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Cholera haiti

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306353/vibrio-cholerae-genomic-diversity-within-and-between-patients
#1
Inès Levade, Yves Terrat, Jean-Baptiste Leducq, Ana A Weil, Leslie M Mayo-Smith, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful I Khan, Jacques Boncy, Josiane Buteau, Louise C Ivers, Edward T Ryan, Richelle C Charles, Stephen B Calderwood, Firdausi Qadri, Jason B Harris, Regina C LaRocque, B Jesse Shapiro
Cholera is a severe, water-borne diarrhoeal disease caused by toxin-producing strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Comparative genomics has revealed 'waves' of cholera transmission and evolution, in which clones are successively replaced over decades and centuries. However, the extent of V. cholerae genetic diversity within an epidemic or even within an individual patient is poorly understood. Here, we characterized V. cholerae genomic diversity at a micro-epidemiological level within and between individual patients from Bangladesh and Haiti...
December 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248034/health-outcomes-for-children-in-haiti-since-the-2010-earthquake-a-systematic-review
#2
Annie Dube, Madeline Moffatt, Colleen Davison, Susan Bartels
BACKGROUND: Haiti remains the poorest country in the Americas and one of the poorest in the world. Children in Haiti face many health concerns, some of which were exacerbated by the 2010 earthquake. This systematic review summarizes published research conducted since the 2010 earthquake, focusing on health outcomes for children in Haiti, including physical, psychological, and socioeconomic well-being. METHODS: A literature search was conducted identifying articles published from January 2010 through May 2016 related to pediatric health outcomes in Haiti...
December 18, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234496/persistent-diarrhoea-in-a-5-month-old-baby-carrying-vibrio-cholerae-nono1-nono139-producing-haitian-cholera-toxin
#3
P Kumar, S Karmakar, R Prasad, R Chopra, S Khandelwal, S Gupta, A C Dhariwal, P Yadav, P K Yadava
Cholera toxin (CT) is the principal virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae for fatal cholera diarrhoea. Serogroups O1 and O139 harbour CT and are known to be epidemic strains. The remaining serogroups (nonO1/nonO139) are non-toxigenic and may be associated with mild disease. O1 serogroup emerged with a variant of CT known as Haitian cholera toxin (HCT). The HCT strains are hypervirulent and have been associated with severe cholera outbreaks in India, Western Africa and Haiti. Here, we report the presence of HCT (ctxB7) in a nonO1/nonO139 isolate causing persistent diarrhoea...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218035/characterization-of-two-cryptic-plasmids-isolated-in-haiti-from-clinical-vibrio-cholerae-non-o1-non-o139
#4
Daniela Ceccarelli, Geneviève Garriss, Seon Y Choi, Nur A Hasan, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Mihai Pop, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
We report the complete sequence of two novel plasmids, pSDH-1 and pSDH-2, isolated from clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 during the early phase of the 2010 Haitian cholera epidemic. Plasmids were revealed by employing single-cell genomics and their genome content suggests self-mobilization and, for pSDH-2, a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system for plasmid stabilization was identified. The putative origin of replication of pSDH-2 was mapped suggesting it replicates following the ColE1 model of plasmid replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188126/the-united-nations-material-assistance-to-survivors-of-cholera-in-haiti-consulting-survivors-and-rebuilding-trust
#5
Phuong N Pham, Niamh Gibbons, Patrick Vinck
Introduction: In August 2016, the United Nations (U.N.) Secretary General acknowledged the U.N.'s role in the cholera epidemic that has beset Haiti since 2010. Two months later, the Secretary General issued a historic apology to the Haitian people before the U.N. General Assembly, for the organization's insufficient response to the cholera outbreak. These steps are part of the U.N.'s "new approach" to cholera in Haiti, which also includes launching a material assistance package for those most affected by cholera...
October 23, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166908/mathematical-models-for-predicting-human-mobility-in-the-context-of-infectious-disease-spread-introducing-the-impedance-model
#6
Kankoé Sallah, Roch Giorgi, Linus Bengtsson, Xin Lu, Erik Wetter, Paul Adrien, Stanislas Rebaudet, Renaud Piarroux, Jean Gaudart
BACKGROUND: Mathematical models of human mobility have demonstrated a great potential for infectious disease epidemiology in contexts of data scarcity. While the commonly used gravity model involves parameter tuning and is thus difficult to implement without reference data, the more recent radiation model based on population densities is parameter-free, but biased. In this study we introduce the new impedance model, by analogy with electricity. Previous research has compared models on the basis of a few specific available spatial patterns...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165706/cholera-epidemics-of-the-past-offer-new-insights-into-an-old-enemy
#7
Matthew Phelps, Mads Linnet Perner, Virginia E Pitzer, Viggo Andreasen, Peter K M Jensen, Lone Simonsen
Background: Although cholera is considered the quintessential long-cycle waterborne disease, studies have emphasized the existence of short-cycle (food, household) transmission. We investigated singular Danish cholera epidemics (1853) to elucidate epidemiological parameters and modes of spread. Methods: Using time series data from cities with different water systems, we estimated the intrinsic transmissibility (R0). Accessing cause-specific mortality data we studied clinical severity, age-specific impact...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099119/el-an%C3%A3-lisis-molecular-de-la-secuencia-del-genoma-completo-de-aislados-cl%C3%A3-nicos-de-vibrio-cholerae-en-m%C3%A3-xico-en-2013-revela-la-presencia-de-la-cepa-causante-de-la-epidemia-de-hait%C3%A3-en-2010
#8
José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez
La primera semana de septiembre de 2013, el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica identificó dos casos de cólera en Ciudad de México. Los cultivos de ambas muestras se confirmaron como Vibrio cholerae serogrupo O1, serotipo Ogawa, biotipo El Tor. Los análisis iniciales por electroforesis por campos pulsados y por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa indicaron que ambas cepas eran similares, pero diferentes de las previamente reportadas en México. La semana siguiente se identificaron cuatro casos más en una comunidad del Estado de Hidalgo, ubicada a 121 kilómetros al noreste de Ciudad de México...
