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Rapid-sequence induction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641582/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-levetiracetam-versus-phenytoin-for-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children-protocol-convulsive-status-epilepticus-paediatric-trial-consept-a-predict-study
#1
Stuart R Dalziel, Jeremy Furyk, Megan Bonisch, Ed Oakley, Meredith Borland, Jocelyn Neutze, Susan Donath, Cynthia Sharpe, Simon Harvey, Andrew Davidson, Simon Craig, Natalie Phillips, Shane George, Arjun Rao, Nicholas Cheng, Michael Zhang, Kam Sinn, Amit Kochar, Christine Brabyn, Franz E Babl
BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening childhood neurological emergency. Despite this, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting medication use after first line benzodiazepines, with current treatment protocols based solely on non-experimental evidence and expert opinion. The current standard of care, phenytoin, is only 60% effective, and associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anti-convulsant, levetiracetam, can be given faster, is potentially more efficacious, with a more tolerable side effect profile...
June 22, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637924/vp4-and-vp7-specific-antibodies-mediate-heterotypic-immunity-to-rotavirus-in-humans
#2
Nitya Nair, Ningguo Feng, Lisa K Blum, Mrinmoy Sanyal, Siyuan Ding, Baoming Jiang, Adrish Sen, John M Morton, Xiao-Song He, William H Robinson, Harry B Greenberg
Human rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid induction of heterotypic protective immunity to RV, which provides the basis for the efficacy of licensed monovalent RV vaccines, have remained unknown for more than 30 years. We used RV-specific single cell-sorted intestinal B cells from human adults, barcode-based deep sequencing of antibody repertoires, monoclonal antibody expression, and serologic and functional characterization to demonstrate that infection-induced heterotypic immunoglobulins (Igs) primarily directed to VP5*, the stalk region of the RV attachment protein, VP4, are able to mediate heterotypic protective immunity...
June 21, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629473/emergency-treatment-with-levetiracetam-or-phenytoin-in-status-epilepticus-in-children-the-eclipse-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Mark D Lyttle, Carrol Gamble, Shrouk Messahel, Helen Hickey, Anand Iyer, Kerry Woolfall, Amy Humphreys, Naomi E A Bacon, Louise Roper, Franz E Babl, Stuart R Dalziel, Mary Ryan, Richard E Appleton
BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening neurological emergency in childhood. These children are also at risk of significant morbidity, with acute and chronic impact on the family and the health and social care systems. The current recommended first-choice, second-line treatment in children aged 6 months and above is intravenous phenytoin (fosphenytoin in the USA), although there is a lack of evidence for its use and it is associated with significant side effects...
June 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624614/gene-transfer-agent-promotes-evolvability-within-the-fittest-subpopulation-of-a-bacterial-pathogen
#4
Maxime Québatte, Matthias Christen, Alexander Harms, Jonas Körner, Beat Christen, Christoph Dehio
The Bartonella gene transfer agent (BaGTA) is an archetypical example for domestication of a phage-derived element to permit high-frequency genetic exchange in bacterial populations. Here we used multiplexed transposon sequencing (TnSeq) and single-cell reporters to globally define the core components and transfer dynamics of BaGTA. Our systems-level analysis has identified inner- and outer-circle components of the BaGTA system, including 55 regulatory components, as well as an additional 74 and 107 components mediating donor transfer and recipient uptake functions...
