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Judith Brody, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Zohar Landau, Adi Adar, Tzvy Bistritzer, Marianna Rachmiel
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both vitamin D (VitD) deficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased worldwide over the last few decades. The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of VitD deficiency and insufficiency among Israeli youth with T1DM and (2) to assess the association between VitD status, seasonality and T1D glycemic control characteristics. METHODS: This was a multi-centered, cross-sectional study. VitD levels were routinely tested during the years 2008-2011 in T1DM patients aged up to 21 years...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Jingwei Jiang, Qingmin Gao, Tian Wang, Hao Lin, Qiong Zhan, Zhaohui Chu, Ruofan Huang, Xinli Zhou, Xiaohua Liang, Weijian Guo
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a group of heterogeneous myeloid cells that can suppress antitumor immunity. MDSCs are divided into granulocytic (G‑MDSCs) and monocytic subsets. In the present study, the microRNA profiles of the G‑MDSCs were determined and the differential expression of microRNAs between G‑MDSCs from tumor‑bearing mice and tumor‑free mice was examined. The number of G‑MDSCs in spleens of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)‑bearing mice was ~6‑fold higher than in spleens of normal mice (13...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Joel D Kaufman, Elizabeth W Spalt, Cynthia L Curl, Anjum Hajat, Miranda R Jones, Sun-Young Kim, Sverre Vedal, Adam A Szpiro, Amanda Gassett, Lianne Sheppard, Martha L Daviglus, Sara D Adar
The MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information...
September 2016: Global Heart
Jana A Hirsch, Joe Grengs, Amy Schulz, Sara D Adar, Daniel A Rodriguez, Shannon J Brines, Ana V Diez Roux
Investments in neighborhood built environments could increase physical activity and overall health. Disproportionate distribution of these changes in advantaged neighborhoods could inflate health disparities. Little information exists on where changes are occurring. This paper aims to 1) identify changes in the built environment in neighborhoods and 2) investigate associations between high levels of change and sociodemographic characteristics. Using Geographic Information Systems, neighborhood land-use, local destinations (for walking, social engagement, and physical activity), and sociodemographics were characterized in 2000 and 2010 for seven U...
September 23, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Li Dai, Xue-Chen Liu, Sen Ye, Hua-Wei Li, Dian-Fu Chen, Xiao-Jian Yu, Xue-Ting Huang, Li Zhang, Fan Yang, Jin-Shu Yang, Wei-Jun Yang
The most widespread type of RNA editing, conversion of adenosine to inosine (A→I), is catalyzed by two members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family, ADAR1 and ADAR2. These enzymes edit transcripts for neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels during adaption to changes in the physical environment. In the primitive crustacean Artemia, when maternal adults are exposed to unfavorable conditions, they release diapause embryos to withstand harsh environments. The aim of the current study was therefore to elucidate the role of ADAR of Artemia diapause embryos in resistance to stress...
October 4, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Violeta Rayon-Estrada, F Nina Papavasiliou, Dewi Harjanto
Global analyses of cancer transcriptomes demonstrate that ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific)-mediated RNA editing dynamically contributes to genetic alterations in cancer, and directly correlates with progression and prognosis. RNA editing is abundant and frequently elevated in cancer, and affects functionally and clinically relevant sites in both coding and non-coding regions of the transcriptome. Therefore, ADAR and differentially edited transcripts may be promising biomarkers or targets for therapy...
December 2015: Trends in Cancer
Jinchuan Hu, Jason D Lieb, Aziz Sancar, Sheera Adar
Cisplatin is a major anticancer drug that kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA. Cancer cells cope with the drug by removal of the damages with nucleotide excision repair. We have developed methods to measure cisplatin adduct formation and its repair at single-nucleotide resolution. "Damage-seq" relies on the replication-blocking properties of the bulky base lesions to precisely map their location. "XR-seq" independently maps the removal of these damages by capturing and sequencing the excised oligomer released during repair...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Si Qiu, Wenhui Li, Heng Xiong, Dongbing Liu, Yali Bai, Kui Wu, Xiuqing Zhang, Huanming Yang, Kun Ma, Yong Hou, Bo Li
BACKGROUND: A-to-I RNA-editing mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes that converts adenosine to inosine in RNA sequence can generate mutations and alter gene regulation in metazoans. Previous studies have shown that A-to-I RNA-editing plays vital roles in mouse embryogenesis. However, the RNA-editing activities in early human embryonic development have not been investigated. RESULTS: Here, we characterized genome-wide A-to-I RNA-editing activities during human early embryogenesis by profiling 68 single cells from 29 human embryos spanning from oocyte to morula stages...
