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pediatric differential anatomic

Heather Marion Ames, Ming Yuan, Maria Adelita Vizcaíno, Wayne Yu, Fausto J Rodriguez
Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas and glioneuronal tumors represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression/translation that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing, and have an important role in cancer, including brain tumors...
October 14, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Michael A Benvenuti, Thomas J An, Megan E Mignemi, Jeffrey E Martus, Gregory A Mencio, Stephen A Lovejoy, Isaac P Thomsen, Jonathan G Schoenecker, Derek J Williams
OBJECTIVE: There are currently no algorithms for early stratification of pediatric musculoskeletal infection (MSKI) severity that are applicable to all types of tissue involvement. In this study, the authors sought to develop a clinical prediction algorithm that accurately stratifies infection severity based on clinical and laboratory data at presentation to the emergency department. METHODS: An IRB-approved retrospective review was conducted to identify patients aged 0 to 18 who presented to the pediatric emergency department at a tertiary care children's hospital with concern for acute MSKI over a 5-year period (2008 to 2013)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Omar Adib, Emeline Berthier, Didier Loisel, Christophe Aubé
Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult...
September 20, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Akshay D Baheti, Ramesh S Iyer, Marguerite T Parisi, Mark R Ferguson, Edward Weinberger, A Luana Stanescu
Imaging of children is complicated with a vast array of normal variants, congenital or developmental disorders, and age-dependent differential considerations. We present imaging findings of several common anatomic variants as well as physiological and maturational processes that occur in children. We compare and contrast them with pathological entities so that the reader can successfully distinguish them when interpreting pediatric imaging examinations. The content has been accrued from the authors' collective experience at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital, teaching and consulting with radiology trainees and clinicians, as well as a comprehensive review of the literature, and is intended to represent a useful error prevention tool for radiologists interpreting pediatric studies...
August 12, 2016: Clinical Imaging
Marjolein H G Dremmen, Aylin Tekes, Samantha Mueller, Donna Seyfert, David E Tunkel, Thierry A G M Huisman
Neck masses present as palpable lumps and bumps in children with acquired lesions more common than congenital ones. Assessment of the anatomical site of origin, signal, and contrast enhancement characteristics may help define the etiology of the lesions, eg, developmental, inflammatory, vascular, or neoplastic. The age of the patient along with detailed clinical history and physical exam findings are important element to narrow down the differential diagnosis. The correct final diagnosis is essential to guide treatment as well as the urgency of intervention...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Kyle A Denniston, Vivek Verma, Abhijeet R Bhirud, Nathan R Bennion, Chi Lin
PURPOSE: In pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), radiotherapy (RT)-related late toxicities are a prime concern during treatment planning. This is the first study to examine whether arm positioning (raised versus akimbo) result in differential cardiopulmonary and breast doses in patients undergoing mediastinal RT. METHODS: Two treatment plans were made for each patient (akimbo/arms raised); treatment was per Children's Oncology Group AHOD0031 protocol, including AP/PA fields...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Bettina Knie, Nobuhito Morota, Satoshi Ihara, Goichiro Tamura, Hideki Ogiwara
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is for the surgical treatment and outcome of the endoscopic fenestration of the arachnoid cyst located in the ventricular body to trigone in the pediatric population. Special concern was paid for the developmental origin of the intraventricular cysts estimated from the postoperative follow-up neuroimagings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 2002 and June 2015, we performed endoscopic and partly CT/MRI navigated fenestrations of intraventricular arachnoid cysts located at the body to trigone of the lateral ventricle in ten pediatric patients aged 2 months to 5 years...
August 4, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Zijo Begic, Senka Mesihovic Dinarevic, Senad Pesto, Edin Begic, Amra Dobraca, Izet Masic
INTRODUCTION: The most common clinical sign in pediatric cardiology is a heart murmur (organic and inorganic). Organic are sign of heart disease, while inorganic (basically divided into accidental and functional) murmurs occur on anatomically healthy heart. AIM: To determine the justification of the application of the methods of cardiac treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study included 116 children aged from 1 to 15 years, who were referred due to cardiac treatment to Pediatric Clinic, of Sarajevo University Clinical Center...
April 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Dutta M, Kundu S, Roy S, S Mukhopadhya
OBJECTIVE: Lipoblastoma(toses) are benign neoplasms of embryonic white fat in a state of arrested maturation, and are seldom encountered in the head-neck region. We discuss the clinical details of lipoblastomatosis in the retropharyngeal space of a 9-year-old boy,with an emphasis on the head-neck area, the histopathological maturity of the tumor, and the practical roles of imaging, cytogenetics, and immunostaining in the diagnosis. METHODS: Clinical record analysis; literature review...
2016: B-ENT
Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout, Ethan A Smith
Renal and urinary tract imaging is commonly performed in the pediatric population, particularly in the setting of suspected or known congenital anomalies. In most cases, adequate anatomic assessment can be achieved using ultrasound and fluoroscopic techniques, and evaluation of differential renal function and urinary tract drainage can be accomplished with renal scintigraphy. However, in a subset of children, anatomic or functional questions may remain after this routine evaluation. In this setting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tailored to evaluate the kidneys and urinary tract, known as MR urography (MRU), can be used to depict the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder in detail and to determine differential renal function and assess urinary tract drainage...
