multiple-myeloma
#7
Elisa Lazzari, Phoebe K Mondala, Nathaniel Delos Santos, Amber C Miller, Gabriel Pineda, Qingfei Jiang, Heather Leu, Shawn A Ali, Anusha-Preethi Ganesan, Christina N Wu, Caitlin Costello, Mark Minden, Raffaella Chiaramonte, A Keith Stewart, Leslie A Crews, Catriona H M Jamieson
Despite novel therapies, relapse of multiple myeloma (MM) is virtually inevitable. Amplification of chromosome 1q, which harbors the inflammation-responsive RNA editase adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)1 gene, occurs in 30-50% of MM patients and portends a poor prognosis. Since adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing has recently emerged as a driver of cancer progression, genomic amplification combined with inflammatory cytokine activation of ADAR1 could stimulate MM progression and therapeutic resistance. Here, we report that high ADAR1 RNA expression correlates with reduced patient survival rates in the MMRF CoMMpass data set...
December 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163973/young-gastrointestinal-angle-study-design-in-gastroenterology
#8
Tomer Adar, Kate Fleming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146145/adars-and-editing-the-role-of-a-to-i-rna-modification-in-cancer-progression
#9
REVIEW
Kajsa Fritzell, Li-Di Xu, Jens Lagergren, Marie Öhman
Cancer arises when pathways that control cell functions such as proliferation and migration are dysregulated to such an extent that cells start to divide uncontrollably and eventually spread throughout the body, ultimately endangering the survival of an affected individual. It is well established that somatic mutations are important in cancer initiation and progression as well as in creation of tumor diversity. Now also modifications of the transcriptome are emerging as a significant force during the transition from normal cell to malignant tumor...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145975/in-cancer-a-to-i-rna-editing-can-be-the-driver-the-passenger-or-the-mechanic
#10
Nabeel S Ganem, Noa Ben-Asher, Ayelet T Lamm
In recent years, A-to-I RNA modifications performed by the Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) protein family were found to be expressed at altered levels in multiple human malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing changes adenosine to inosine on double stranded RNA, thereby changing transcript sequence and structure. Although A-to-I RNA editing have the potential to change essential mRNA transcripts, affecting their corresponding protein structures, most of the human editing sites identified to date reside in non-coding repetitive transcripts such as Alu elements...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127844/the-role-of-a-to-i-rna-editing-in-cancer-development
#11
REVIEW
Xiaoyan Xu, Yumeng Wang, Han Liang
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is the most common type of post-transcriptional nucleotide modification in humans, which is catalyzed in ADAR enzymes. Recent genomic studies have revealed thousands of altered RNA editing events in various cancer tissues, leading to diverse functional consequences. A critical role of individual A-to-I RNA editing events in cancer has been reported. Here, we review the current state of our knowledge on key A-to-I RNA editing events in coding and non-coding regions for their roles in cancer development and discuss their potential clinical utility...
November 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127211/mechanistic-implications-of-enhanced-editing-by-a-hypertribe-rna-binding-protein
#12
Weijin Xu, Reazur Rahman, Michael Rosbash
We previously developed TRIBE, a method for the identification of cell-specific RNA binding protein targets. TRIBE expresses an RBP of interest fused to the catalytic domain (cd) of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR and performs Adenosine-to-Inosine editing on RNA targets of the RBP. However, target identification is limited by the low editing efficiency of the ADARcd. Here we describe HyperTRIBE, which carries a previously characterized hyperactive mutation (E488Q) of the ADARcd. HyperTRIBE identifies dramatically more editing sites, many of which are also edited by TRIBE but at a much lower editing frequency...