2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091945/laboratory-evaluation-of-immunochromatographic-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-cholera-in-haiti
#9
Wilfredo R Matias, Fabrice E Julceus, Cademil Abelard, Leslie M Mayo-Smith, Molly F Franke, Jason B Harris, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for cholera are promising tools for detecting cholera in areas with limited laboratory infrastructure. However, evidence on the characteristics of the many available RDTs is scarce, and their use has been limited by suboptimal performance. We evaluated the performance characteristics of three cholera RDTs from Span Diagnostics, Artron Laboratories, and Standard Diagnostics in a regional laboratory in Haiti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively reviewed records from May 2014 to October 2015 of a laboratory-based surveillance program for Vibrio cholerae at Hôpital Saint-Nicolas in Saint-Marc, Haiti...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064362/cost-evaluation-of-a-government-conducted-oral-cholera-vaccination-campaign-haiti-2013
#10
Janell A Routh, Nandini Sreenivasan, Bishwa B Adhikari, Lesly L Andrecy, Margarette Bernateau, Taiwo Abimbola, Joseph Njau, Ernsley Jackson, Stanley Juin, Jeannot Francois, Rania A Tohme, Martin I Meltzer, Mark A Katz, Eric D Mintz
The devastating 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti prompted the government to introduce oral cholera vaccine (OCV) in two high-risk areas of Haiti. We evaluated the direct costs associated with the government's first vaccine campaign implemented in August-September 2013. We analyzed data for major cost categories and assessed the efficiency of available campaign resources to vaccinate the target population. For a target population of 107,906 persons, campaign costs totaled $624,000 and 215,295 OCV doses were dispensed...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064360/haiti-s-commitment-to-malaria-elimination-progress-in-the-face-of-challenges-2010-2016
#11
Jean Frantz Lemoine, Jacques Boncy, Scott Filler, S Patrick Kachur, David Fitter, Michelle A Chang
Haiti is committed to malaria elimination by 2020. Following a 2010 earthquake and cholera epidemic, Haiti capitalized on investments in its health system to refocus on malaria elimination. Efforts, including expanding diagnostics, ensuring efficacy of standard treatments, building institutional capacity, and strengthening surveillance were undertaken to complement the broad health system strengthening activities. These efforts led to the adoption and scale-up of malaria rapid diagnostic tests as a diagnostic modality...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064359/applying-a-new-framework-for-public-health-systems-recovery-following-emergencies-and-disasters-the-example-of-haiti-following-a-major-earthquake-and-cholera-outbreak
#12
David L Fitter, Daphnée Benoit Delson, Florence D Guillaume, Angela Wood Schaad, Daphne B Moffett, Jean-Luc Poncelet, David Lowrance, Richard Gelting
Emergencies can often directly impact health systems of an affected region or country, especially in resource-constrained areas. Health system recovery following an emergency is a complex and dynamic process. Health system recovery efforts have often been structured around the World Health Organization's health systems building blocks as demonstrated by the Post-Disaster Needs Assessment. Although this structure is valuable and well known, it can overlook the intricacies of public health systems. We retrospectively examine public health systems recovery, a subset of the larger health system, following the 2010 Haiti earthquake and cholera outbreak, through the lens of the 10 essential public health services...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064354/building-and-rebuilding-the-national-public-health-laboratory-systems-and-services-before-and-after-the-earthquake-and-cholera-epidemic-haiti-2009-2015
#13
Frantz Jean Louis, Josiane Buteau, Jacques Boncy, Renette Anselme, Magalie Stanislas, Mary C Nagel, Stanley Juin, Macarthur Charles, Robert Burris, Eva Antoine, Chunfu Yang, Mireille Kalou, John Vertefeuille, Barbara J Marston, David W Lowrance, Varough Deyde
Before the 2010 devastating earthquake and cholera outbreak, Haiti's public health laboratory systems were weak and services were limited. There was no national laboratory strategic plan and only minimal coordination across the laboratory network. Laboratory capacity was further weakened by the destruction of over 25 laboratories and testing sites at the departmental and peripheral levels and the loss of life among the laboratory health-care workers. However, since 2010, tremendous progress has been made in building stronger laboratory infrastructure and training a qualified public health laboratory workforce across the country, allowing for decentralization of access to quality-assured services...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058456/cholera-control-and-anti-haitian-stigma-in-the-dominican-republic-from-migration-policy-to-lived-experience
#14
Hunter M Keys, Bonnie N Kaiser, Jenny W Foster, Matthew C Freeman, Rob Stephenson, Andrea J Lund, Brandon A Kohrt
As cholera spread from Haiti to the Dominican Republic, Haitian migrants, a largely undocumented and stigmatized population in Dominican society, became a focus of public health concern. Concurrent to the epidemic, the Dominican legislature enacted new documentation requirements. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of anti-Haitian stigma in the Dominican Republic from June to August 2012. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with Haitian and Dominican community members. Five in-depth interviews were held with key informants in the migration policy sector...