June 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Heather J McCrea, Emilie George, Allison Settler, Theodore H Schwartz, Jeffrey P Greenfield
The various childhood suprasellar tumors, while pathologically distinct, present similar clinical and surgical challenges as a result of their common anatomic location. These lesions are in close proximity to or may invade the optic nerve and chiasm, pituitary gland and infundibulum, hypothalamus, and third ventricle, leading to presenting features including visual field loss, impairment in visual acuity, endocrine dysfunction, and hydrocephalus. Though many suprasellar lesions are relatively benign in pathology, treatment may be complicated by high surgical morbidity resulting from damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
October 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Wojciech Mądry, Maciej A Karolczak
The diagnosis of the congenital heart defects, among others totally anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, is based on echocardiography. While the visualization of intracardiac structures rarely causes significant difficulties, the vessels positioned outside the heart, e.g. the pulmonary veins, are often hidden behind tissues impermeable to ultrasounds, which may necessitate the use of other imaging methods, such as computer tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance or angiocardiography. The serious limitation of these techniques, especially in pediatric age, is the necessity to administer general anesthesia and contrast media...
December 2012: Journal of Ultrasonography
Abdelhalim Mahmoudi, Charifa Alaoui Rachidi, Khalid Khattala, Lamiae Chater, Youssef Bouabdallah, My Abderrahmane Afifi
Human cystic echinococcosis, a zoonotic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus, remains a largely extended public health problem in endemic regions. Hydatid cyst disease can occur in all viscera and soft tissues, although the liver and the lungs are the most commonly involved organs. Primary hydatid disease of the soft tissue is extremely rare, even in endemic areas, and accounts for 0.5-5.4 % of all hydatid disease cases, with very little data on the incidence of subcutaneous echinococcosis. The paper will be focused on analyzing this extremely rare disease...
November 2012: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Bonnie Choy, Peter Pytel
Myoepithelial neoplasms were originally described in the salivary glands but their spectrum has been expanding with reports in other locations, including soft tissue. Intracranial cases are exceptionally rare outside the sellar region where they are assumed to be arising from Rathke pouch rests. Two cases of pediatric intracranial myoepithelial neoplasm in the interhemispheric fissure and the right cerebral hemisphere are reported here. Imaging studies suggest that the second case was associated with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination...
May 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
H J Min, H J Chung, S Y Seong, N S Sim, J-H Yoon, J-G Lee, C-H Kim, H-J Cho
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that paediatric chronic sinusitis patients might have various clinical characteristics, depending on age, compared symptoms, physical findings and clinical features in younger children and older adolescent patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. DESIGN: A retrospective review of medical records. SETTING: A total of 195 paediatric patients who underwent Endoscopic sinus surgery were enrolled and medical records were reviewed...
October 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Amr Abdelhamid AbouZeid, Shaimaa Abdelsattar Mohammad, Leila Mohamed Rawash, Ahmed Bassiouny Radwan, Khaled M El-Asmar, Ehab El-Shafei
PURPOSE: To define the characteristic radiological features following colonic replacement of the esophagus in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The upper gastro-intestinal contrast studies of 43 patients who underwent colonic replacement of the esophagus at our pediatric surgery unit were available for analysis. UGI contrast studies were performed routinely in the post-surgical period in 17 cases (first asymptomatic group), while the rest of contrast studies (26) belonged to a second group of out-patients complaining of dysphagia (18) or dyspepsia (8) following colonic replacement of the esophagus...
December 2015: European Journal of Radiology
Saurabh Talathi, Neha Gupta, Naresh Reddivalla, Sergey Prokhorov, Menachem Gold
Astrocytoma is the most common childhood brain tumor. Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) are high grade gliomas (HGG), found very rarely in pediatric patients. AA mainly results from a dedifferentiation of a low grade astrocytoma. Clinical features of supra-tentorial tumors vary according to their anatomic location, biologic aggressiveness and age of the patient. They can be either completely asymptomatic or present with signs of raised intracranial pressure, seizures (about 40% of cases), behavior changes, speech disorders, declining school performance, or hemiparesis...
November 2015: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
William T O'Brien, Peter Shen, Paul Lee
Accurate interpretation of cervical spine imagining can be challenging, especially in children and the elderly. The biomechanics of the developing pediatric spine and age-related degenerative changes predispose these patient populations to injuries centered at the craniocervical junction. In addition, congenital anomalies are common in this region, especially those associated with the axis/dens, due to its complexity in terms of development compared to other vertebral levels. The most common congenital variations of the dens include the os odontoideum and a persistent ossiculum terminale...
2015: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
C Hart
Cardiac imaging in childhood poses significant challenges for the instrumentation and the operator. Small cardiac structures, high heart beat rates, non-compliant or sedated patients and in addition to the challenge of detecting acquired heart diseases, a broad spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHD) needs to be addressed, preferably without the burden of ionizing radiation. These challenges require not only accurate anatomical imaging but also a comprehensive assessment of hemodynamic and functional parameters for prognosis and risk stratification...
July 2015: Der Radiologe
S Ley, J Ley-Zaporozhan
Malformations of the heart and great vessels show a high degree of variation. There are numerous variants and defects with only few clinical manifestations and are only detected by chance, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Other cardiovascular malformations are manifested directly after birth and need prompt mostly surgical interventions. At this point in time echocardiography is the diagnostic modality of choice for morphological and functional characterization of malformations...
July 2015: Der Radiologe
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