September 29, 2016: BMC Genomics
L Palmeri, G Gradwohl, M Nitzan, E Hoffman, Y Adar, Y Shapir, R Koppel
OBJECTIVE: Fetal echocardiography, physical examination and pulse oximetry detect only half of coarctation of aorta (CoA) cases. We aimed to quantify delayed arrival and diminished amplitude of lower extremity photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses relative to the right hand in affected patients. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 8 CoA infants and 32 healthy controls. The pulse arrival time difference between foot and hand (f-hTD) and pulse amplitude ratio (F/H) were measured on PPG signal waveforms by digitally-determining maxima and minima of systolic decrease of light transmission...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Shay Adar, Inon Scharf, Roi Dor
Wormlion larvae are sit-and-wait predators that construct cone-shaped pits in sandy patches to capture prey. Wormlions select microhabitats that feature favorable conditions for pit construction, in a similar way to other trap-building predators, like spiders and antlions. We investigated whether wormlions exhibit an experience-based behavioral plasticity in their pit construction behavior. In a laboratory experiment, pit sizes and relocation distances were compared between larvae that experienced either a period of unfavorable conditions, i...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Elisa Orecchini, Margherita Doria, Ambra Antonioni, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè, Loredana Frassinelli, Carmine Mancone, Claudia Montaldo, Marco Tripodi, Alessandro Michienzi
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are involved in RNA editing that converts adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNAs. ADAR1 was demonstrated to be functional on different viruses exerting either antiviral or proviral effects. Concerning HIV-1, several studies showed that ADAR1 favors viral replication. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the ADAR1 ribonucleoprotein complex during HIV-1 expression. By using a dual-tag affinity purification procedure in cells expressing HIV-1 followed by mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 14 non-ribosomal ADAR1-interacting proteins, most of which are novel...
September 21, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Meng Wang, Joshua P Keller, Sara D Adar, Sun-Young Kim, Timothy V Larson, Casey Olives, Paul D Sampson, Lianne Sheppard, Adam A Szpiro, Sverre Vedal, Joel D Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Current epidemiologic studies rely on simple ozone metrics which may not appropriately capture population ozone exposure. For understanding health effects of long-term ozone exposure in population studies, it is advantageous for exposure estimation to incorporate the complex spatiotemporal pattern of ozone concentrations at fine scales. OBJECTIVE: To develop a geo-statistical exposure prediction model that predicts fine scale spatiotemporal variations of ambient ozone in six United States metropolitan regions...
December 2015: Atmospheric Environment
Oscar Brenes, Valentina Carabelli, Sara Gosso, Adarli Romero, Emilio Carbone, Pier Giorgio Montarolo, Mirella Ghirardi
Synapsins are a family of presynaptic proteins related to several processes of synaptic functioning. A variety of reports have linked mutations in synapsin genes with the development of epilepsy. Among the proposed mechanisms, a main one is based on the synapsin-mediated imbalance towards network hyperexcitability due to differential effects on neurotransmitter release in GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. Along this line, a non-synaptic effect of synapsin depletion increasing neuronal excitability has recently been described in Helix neurons...
