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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640668/absence-of-the-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-results-in-defects-of-rna-editing-of-neuronal-mrnas-in-mouse
#1
Alice Filippini, Daniela Bonini, Caroline Lacoux, Laura Pacini, Maria Zingariello, Laura Sancillo, Daniela Bosisio, Valentina Salvi, Jessica Mingardi, Luca La Via, Francesca Zalfa, Claudia Bagni, Alessandro Barbon
The fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the absence of FMRP, a protein regulating RNA metabolism. Recently, an unexpected function of FMRP in modulating the activity of Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes has been reported both in Drosophila and Zebrafish. ADARs are RNA-binding proteins that increase transcriptional complexity through a post-transcriptional mechanism called RNA editing. In order to evaluate the ADAR2-FMRP interaction in mammals we analysed several RNA editing re-coding sites in the fmr1 knockout (KO) mice...
June 22, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640667/restricting-retrotransposons-adar1-is-another-guardian-of-the-human-genome
#2
Elisa Orecchini, Loredana Frassinelli, Alessandro Michienzi
ADAR1 is an enzyme that belongs to the Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs) family. These enzymes deaminate adenosines to inosines (RNA editing A-to-I) within double-stranded RNA regions in transcripts. Since inosines are recognized as guanosines by the cellular machinery, RNA editing mediated by ADARs can either lead to the formation of an altered protein (recoding) or affect different aspects of RNA metabolism. Recently, a proteomic analysis led to the identification of novel ADAR1-associated factors and found that a good fraction of them is shared with the Long Interspersed Element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) ribonucleoparticles (RNPs)...
June 22, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625713/individual-and-area-level-ses-in-diabetes-risk-prediction-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#3
Paul J Christine, Rebekah Young, Sara D Adar, Alain G Bertoni, Michele Heisler, Mercedes R Carnethon, Rodney A Hayward, Ana V Diez Roux
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate if adding SES to risk prediction models based upon traditional risk factors improves the prediction of diabetes. METHODS: Risk prediction models without and with individual- and area-level SES predictors were compared using the prospective Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate hazard ratios for SES predictors and to generate 10-year predicted risks for 5,021 individuals without diabetes at baseline followed from 2000 to 2012...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611354/chronic-low-dose-exposure-to-a-mixture-of-environmental-endocrine-disruptors-induces-micrornas-isomirs-deregulation-in-mouse-concomitant-with-intratesticular-estradiol-reduction
#4
Julio Buñay, Eduardo Larriba, Ricardo D Moreno, Jesús Del Mazo
Humans are environmentally exposed not only to single endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) but to mixtures that affect their reproductive health. In reproductive tissues, microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key targets of EDCs. Here, we analysed changes in the testis "miRNome" (and their biogenesis mechanism) in chronically exposed adult mice to a cocktail of five EDCs containing 0.3 mg/kg-body weight (BW)/day of each phthalate (DEHP, DBP, BBP) and 0.05 mg/kg-BW/day of each alkylphenol (NP, OP), from conception to adulthood...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608223/amylase-zymography
#5
Adarelys Andrades, Lellys M Contreras
Amylase zymography was carried out for the detection of amylases produced by a Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain isolated from the Thermal Center "Las Trincheras" in Venezuela. Zymography is an electrophoretic technique used to study hydrolases by means of thin gels containing copolymerized-specific substrates, under nonreducing conditions. In this study, 0.1% starch was incorporated into the gel as substrate. The formation of clear zones against a dark background in the gel stained with iodine indicated the presence of amylolytic activity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607063/dynamic-maps-of-uv-damage-formation-and-repair-for-the-human-genome
#6
Jinchuan Hu, Ogun Adebali, Sheera Adar, Aziz Sancar
Formation and repair of UV-induced DNA damage in human cells are affected by cellular context. To study factors influencing damage formation and repair genome-wide, we developed a highly sensitive single-nucleotide resolution damage mapping method [high-sensitivity damage sequencing (HS-Damage-seq)]. Damage maps of both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] from UV-irradiated cellular and naked DNA revealed that the effect of transcription factor binding on bulky adducts formation varies, depending on the specific transcription factor, damage type, and strand...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607059/human-genome-wide-repair-map-of-dna-damage-caused-by-the-cigarette-smoke-carcinogen-benzo-a-pyrene