October 23, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916247/comparison-of-two-control-groups-for-estimation-of-oral-cholera-vaccine-effectiveness-using-a-case-control-study-design
#15
Molly F Franke, J Gregory Jerome, Wilfredo R Matias, Ralph Ternier, Isabelle J Hilaire, Jason B Harris, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: Case-control studies to quantify oral cholera vaccine effectiveness (VE) often rely on neighbors without diarrhea as community controls. Test-negative controls can be easily recruited and may minimize bias due to differential health-seeking behavior and recall. We compared VE estimates derived from community and test-negative controls and conducted bias-indicator analyses to assess potential bias with community controls. METHODS: From October 2012 through November 2016, patients with acute watery diarrhea were recruited from cholera treatment centers in rural Haiti...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820704/the-price-of-peace-peacekeeping-with-impunity-harms-public-health-in-haiti
#16
Louise C Ivers, Yodeline Guillaume
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749774/assessment-of-risk-of-cholera-in-haiti-following-hurricane-matthew
#17
Rakib Khan, Rifat Anwar, Shafqat Akanda, Michael D McDonald, Anwar Huq, Antarpreet Jutla, Rita Colwell
Damage to the inferior and fragile water and sanitation infrastructure of Haiti after Hurricane Matthew has created an urgent public health emergency in terms of likelihood of cholera occurring in the human population. Using satellite-derived data on precipitation, gridded air temperature, and hurricane path and with information on water and sanitation (WASH) infrastructure, we tracked changing environmental conditions conducive for growth of pathogenic vibrios. Based on these data, we predicted and validated the likelihood of cholera cases occurring past hurricane...
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722575/household-and-individual-risk-factors-for-cholera-among-cholera-vaccine-recipients-in-rural-haiti
#18
Wilfredo R Matias, Jessica E Teng, Isabelle J Hilaire, Jason B Harris, Molly F Franke, Louise C Ivers
Oral cholera vaccination was used as part of cholera control in Haiti, but the vaccine does not provide complete protection. We conducted secondary data analyses of a vaccine effectiveness study in Haiti to evaluate risk factors for cholera among cholera vaccine recipients. Individuals vaccinated against cholera that presented with acute watery diarrhea and had a stool sample positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 were included as cases. Up to four vaccinated individuals who did not present for treatment of diarrhea were included as controls for each case, and matched by location of residence, enrollment time, and age...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674316/vibrio-cholerae-o1-ogawa-strains-carrying-the-ctxb7-allele-caused-a-large-cholera-outbreak-during-2014-in-the-tribal-areas-of-odisha-india
#19
Bibhuti Bhusan Pal, Hemant Kumar Khuntia, Smruti Ranjan Nayak, Anima Mohanty, Bhagyalaxmi Biswal
The large outbreak of cholera reported during July to September 2014 in the Narla block of Kalahandi district, India, was investigated to determine the causative organism. Rectal swabs collected from patients with diarrhea and environmental water samples were cultured following standard techniques. The causative organism was identified as Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor, and analysis by double mismatch mutation assay PCR confirmed that all strains were the ctxB7 variant of Haitian V. cholerae O1. The environmental water samples were negative for V...
September 25, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625543/characterization-of-vibrio-cholerae-o1-strains-that-trace-the-origin-of-haitian-like-genetic-traits
#20
Priyanka Ghosh, Dhirendra Kumar, Goutam Chowdhury, Puneeta Singh, Prosenjit Samanta, Shanta Dutta, T Ramamurthy, N C Sharma, Preety Sinha, Yogendra Prasad, Sumio Shinoda, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Vibrio cholerae O1 is the etiological agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. The bacterium has recently been causing outbreaks in Haiti with catastrophic effects. Numerous mutations have been reported in V. cholerae O1 strains associated with the Haitian outbreak. These mutations encompass among other the genes encoding virulence factors such as the pilin subunit of the toxin-co-regulated pilus (tcpA), cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB), repeat in toxins (rtxA), and other genes such as the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrase A (gyrA), rstB of RS element along with the alteration in the number of repeat sequences at the promoter region of ctxAB...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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