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Cholera haiti

Mary Bates
On 19 October 2010, ten months after a devastating earthquake hit Haiti, the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP) was notified of a sudden surge in patients suffering from watery diarrhea and dehydration. Two days later, the Haiti National Public Health Laboratory identified the culprit: Vibrio cholerae. On 22 October, officials announced the first cholera outbreak in Haiti in more than a century.
January 2017: IEEE Pulse
Emilia M Raila, David O Anderson
Despite growing effects of human activities on climate change throughout the world, and global South in particular, scientists are yet to understand how poor healthcare waste management practices in an emergency influences the climate change. This article presents new findings on climate change risks of healthcare waste disposal during and after the 2010 earthquake and cholera disasters in Haiti. The researchers analysed quantities of healthcare waste incinerated by the United Nations Mission in Haiti for 60 months (2009 to 2013)...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Romain Briquaire, Rita R Colwell, Jacques Boncy, Emmanuel Rossignol, Aline Dardy, Isabelle Pandini, François Villeval, Jean-Louis Machuron, Anwar Huq, Shah Rashed, Thierry Vandevelde, Christine Rozand
Cholera is now considered to be endemic in Haiti, often with increased incidence during rainy seasons. The challenge of cholera surveillance is exacerbated by the cost of sample collection and laboratory analysis. A diagnostic tool is needed that is low cost, easy-to-use, and able to detect and quantify Vibrio cholerae accurately in water samples within 18-24h, and perform reliably in remote settings lacking laboratory infrastructure and skilled staff. The two main objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a new culture medium embedded in a new diagnostic tool (PAD for paper based analytical device) for detecting Vibrio cholerae from water samples collected in Haiti...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Louise C Ivers
When Hurricane Matthew struck on October 4, 2016, it left 1.4 million people in southern Haiti in need of urgent humanitarian assistance; it destroyed homes and health care facilities, flooded water sources with runoff, ruined crops, killed livestock, and displaced hundreds of thousands of people...
January 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Sandrine Baron, Jean Lesne, Eric Jouy, Emeline Larvor, Isabelle Kempf, Jacques Boncy, Stanilas Rebaudet, Renaud Piarroux
We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 50 environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 collected in surface waters in Haiti in July 2012, during an active cholera outbreak. A panel of 16 antibiotics was tested on the isolates using the disk diffusion method and PCR detection of seven resistance-associated genes (strA/B, sul1/2, ermA/B, and mefA). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, amikacin, and gentamicin...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lana Childs, Jeannot François, Alina Choudhury, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Amber Dismer, Terri B Hyde, Catherine Y Yen, Kashmira A Date, Stanley Juin, Mark A Katz, Erica Felker Kantor, Janell Routh, Melissa Etheart, Tracie Wright, Paul Adrien, Rania A Tohme
In 2013, the Government of Haiti implemented its first oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign in Petite Anse, an urban setting, and Cerca Carvajal, a rural commune. We conducted and compared responses to two independent cross-sectional knowledge and practices household surveys pre- (N = 297) and post- (N = 302) OCV campaign in Petite Anse. No significant differences in knowledge about causes, symptoms, and prevention of cholera were noted. Compared with precampaign respondents, fewer postcampaign respondents reported treating (66% versus 27%, P < 0...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Taj Azarian, Afsar Ali, Judith A Johnson, Mohammad Jubair, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, David J Nolan, William Farmerie, Mohammad H Rashid, Shrestha Sinha-Ray, Meer T Alam, J Glenn Morris, Marco Salemi
Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Susana Ferreira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Meer T Alam, Shrestha S Ray, Camille N Chun, Zahara G Chowdhury, Mohammed H Rashid, Valery E Madsen Beau De Rochars, Afsar Ali
In October of 2010, an outbreak of cholera was confirmed in Haiti for the first time in more than a century. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa strain was implicated as the cause. Five years after the onset of cholera, in October, 2015, we have discovered a major switch (ranging from 7 to 100%) from Ogawa serotype to Inaba serotype. Furthermore, using wbeT gene sequencing and comparative sequence analysis, we now demonstrate that, among 2013 and 2015 Inaba isolates, the wbeT gene, responsible for switching Ogawa to Inaba serotype, sustained a unique nucleotide mutation not found in isolates obtained from Haiti in 2012...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Laura Price
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2016: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
Karine Sévère, Stravinsky B Anglade, Claudin Bertil, Aynsley Duncan, Patrice Joseph, Alexandra Deroncenay, Marie M Mabou, Oksana Ocheretina, Lindsey Reif, Grace Seo, Jean W Pape, Daniel W Fitzgerald
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been postulated to alter the natural history of cholera, including increased susceptibility to infection, severity of illness, and chronic carriage of Vibrio cholerae Haiti has a generalized HIV epidemic with an adult HIV prevalence of 1.9% and recently suffered a cholera epidemic. We conducted a prospective study at the cholera treatment center (CTC) of GHESKIO in Haiti to characterize the coinfection. Adults admitted at the CTC for acute diarrhea were invited to participate in the study...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gail Reed
After leaving Chile during the Pinochet era, Dr Morales studied economics, health administration and international health at the University of Montreal. But his baptism in the field came in Haiti, where he was first PAHO advisor to the health ministry, and then for five years was responsible for human resources and health economics in the PAHO offices in the capital of Port-au-Prince. He was at his post during the flooding in Gonaïves, five hurricanes, the 2010 earthquake and the ensuing cholera epidemic-doubtless the most dramatic and complex times for the country's health in recent history...