June 14, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606652/rocuronium-versus-suxamethonium-for-rapid-sequence-induction-of-general-anaesthesia-for-caesarean-section-influence-on-neonatal-outcomes
#5
M Kosinova, P Stourac, M Adamus, D Seidlova, T Pavlik, P Janku, I Krikava, Z Mrozek, M Prochazka, J Klucka, R Stoudek, I Bartikova, H Harazim, H Robotkova, K Hejduk, Z Hodicka, M Kirchnerova, J Francakova, L Obare Pyszkova, J Hlozkova, P Sevcik
BACKGROUND: In a previous study we compared rocuronium and suxamethonium for rapid-sequence induction of general anaesthesia for caesarean section and found no difference in maternal outcome. There was however, a significant difference in Apgar scores. As this was a secondary outcome, we extended the study to explore this finding on a larger sample. METHODS: We included 488 parturients of whom 240 were women from the original study. Women were randomly assigned to receive either rocuronium 1mg/kg (ROC n=245) or suxamethonium 1mg/kg (SUX n=243) after propofol 2mg/kg...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591517/an-atp-responsive-co-delivery-system-of-doxorubicin-and-mir-34a-to-synergistically-inhibit-the-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#6
Yudi Wang, Jiawen Chen, Xiao Liang, Haobo Han, Hao Wang, Yan Yang, Quanshun Li
Establishing stimuli-responsive nanosystems for the co-delivery of anticancer drug and oligonucleotide is a promising strategy in cancer treatment owing to the combination of chemotherapy and gene therapy in a synergistic manner. Herein, an ATP aptamer and its cDNA sequence were first hybridized to produce the duplex, into which chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) interacted through the GC-rich motif of duplex, and PEI25K was then employed as a carrier to condense the DOX-loading duplex and miR-34a to construct the ternary nanocomplex PEI/DOX-Duplex/miR-34a...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591177/identification-and-characterization-of-constans-like-col-gene-family-in-upland-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#7
Darun Cai, Hui Liu, Na Sang, Xianzhong Huang
The CONSTANS/FLOWERING LOCUS T (CO/FT) regulon plays a central role in the control of flowering time in photoperiod-sensitive plants. Flowering time in wild cotton (Gossypium spp.) has strict photoperiod sensitivity, but domesticated cotton is day-neutral. Information on the molecular characterization of the CO and CO-like (COL) genes in cotton is very limited. In this study, we identified 42 COL homologs (GhCOLs) in the G. hirsutum genome, and many of them were previously unreported. We studied their chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and structures of genes and proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582801/emergency-airway-management-in-australian-and-new-zealand-emergency-departments-a-multicentre-descriptive-study-of-3710-emergency-intubations
#8
Hatem Alkhouri, John Vassiliadis, Matthew Murray, John Mackenzie, Alex Tzannes, Sally McCarthy, Toby Fogg
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the practice of endotracheal intubation across a range of Australasian EDs. METHODS: We established a multicentre airway registry (The Australian and New Zealand Emergency Department Airway Registry [ANZEDAR]) prospectively capturing intubations from 43 Australian and New Zealand EDs over 24 months using the ANZEDAR form. Information recorded included patient demographics, intubation indications, predicted difficulty, rapid sequence induction and endotracheal intubation preparation technique, induction drugs, airway adjuncts and complications...
June 5, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523090/penetrating-craniomaxillofacial-injury-caused-by-a-pneumatic-nail-gun
#9
Kevin Jae Choi, Marisa Ann Ryan, Tracy Cheng, David Powers
Craniomaxillofacial injuries can be complex, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The primary survey is always the first step in trauma management prior to proceeding with further evaluation and treatment. A 26-year-old man presented with a penetrating nail gun injury through the oral and nasal cavities. He did not present in extremis but required elective endotracheal intubation for intraoperative assessment and treatment. Airway management was enhanced by the use of lingual nerve and inferior alveolar nerve blocks via the Vazirani-Akinosi technique to maintain spontaneous respiration while the tongue was distracted from the palate...
