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Cholera haiti

Susana Ferreira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Meer T Alam, Shrestha S Ray, Camille N Chun, Zahara G Chowdhury, Mohammed H Rashid, Valery E Madsen Beau De Rochars, Afsar Ali
In October of 2010, an outbreak of cholera was confirmed in Haiti for the first time in more than a century. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa strain was implicated as the cause. Five years after the onset of cholera, in October, 2015, we have discovered a major switch (ranging from 7 to 100%) from Ogawa serotype to Inaba serotype. Furthermore, using wbeT gene sequencing and comparative sequence analysis, we now demonstrate that, among 2013 and 2015 Inaba isolates, the wbeT gene, responsible for switching Ogawa to Inaba serotype, sustained a unique nucleotide mutation not found in isolates obtained from Haiti in 2012...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Laura Price
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2016: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
Karine Sévère, Stravinsky B Anglade, Claudin Bertil, Aynsley Duncan, Patrice Joseph, Alexandra Deroncenay, Marie M Mabou, Oksana Ocheretina, Lindsey Reif, Grace Seo, Jean W Pape, Daniel W Fitzgerald
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been postulated to alter the natural history of cholera, including increased susceptibility to infection, severity of illness, and chronic carriage of Vibrio cholerae Haiti has a generalized HIV epidemic with an adult HIV prevalence of 1.9% and recently suffered a cholera epidemic. We conducted a prospective study at the cholera treatment center (CTC) of GHESKIO in Haiti to characterize the coinfection. Adults admitted at the CTC for acute diarrhea were invited to participate in the study...
August 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gail Reed
After leaving Chile during the Pinochet era, Dr Morales studied economics, health administration and international health at the University of Montreal. But his baptism in the field came in Haiti, where he was first PAHO advisor to the health ministry, and then for five years was responsible for human resources and health economics in the PAHO offices in the capital of Port-au-Prince. He was at his post during the flooding in Gonaïves, five hurricanes, the 2010 earthquake and the ensuing cholera epidemic-doubtless the most dramatic and complex times for the country's health in recent history...
July 2016: MEDICC Review
Akinsinde Kehinde Adewale, Gururaja Perumal Pazhani, Iwalokun Bamidele Abiodun, Oluwadun Afolabi, Olukoya Daniel Kolawole, Asish K Mukhopadhyay, Thanadarayan Ramamurthy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1, which is responsible for several cholera epidemics in Nigeria, are not reported in detail since 2007. In this study, we screened V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype isolates from cholera cases and water samples from different states to investigate their phenotypic and genetic attributes with special reference to their clonality. RESULTS: All the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolates isolated during 2007-2013 were susceptible to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, the drugs currently used in the treatment of cholera cases in Nigeria...
2016: PloS One
Richard Weinmeyer
In 2010, the nation of Haiti was leveled by a shattering earthquake that killed thousands and devastated its already fragile infrastructure. During relief efforts to aid Haiti's suffering population, the United Nations sent troops to Haiti to assist the rebuilding of country's most basic services. But those troops unknowingly carried with them the bacteria that cause cholera, and through the UN's negligent actions, it triggered a horrifying cholera epidemic that continues to harm the Haitian people. Those injured by the cholera epidemic have sought relief in the US federal court system to obtain justice for those killed or sickened by the cholera outbreak...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Nicolas Carraro, Nicolas Rivard, Daniela Ceccarelli, Rita R Colwell, Vincent Burrus
UNLABELLED: Mobile genetic elements play a pivotal role in the adaptation of bacterial populations, allowing them to rapidly cope with hostile conditions, including the presence of antimicrobial compounds. IncA/C conjugative plasmids (ACPs) are efficient vehicles for dissemination of multidrug resistance genes in a broad range of pathogenic species of Enterobacteriaceae ACPs have sporadically been reported in Vibrio cholerae, the infectious agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. The regulatory network that controls ACP mobility ultimately depends on the transcriptional activation of multiple ACP-borne operons by the master activator AcaCD...
2016: MBio
Bradley Chen, Timothy J Halliday, Victoria Y Fan
BACKGROUND: The Haiti earthquake in 2010 resulted in 1.5 million internally displaced people (IDP), yet little is known about the impact of displacement on health. In this study, we estimate the impact of displacement on infant and child mortality and key health-behavior mechanisms. METHODS: We employ a difference-in-differences (DID) design with coarsened exact matching (CEM) to ensure comparability among groups with different displacement status using the 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Wilfredo R Matias, Brie Falkard, Richelle C Charles, Leslie M Mayo-Smith, Jessica E Teng, Peng Xu, Pavol Kováč, Edward T Ryan, Firdausi Qadri, Molly F Franke, Louise C Ivers, Jason B Harris
BACKGROUND: The bivalent whole-cell (BivWC) oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) is effective in preventing cholera. However, evaluations of immune responses following vaccination with BivWC have been limited. To determine whether BivWC induces significant mucosal immune responses, we measured V. cholerae O1 antigen-specific antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses following vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We enrolled 24 Haitian adults in this study, and administered doses of oral BivWC vaccine 14 days apart (day 0 and day 14)...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Victoria Koski-Karell, Paul E Farmer, Benito Isaac, Elizabeth M Campa, Loune Viaud, Paul C Namphy, Ralph Ternier, Louise C Ivers
Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera...