#7
Wentao Li, Jinchuan Hu, Ogun Adebali, Sheera Adar, Yanyan Yang, Yi-Ying Chiou, Aziz Sancar
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is the major cause of lung cancer. BaP forms covalent DNA adducts after metabolic activation and induces mutations. We have developed a method for capturing oligonucleotides carrying bulky base adducts, including UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and BaP diol epoxide-deoxyguanosine (BPDE-dG), which are removed from the genome by nucleotide excision repair. The isolated oligonucleotides are ligated to adaptors, and after damage-specific immunoprecipitation, the adaptor-ligated oligonucleotides are converted to dsDNA with an appropriate translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerase, followed by PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to generate genome-wide repair maps...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604229/review-the-re-emergence-of-brachytherapy-as-treatment-for-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#8
Koji Ota, Tony Adar, Laura Dover, Amor Khachemoune
Electronic Brachytherapy (EBT) has seen a significant rise in use over the past few years in treating non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, the current literature in EBT remains scarce. Existing data on high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with surface applicators is often used to justify its efficacy and safety. In this review we study the two treatment modalities on their efficacy in treating NMSC and we explore the reasons behind the recent uprise in EBT. A literature review using PubMed was performed for articles published until January 2017 studying efficacy of HDR-BT and EBT for treating NMSC...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601223/adenosine-deaminases-that-act-on-rna-adars
#9
Yuru Wang, Yuxuan Zheng, Peter A Beal
Inosine is one of the most common modifications found in human RNAs and the Adenosine Deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are the main enzymes responsible for its production. ADARs were first discovered in the 1980s and since then our understanding of ADARs has advanced tremendously. For instance, it is now known that defective ADAR function can cause human diseases. Furthermore, recently solved crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase bound to RNA have provided insights regarding the catalytic and substrate recognition mechanisms...
2017: Enzymes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588893/e-learning-in-gastroenterology-what-have-we-learned-so-far
#10
Tomer Adar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578072/meal-time-behavior-difficulties-but-not-nutritional-deficiencies-correlate-with-sensory-processing-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Yael Shmaya, Sigal Eilat-Adar, Yael Leitner, Shimon Reif, Lidia V Gabis
BACKGROUND: Food aversion and nutritional difficulties are common in children with autism spectrum disorder. AIM: To compare meal time behavior of children with autism to their typically developing siblings and to typical controls and to examine if sensory profiles can predict meal time behavior or nutritional deficiencies in the autism group.
June 1, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571720/astrocytes-in-memory-function-pioneering-findings-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Adar Adamsky, Inbal Goshen
Astrocytes have been generally believed to perform mainly homeostatic and supportive functions for neurons in the central nervous system. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests previously unrecognized and surprising functions for astrocytes, including regulation of synaptic formation, transmission and plasticity, all of which are considered as the infrastructure for information processing and memory formation and stabilization. This review discusses the involvement of astrocytes in memory functions and the possible mechanisms that may underlie it...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559490/adar-rna-editing-below-the-backbone
#13
Liam P Keegan, Anzer Khan, Dragana Vukic, Mary A O'Connell
ADAR RNA editing enzymes (Adenosine Deaminases acting on RNA), that convert adenosine bases to inosines were first identified biochemically thirty years ago. Since then studies on ADARs in genetic model organisms, and evolutionary comparisons between them, continue to reveal a surprising range of pleiotropic biological effects of ADARs. This review focuses on Drosophila melanogaster, which has a single Adar gene encoding a homolog of vertebrate ADAR2 that site-specifically edits hundreds of transcripts to change individual codons in ion channel subunits and membrane and cytoskeletal proteins...