November 10, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102695/modeling-sewage-leakage-and-transport-in-carbonate-aquifer-using-carbamazepine-as-an-indicator
#13
Noam Zach Dvory, Michael Kuznetsov, Yakov Livshitz, Guy Gasser, Irena Pankratov, Ovadia Lev, Eilon Adar, Alexander Yakirevich
The Western Mountain Aquifer (Yarkon-Taninim) of Israel is one of the country's major water resources and partially flows through a karst system. During late winter 2013, maintenance actions were performed on a central sewage pipe that caused sewage to leak into the creek located in the study area. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was used as an indicator for the presence of sewage in the groundwater. The research goal was to develop a mathematical model for quantifying flow and contaminant transport processes in the karst/fractured-porous unsaturated zone and groundwater system...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095741/eccrine-centric-melanocytic-nevus
#14
Raymond M Fertig, Adar Berghoff, Jessica Cervantes, Evan Darwin, Drazen Jukic
Benign melanocytic neoplasms present with a diverse array of well-known histopathologic patterns. It is imperative to recognize the benign patterns to render accurate diagnoses. We describe here an interesting and hitherto not described low-power architectural pattern of a benign melanocytic lesion: eccrine-centric melanocytic nevus. The patient was a 50-year-old African American woman who noticed a new mole on her foot that began as a dark speck but quickly grew larger. The lesion was excised to exclude the possibility of melanoma...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093448/structure-mediated-modulation-of-mrna-abundance-by-a-to-i-editing
#15
Anneke Brümmer, Yun Yang, Tracey W Chan, Xinshu Xiao
RNA editing introduces single nucleotide changes to RNA, thus potentially diversifying gene expression. Recent studies have reported significant changes in RNA editing profiles in disease and development. The functional consequences of these widespread alterations remain elusive because of the unknown function of most RNA editing sites. Here, we carry out a comprehensive analysis of A-to-I editomes in human populations. Surprisingly, we observe highly similar editing profiles across populations despite striking differences in the expression levels of ADAR genes...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092731/bioequivalence-of-cyclobenzaprine-hydrochloride-extended-release-capsule-taken%C3%A2-intact-or-sprinkled-over-applesauce%C3%A2
#16
Liat Adar, William Zarycranski, Jill B Conner, Jeffrey Dragone, Lindsay Janka, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt
OBJECTIVE: Difficulty swallowing pills can compromise pain control in painful musculoskeletal disorders. This open-label, 2-period crossover study assessed pharmacokinetics and safety of cyclobenzaprine extended-release (CER) 30-mg capsule contents sprinkled over applesauce compared with intact capsules in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 subjects were randomized to treatment sequences AB or BA (A = single CER intact capsule; B = single CER capsule contents sprinkled over applesauce (15 mL))...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064987/commentary-on-male-surgical-neck-rejuvenation
#17
COMMENT
Juliya Fisher, Tony Adar, Daniel M Siegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061182/editing-inducer-elements-increases-a-to-i-editing-efficiency-in-the-mammalian-transcriptome
#18
Chammiran Daniel, Albin Widmark, Ditte Rigardt, Marie Öhman
BACKGROUND: Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing has been shown to be an essential event that plays a significant role in neuronal function, as well as innate immunity, in mammals. It requires a structure that is largely double-stranded for catalysis but little is known about what determines editing efficiency and specificity in vivo. We have previously shown that some editing sites require adjacent long stem loop structures acting as editing inducer elements (EIEs) for efficient editing...
October 23, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061157/promoting-rna-editing-by-adar-attraction
#19
Miri Danan-Gotthold, Erez Y Levanon
Concentration is important and not only while driving; a new study indicates how an adjacent genomic element helps to increase the efficiency of a specific adenosine to inosine RNA editing reaction, by providing a means to increase the local concentration of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR.
October 23, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040386/robust-distributed-lag-models-using-data-adaptive-shrinkage
#20
Yin-Hsiu Chen, Bhramar Mukherjee, Sara D Adar, Veronica J Berrocal, Brent A Coull
Distributed lag models (DLMs) have been widely used in environmental epidemiology to quantify the lagged effects of air pollution on an outcome of interest such as mortality or cardiovascular events. Generally speaking, DLMs can be applied to time-series data where the current measure of an independent variable and its lagged measures collectively affect the current measure of a dependent variable. The corresponding distributed lag (DL) function represents the relationship between the lags and the coefficients of the lagged exposure variables...
October 12, 2017: Biostatistics
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