2016: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Karla J F Satchell, Christopher J Jones, Jennifer Wong, Jessica Queen, Shivani Agarwal, Fitnat H Yildiz
Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains have been responsible for pandemic cholera since 1961. These strains have evolved over time, spreading globally in three separate waves. Wave 3 is caused by altered El Tor (AET) variant strains, which include the strain with the signature ctxB7 allele that was introduced in 2010 into Haiti, where it caused a devastating epidemic. In this study, we used phenotypic analysis to compare an early isolate from the Haiti epidemic to wave 1 El Tor isolates commonly used for research...
September 2016: Infection and Immunity
Moon Moon Das, Tilothama Bhotra, Dolatsinh Zala, Durg Vijai Singh
Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yan Boucher
Although the current cholera pandemic can trace its origin to a specific time and place, many variants of Vibrio cholerae have caused this disease over the last 50 years. The relative clinical importance and geographical distribution of these variants have changed with time, but most remain in circulation. Some countries, such as Mexico and Haiti, had escaped the current pandemic, until large epidemics struck them in 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cholera has been endemic in these countries ever since. A recent retrospective study in mBio presents the results of more than 3 decades of V...
2016: MBio
Rafael Llanes, Lorenzo Somarriba, Beltran Velázquez, Fidel A Núñez, Caridad M Villafranca
Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. In May 2011, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers working with Cuban health personnel in Haiti. Stool specimens were collected from 56 food-handlers and samples were examined using standard procedures. Of the food handlers, 26.8% had one bacterial or intestinal parasite. The most prevalent species of organism found were Blastocystis spp...
2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Michael R Kelly, Joseph H Tien, Marisa C Eisenberg, Suzanne Lenhart
The role of spatial arrangements on the spread and management strategies of a cholera epidemic is investigated. We consider the effect of human and pathogen movement on optimal vaccination strategies. A metapopulation model is used, incorporating a susceptible-infected-recovered system of differential equations coupled with an equation modelling the concentration of Vibrio cholerae in an aquatic reservoir. The model compared spatial arrangements and varying scenarios to draw conclusions on how to effectively manage outbreaks...
2016: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Seon Young Choi, Shah M Rashed, Nur A Hasan, Munirul Alam, Tarequl Islam, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Mark Eppinger, Jacques Ravel, Anwar Huq, Alejandro Cravioto, Rita R Colwell
UNLABELLED: An outbreak of cholera occurred in 1991 in Mexico, where it had not been reported for more than a century and is now endemic. Vibrio cholerae O1 prototype El Tor and classical strains coexist with altered El Tor strains (1991 to 1997). Nontoxigenic (CTX(-)) V. cholerae El Tor dominated toxigenic (CTX(+)) strains (2001 to 2003), but V. cholerae CTX(+) variant El Tor was isolated during 2004 to 2008, outcompeting CTX(-) V. cholerae. Genomes of six Mexican V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 1991 to 2008 were sequenced and compared with both contemporary and archived strains of V...
2016: MBio
Maya Allan, Francesco Grandesso, Ronald Pierre, Roc Magloire, Matthew Coldiron, Isabel Martinez-Pino, Thierry Goffeau, Romain Gitenet, Gwenola François, David Olson, Klaudia Porten, Francisco J Luquero
BACKGROUND: Cholera is caused by Vibrio cholerae, and is transmitted through fecal-oral contact. Infection occurs after the ingestion of the bacteria and is usually asymptomatic. In a minority of cases, it causes acute diarrhea and vomiting, which can lead to potentially fatal severe dehydration, especially in the absence of appropriate medical care. Immunity occurs after infection and typically lasts 6-36 months. Cholera is responsible for outbreaks in many African and Asian developing countries, and caused localised and episodic epidemics in South America until the early 1990s...
March 2016: Epidemics
Rafael Llanes, Alcides Lazo, Lorenzo Somarriba, Pedro Mas
Over 700,000 cases of cholera were reported in Haiti between October 2010 and February 2015. In November 2011, the Cuban Medical Team serving in Haiti established a laboratory-supported sentinel surveillance system for cholera in 10 public hospitals (one in each of Haiti's 10 departments), to estimate the proportion of hospitalized patients with cholera and detect emergence of new Vibrio cholerae serotypes. Each month, the first ten stool samples collected from patients admitted with acute watery diarrhea were studied in all hospitals involved...
July 2015: MEDICC Review
Bo Pang, Pengcheng Du, Zhemin Zhou, Baowei Diao, Zhigang Cui, Haijian Zhou, Biao Kan
Vibrio cholerae has caused massive outbreaks and even trans-continental epidemics. In 2008 and 2010, at least 3 remarkable cholera outbreaks occurred in Hainan, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of China. To address the possible transmissions and the relationships to the 7th pandemic strains of those 3 outbreaks, we sequenced the whole genomes of the outbreak isolates and compared with the global isolates from the 7th pandemic. The three outbreaks in this study were caused by a cluster of V. cholerae in clade 3.B which is parallel to the clade 3...
2016: PloS One
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