June 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490462/genome-wide-dna-methylation-analysis-reveals-gabbr2-as-a-novel-epigenetic-target-for-egfr-19-deletion-lung-adenocarcinoma-with-induction-erlotinib-treatment
#10
Xiaomin Niu, Fatao Liu, Yi Zhou, Zhen Zhou, Daizhan Zhou, Ting Wang, Ziming Li, Xiangyun Ye, Yongfeng Yu, Xiaoling Weng, Hong Zhang, Junyi Ye, Meilin Liao, Yun Liu, Zhiwei Chen, Shun Lu
Purpose: The last decade has witnessed the rapid development of personalized targeted therapies in lung cancer. It is still unclear whether epigenetic changes are involved in the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated lung cancer. <p>Experimental Design: Methyl-sensitive cut counting sequencing (MSCC) was applied to investigate the methylation changes in paired tissues before and after erlotinib treatment for 42 days with partial response (PR) from stage IIIa (N2) lung adenocarcinoma patients (N=2) with EGFR 19 deletion...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488082/genome-wide-identification-of-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-responsive-micrornas-in-watermelon
#11
Yuyan Sun, Xiaowei Niu, Min Fan
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a damaging pathogen that attacks crop plants belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Little is known about the regulatory role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to CGMMV infection. To identify CGMMV-responsive miRNAs, two sRNA libraries from mock-inoculated and CGMMV-infected watermelon leaves were constructed and sequenced using Solexa sequencing technology. In total, 471 previously known and 1,809 novel miRNAs were obtained, of which 377 known and 246 novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed during CGMMV infection...
May 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460858/analysis-of-out-of-hospital-pediatric-intubation-by%C3%A2-an-australian-helicopter-emergency-medical%C3%A2-service
#12
Brian J Burns, Joanna B Watterson, Sandra Ware, Luke Regan, Cliff Reid
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We examine first-look success in emergency pediatric intubation by a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (EMS). METHODS: A database analysis of all pediatric (<16 years) intubations during a 64-month period was undertaken, using data from a prospectively enrolled electronic airway registry form. Recorded findings included patient demographics, operator background, airway intervention including intubation attempts, complications, and critical timings...
April 28, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452293/separation-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-leader-protein-activities-identification-of-mutants-that-retain-efficient-self-processing-activity-but-poorly-induce-eif4g-cleavage
#13
Su Hua Guan, Graham J Belsham
Foot-and-mouth disease virus is a picornavirus and its RNA genome encodes a large polyprotein. The N-terminal part of this polyprotein is the leader protein, a cysteine protease, termed Lpro. The virus causes the rapid inhibition of host cell cap-dependent protein synthesis within infected cells. This results from the Lpro-dependent cleavage of the cellular translation initiation factor eIF4G. Lpro also releases itself from the virus capsid precursor by cleaving the L/P1 junction. Using site-directed mutagenesis of the Lpro coding sequence, we have investigated the role of 51 separate amino acid residues in the functions of this protein...
April 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416600/induction-of-an-ifn-mediated-antiviral-response-by-a-self-amplifying-rna-vaccine-implications-for-vaccine-design
#14
Timothy Pepini, Anne-Marie Pulichino, Thomas Carsillo, Alicia L Carlson, Farid Sari-Sarraf, Katrin Ramsauer, Jason C Debasitis, Giulietta Maruggi, Gillis R Otten, Andrew J Geall, Dong Yu, Jeffrey B Ulmer, Carlo Iavarone
RNA-based vaccines have recently emerged as a promising alternative to the use of DNA-based and viral vector vaccines, in part because of the potential to simplify how vaccines are made and facilitate a rapid response to newly emerging infections. SAM vaccines are based on engineered self-amplifying mRNA (SAM) replicons encoding an Ag, and formulated with a synthetic delivery system, and they induce broad-based immune responses in preclinical animal models. In our study, in vivo imaging shows that after the immunization, SAM Ag expression has an initial gradual increase...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400685/republication-all-india-difficult-airway-association-2016-guidelines-for-tracheal-intubation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#15
Sheila Nainan Myatra, Syed Moied Ahmed, Pankaj Kundra, Rakesh Garg, Venkateswaran Ramkumar, Apeksh Patwa, Amit Shah, Ubaradka S Raveendra, Sumalatha Radhakrishna Shetty, Jeson Rajan Doctor, Dilip K Pawar, Singaravelu Ramesh, Sabyasachi Das, Jigeeshu Vasishtha Divatia
Tracheal intubation (TI) is a routine procedure in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and is often lifesaving. In contrast to the controlled conditions in the operating room, critically ill patients with respiratory failure and shock are physiologically unstable. These factors, along with under evaluation of the airway and suboptimal response to preoxygenation, are responsible for a high incidence of life-threatening complications such as severe hypoxemia and cardiovascular collapse during TI in the ICU. The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) proposes a stepwise plan for safe management of the airway in critically ill patients...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391524/intron-retention-as-a-component-of-regulated-gene-expression-programs
#16
REVIEW
Aishwarya G Jacob, Christopher W J Smith
Intron retention has long been an exemplar of regulated splicing with case studies of individual events serving as models that provided key mechanistic insights into the process of splicing control. In organisms such as plants and budding yeast, intron retention is well understood as a major mechanism of gene expression regulation. In contrast, in mammalian systems, the extent and functional significance of intron retention have, until recently, remained greatly underappreciated. Technical challenges to the global detection and quantitation of transcripts with retained introns have often led to intron retention being overlooked or dismissed as "noise"...