July 2016: MEDICC Review
Akinsinde Kehinde Adewale, Gururaja Perumal Pazhani, Iwalokun Bamidele Abiodun, Oluwadun Afolabi, Olukoya Daniel Kolawole, Asish K Mukhopadhyay, Thanadarayan Ramamurthy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1, which is responsible for several cholera epidemics in Nigeria, are not reported in detail since 2007. In this study, we screened V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype isolates from cholera cases and water samples from different states to investigate their phenotypic and genetic attributes with special reference to their clonality. RESULTS: All the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolates isolated during 2007-2013 were susceptible to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, the drugs currently used in the treatment of cholera cases in Nigeria...
2016: PloS One
Richard Weinmeyer
In 2010, the nation of Haiti was leveled by a shattering earthquake that killed thousands and devastated its already fragile infrastructure. During relief efforts to aid Haiti's suffering population, the United Nations sent troops to Haiti to assist the rebuilding of country's most basic services. But those troops unknowingly carried with them the bacteria that cause cholera, and through the UN's negligent actions, it triggered a horrifying cholera epidemic that continues to harm the Haitian people. Those injured by the cholera epidemic have sought relief in the US federal court system to obtain justice for those killed or sickened by the cholera outbreak...
July 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Nicolas Carraro, Nicolas Rivard, Daniela Ceccarelli, Rita R Colwell, Vincent Burrus
UNLABELLED: Mobile genetic elements play a pivotal role in the adaptation of bacterial populations, allowing them to rapidly cope with hostile conditions, including the presence of antimicrobial compounds. IncA/C conjugative plasmids (ACPs) are efficient vehicles for dissemination of multidrug resistance genes in a broad range of pathogenic species of Enterobacteriaceae ACPs have sporadically been reported in Vibrio cholerae, the infectious agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. The regulatory network that controls ACP mobility ultimately depends on the transcriptional activation of multiple ACP-borne operons by the master activator AcaCD...
2016: MBio
Bradley Chen, Timothy J Halliday, Victoria Y Fan
BACKGROUND: The Haiti earthquake in 2010 resulted in 1.5 million internally displaced people (IDP), yet little is known about the impact of displacement on health. In this study, we estimate the impact of displacement on infant and child mortality and key health-behavior mechanisms. METHODS: We employ a difference-in-differences (DID) design with coarsened exact matching (CEM) to ensure comparability among groups with different displacement status using the 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)...
July 19, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Wilfredo R Matias, Brie Falkard, Richelle C Charles, Leslie M Mayo-Smith, Jessica E Teng, Peng Xu, Pavol Kováč, Edward T Ryan, Firdausi Qadri, Molly F Franke, Louise C Ivers, Jason B Harris
BACKGROUND: The bivalent whole-cell (BivWC) oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) is effective in preventing cholera. However, evaluations of immune responses following vaccination with BivWC have been limited. To determine whether BivWC induces significant mucosal immune responses, we measured V. cholerae O1 antigen-specific antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses following vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We enrolled 24 Haitian adults in this study, and administered doses of oral BivWC vaccine 14 days apart (day 0 and day 14)...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Victoria Koski-Karell, Paul E Farmer, Benito Isaac, Elizabeth M Campa, Loune Viaud, Paul C Namphy, Ralph Ternier, Louise C Ivers
Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera...
2016: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Karla J F Satchell, Christopher J Jones, Jennifer Wong, Jessica Queen, Shivani Agarwal, Fitnat H Yildiz
Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains have been responsible for pandemic cholera since 1961. These strains have evolved over time, spreading globally in three separate waves. Wave 3 is caused by altered El Tor (AET) variant strains, which include the strain with the signature ctxB7 allele that was introduced in 2010 into Haiti, where it caused a devastating epidemic. In this study, we used phenotypic analysis to compare an early isolate from the Haiti epidemic to wave 1 El Tor isolates commonly used for research...
September 2016: Infection and Immunity
Moon Moon Das, Tilothama Bhotra, Dolatsinh Zala, Durg Vijai Singh
Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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