September 6, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Ram M Adar, David Andelman, Haim Diamant
Two overall neutral surfaces with positively and negatively charged domains ("patches") have been shown in recent experiments to exhibit long-range attraction when immersed in an ionic solution. Motivated by the experiments, we calculate analytically the osmotic pressure between such surfaces within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework, using a variational principle for the surface-averaged free energy. The electrostatic potential, calculated beyond the linear Debye-Hückel theory, yields an overall attraction at large intersurface separations, over a wide range of the system's controlled length scales...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
Jason G Wood, Brian C Jones, Nan Jiang, Chengyi Chang, Suzanne Hosier, Priyan Wickremesinghe, Meyrolin Garcia, Davis A Hartnett, Lucas Burhenn, Nicola Neretti, Stephen L Helfand
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements, highly enriched in heterochromatin, that constitute a large percentage of the DNA content of eukaryotic genomes. Aging in Drosophila melanogaster is characterized by loss of repressive heterochromatin structure and loss of silencing of reporter genes in constitutive heterochromatin regions. Using next-generation sequencing, we found that transcripts of many genes native to heterochromatic regions and TEs increased with age in fly heads and fat bodies...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Helen Piontkivska, Luis F Matos, Sinu Paul, Brian Scharfenberg, William G Farmerie, Michael M Miyamoto, Marta L Wayne
Sigma virus (DMelSV) is ubiquitous in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Host-mediated, selective RNA editing of adenosines to inosines (ADAR) may contribute to control of viral infection by preventing transcripts from being transported into the cytoplasm or being translated accurately; or by increasing the viral genomic mutation rate. Previous PCR-based studies showed that ADAR mutations occur in DMelSV at low frequency. Here we use SOLiD(TM) deep sequencing of flies from a single host population from Athens, GA, USA to comprehensively evaluate patterns of sequence variation in DMelSV with respect to ADAR...
October 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Yuru Wang, Peter A Beal
Adenosine deamination is one of the most prevalent post-transcriptional modifications in mRNA. In humans, ADAR1 and ADAR2 catalyze this modification and their malfunction correlates with disease. Recently our laboratory reported crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase domain bound to duplex RNA revealing a protein loop that binds the RNA on the 5' side of the modification site. This 5' binding loop appears to be one contributor to substrate specificity differences between ADAR family members. In this study, we endeavored to reveal detailed structure-activity relationships in this loop to advance our understanding of RNA recognition by ADAR2...
September 9, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Konstantinos Stellos, Aikaterini Gatsiou, Kimon Stamatelopoulos, Ljubica Perisic Matic, David John, Federica Francesca Lunella, Nicolas Jaé, Oliver Rossbach, Carolin Amrhein, Frangiska Sigala, Reinier A Boon, Boris Fürtig, Yosif Manavski, Xintian You, Shizuka Uchida, Till Keller, Jes-Niels Boeckel, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Lars Maegdefessel, Wei Chen, Harald Schwalbe, Albrecht Bindereif, Per Eriksson, Ulf Hedin, Andreas M Zeiher, Stefanie Dimmeler
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by a family of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is important in the epitranscriptomic regulation of RNA metabolism. However, the role of A-to-I RNA editing in vascular disease is unknown. Here we show that cathepsin S mRNA (CTSS), which encodes a cysteine protease associated with angiogenesis and atherosclerosis, is highly edited in human endothelial cells. The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the CTSS transcript contains two inverted repeats, the AluJo and AluSx(+) regions, which form a long stem-loop structure that is recognized by ADAR1 as a substrate for editing...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Ernesto Picardi, Anna Maria D'Erchia, Claudio Lo Giudice, Graziano Pesole
RNA editing by A-to-I deamination is the prominent co-/post-transcriptional modification in humans. It is carried out by ADAR enzymes and contributes to both transcriptomic and proteomic expansion. RNA editing has pivotal cellular effects and its deregulation has been linked to a variety of human disorders including neurological and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Despite its biological relevance, many physiological and functional aspects of RNA editing are yet elusive. Here, we present REDIportal, available online at http://srv00...
September 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Shiqing He, Eytan Adar
Shifts in information visualization practice are forcing a reconsideration of how infovis is taught. Traditional curricula that focused on conveying research-derived knowledge are slowly integrating design thinking as a key learning objective. In part, this is motivated by the realization that infovis is a wicked design problem, requiring a different kind of design work. In this paper we describe, VIZITCARDS, a card-driven workshop developed for our graduate infovis class. The workshop is intended to provide practice with good design techniques and to simultaneously reinforce key concepts...
August 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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