April 8, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376866/systemic-therapy-in-the-curative-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Eric Winquist, Chika Agbassi, Brandon M Meyers, John Yoo, Kelvin K W Chan
OBJECTIVE: To review the available evidence and make recommendations regarding use of systemically administered drugs in combination or in sequence with radiation (RT) and/or surgery for cure and/or organ preservation in patients with locally advanced nonmetastatic (Stage III to IVB) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN). METHOD: Recognizing the Meta-analysis of Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer (MACH-NC) group reports have de facto guided practice since 2000, we searched for systematic reviews in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published from January 2000 to February 2015 in reference to 4 research questions...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356342/widespread-changes-in-nucleosome-accessibility-without-changes-in-nucleosome-occupancy-during-a-rapid-transcriptional-induction
#18
Britta Mueller, Jakub Mieczkowski, Sharmistha Kundu, Peggy Wang, Ruslan Sadreyev, Michael Y Tolstorukov, Robert E Kingston
Activation of transcription requires alteration of chromatin by complexes that increase the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA. Removing nucleosomes from regulatory sequences has been proposed to play a significant role in activation. We tested whether changes in nucleosome occupancy occurred on the set of genes that is activated by the unfolded protein response (UPR). We observed no decrease in occupancy on most promoters, gene bodies, and enhancers. Instead, there was an increase in the accessibility of nucleosomes, as measured by micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion and ATAC-seq (assay for transposase-accessible chromatin [ATAC] using sequencing), that did not result from removal of the nucleosome...
March 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351057/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-the-type-b-authentic-response-regulator-gene-family-in-peach-prunus-persica
#19
Jingjue Zeng, Xudong Zhu, Muhammad S Haider, Xicheng Wang, Cheng Zhang, Chen Wang
The type-B authentic response regulator (ARR-B) family members serve as DNA-binding transcriptional regulators, whose activities are probably regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, resulting in the rapid induction of type-A ARR genes. Type-B ARRs are believed to be involved in many biological processes, including cytokinin signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or by isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The public availability of complete peach genome sequences allows the identification of 23 ARR-B genes by HMMER and blast analysis...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289767/-update-on-muscle-relaxation-what-comes-after-succinylcholine-rocuronium-and-sugammadex
#20
N Zoremba, G Schälte, C Bruells, F K Pühringer
Due to the great advantages, it is not possible to imagine current practice in anesthesia without the adminstration of muscle relaxants. For a long time the administration of succinylcholine for rapid sequence induction (RSI) was considered to be the state of the art for patients at risk for aspiration. The favorable characteristics are, however, accompanied by many, sometimes severe side effects. Due to the development of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, in particular rocuronium in combination with sugammadex, there is the possibility to achieve a profile of action similar to succinylcholine with low side effects...
March 13, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
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