May 30, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527430/bjerrum-pairs-in-ionic-solutions-a-poisson-boltzmann-approach
#14
Ram M Adar, Tomer Markovich, David Andelman
Ionic solutions are often regarded as fully dissociated ions dispersed in a polar solvent. While this picture holds for dilute solutions, at higher ionic concentrations, oppositely charged ions can associate into dimers, referred to as Bjerrum pairs. We consider the formation of such pairs within the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann framework and investigate their effects on bulk and interfacial properties of electrolytes. Our findings show that pairs can reduce the magnitude of the dielectric decrement of ionic solutions as the ionic concentration increases...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526129/electrostatics-of-patchy-surfaces
#15
REVIEW
Ram M Adar, David Andelman, Haim Diamant
In the study of colloidal, biological and electrochemical systems, it is customary to treat surfaces, macromolecules and electrodes as homogeneously charged. This simplified approach is proven successful in most cases, but fails to describe a wide range of heterogeneously charged surfaces commonly used in experiments. For example, recent experiments have revealed a long-range attraction between overall neutral surfaces, locally charged in a mosaic-like structure of positively and negatively charged domains ("patches")...
April 7, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520888/traffic-congestion-as-a-risk-factor-for-mortality-in-near-road-communities-a-case-crossover-study
#16
Meredith Pedde, Adam A Szpiro, Sara D Adar
Existing epidemiological research on traffic largely neglects localized fluctuations. We leveraged finely-resolved congestion data to investigate short-term associations with mortality in near-road communities. We identified all non-accidental, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory deaths (2009-2013) within 1 km of a Puget Sound highway. Using a case-crossover design, we examined the association between congestion 0-150, 151-300, and 301-1000 m upwind of a decedent's home and mortality, adjusting for meteorology, holidays, and flu...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502110/a-novel-frameshift-mutation-of-the-adar1-gene-in-a-chinese-patient-with-dyschromatosis-symmetrica-hereditaria-and-the-dermoscopic-features
#17
LETTER
C Chi, Y Luo, J Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486975/evidence-for-transcriptome-wide-rna-editing-among-sus-scrofa-pre-1-sine-elements
#18
Scott A Funkhouser, Juan P Steibel, Ronald O Bates, Nancy E Raney, Darius Schenk, Catherine W Ernst
BACKGROUND: RNA editing by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) proteins is a form of transcriptional regulation that is widespread among humans and other primates. Based on high-throughput scans used to identify putative RNA editing sites, ADAR appears to catalyze a substantial number of adenosine to inosine transitions within repetitive regions of the primate transcriptome, thereby dramatically enhancing genetic variation beyond what is encoded in the genome. RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate the editing potential of the pig transcriptome by utilizing DNA and RNA sequence data from the same pig...
May 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484266/rna-editing-signature-during-myeloid-leukemia-cell-differentiation
#19
C Rossetti, E Picardi, M Ye, G Camilli, A M D'Erchia, L Cucina, F Locatelli, L Fianchi, L Teofili, G Pesole, A Gallo, R Sorrentino
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are key proteins for hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and for survival of differentiating progenitor cells. However, their specific role in myeloid cell maturation has been poorly investigated. Here we show that ADAR1 is present at basal level in the primary myeloid leukemia cells obtained from patients at diagnosis as well as in myeloid U-937 and THP1 cell lines and its expression correlates with the editing levels. Upon phorbol-myristate acetate or Vitamin D3/granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-driven differentiation, both ADAR1 and ADAR2 enzymes are upregulated, with a concomitant global increase of A-to-I RNA editing...
May 9, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482199/adar-deaminase-a-to-i-editing-of-dna-and-rna-moieties-of-rna-dna-hybrids-has-implications-for-the-mechanism-of-ig-somatic-hypermutation
#20
Edward J Steele, Robyn A Lindley
The implications are discussed of recently published biochemical studies on ADAR-mediated A-to-I DNA and RNA deamination at RNA:DNA hybrids. The significance of these data are related to previous work on strand-biased and codon-context mutation signatures in B lymphocytes and cancer genomes. Those studies have established that there are two significant strand biases at A:T and G:C base pairs, A-site mutations exceed T-site mutations (A>T) by 2.9 fold and G-site mutations exceed C-site mutations (G>C) by 1...
April 21, 2017: DNA Repair
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