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pediatric differential anatomic

Colin D McKnight, Aine M Kelly, Myria Petrou, Anna E Nidecker, Matthew T Lorincz, Duaa K Altaee, Stephen S Gebarski, Bradley Foerster
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Infectious encephalitis is a relatively common cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of infectious encephalitis with antiviral medication can be highly effective when administered promptly. Clinical mimics of encephalitis arise from a broad range of pathologic processes, including toxic, metabolic, neoplastic, autoimmune, and cardiovascular etiologies. These mimics need to be rapidly differentiated from infectious encephalitis to appropriately manage the correct etiology; however, the many overlapping signs of these various entities present a challenge to accurate diagnosis...
February 28, 2017: Academic Radiology
Ye Seul Eom, So Young Lim
PURPOSE: Patients with cheek mass are often referred to our medical center's department of plastic surgery. Most patients with deep cheek mass have the characteristic of a slowly growing, painless mass. We reviewed the lesion's pathology of this complex anatomic area in the pediatric population, focusing on differential diagnosis and the recent surgical strategies. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 56 patients visiting our department from 2009 to 2016. Data analysis included the patients' lesion characteristics, clinical presentation, presumptive diagnosis, results of preoperative investigations, pathological diagnosis, and treatment details...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Christine Mrakotsky, Dunn W Augustine, Christopher Watson, James Canavan, Michael Rivkin, Scott Snapper
BACKGROUND: Structural brain changes in gray and white matter have been previously found in adults with Crohn's disease (CD). We have recently shown similar effects for pediatric CD in 2 separate studies (Mrakotsky et al., 2012, 2013, 2015), particularly for cortical and subcortical brain regions important for cognition, memory and emotion. Our prior data also revealed serum markers of inflammation and steroid therapy to be negatively associated with cortical thickness, subcortical volume, cognitive and school function, however, associations between brain structure and more detailed inflammatory profiles have not been studied...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Ruth Elizabeth Brown, Srikrishna Harave
Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Stephanie R C Zacharias, Susan Baker Brehm, Barbara Weinrich, Lisa Kelchner, Meredith Tabangin, Alessandro de Alarcon
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of flexible and rigid endoscopy and stroboscopy for the identification of anatomical and physiological features in children with bilateral vocal fold lesions. The secondary purpose was to describe the age distribution of patients who could tolerate use of the different types of endoscopes. Method: This cross-sectional clinic-based study included 38 children (ages 5 to 12 years) diagnosed with bilateral vocal fold lesions via videoendoscopy...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Alyson A Endicott, Libby M Morimoto, Cassie N Kline, Joseph L Wiemels, Catherine Metayer, Kyle M Walsh
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma typically develops during puberty with tumors arising at sites of rapid bone growth, suggesting a role for growth-regulating pathways in tumor etiology. Birthweight is one measure of perinatal growth that has been investigated as an osteosarcoma risk factor. Whether birthweight affects clinical features of osteosarcoma remains unexplored. METHOD: Six hundred seventy patients with osteosarcoma, aged 0-19 years, were identified through the California Cancer Registry...
June 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Yoshino T Sameshima, Maurício G I Yamanari, Mariana A Silva, Miguel J Francisco Neto, Marcelo B G Funari
Bulging of the inguinal region is a frequent complaint in the pediatric population and sonographic findings can be challenging for radiologists. In this review we update the sonographic findings of the most common disorders that affect the inguinal canal in neonates and children, with a focus on the processus vaginalis abnormalities such as congenital hydroceles, indirect inguinal hernias and cryptorchidism, illustrated with cases collected at a quaternary hospital during a 7-year period. We emphasize the importance of correctly classifying different types of congenital hydrocele and inguinal hernia to allow for early surgical intervention when necessary...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Heather Marion Ames, Ming Yuan, Maria Adelita Vizcaíno, Wayne Yu, Fausto J Rodriguez
Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas and glioneuronal tumors represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression/translation that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing, and have an important role in cancer, including brain tumors...
February 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Michael A Benvenuti, Thomas J An, Megan E Mignemi, Jeffrey E Martus, Gregory A Mencio, Stephen A Lovejoy, Isaac P Thomsen, Jonathan G Schoenecker, Derek J Williams
OBJECTIVE: There are currently no algorithms for early stratification of pediatric musculoskeletal infection (MSKI) severity that are applicable to all types of tissue involvement. In this study, the authors sought to develop a clinical prediction algorithm that accurately stratifies infection severity based on clinical and laboratory data at presentation to the emergency department. METHODS: An IRB-approved retrospective review was conducted to identify patients aged 0 to 18 who presented to the pediatric emergency department at a tertiary care children's hospital with concern for acute MSKI over a 5-year period (2008 to 2013)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Omar Adib, Emeline Berthier, Didier Loisel, Christophe Aubé
Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult...
December 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Akshay D Baheti, Ramesh S Iyer, Marguerite T Parisi, Mark R Ferguson, Edward Weinberger, A Luana Stanescu
Imaging of children is complicated with a vast array of normal variants, congenital or developmental disorders, and age-dependent differential considerations. We present imaging findings of several common anatomic variants as well as physiological and maturational processes that occur in children. We compare and contrast them with pathological entities so that the reader can successfully distinguish them when interpreting pediatric imaging examinations. The content has been accrued from the authors' collective experience at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital, teaching and consulting with radiology trainees and clinicians, as well as a comprehensive review of the literature, and is intended to represent a useful error prevention tool for radiologists interpreting pediatric studies...
November 2016: Clinical Imaging
Marjolein H G Dremmen, Aylin Tekes, Samantha Mueller, Donna Seyfert, David E Tunkel, Thierry A G M Huisman
Neck masses present as palpable lumps and bumps in children with acquired lesions more common than congenital ones. Assessment of the anatomical site of origin, signal, and contrast enhancement characteristics may help define the etiology of the lesions, eg, developmental, inflammatory, vascular, or neoplastic. The age of the patient along with detailed clinical history and physical exam findings are important element to narrow down the differential diagnosis. The correct final diagnosis is essential to guide treatment as well as the urgency of intervention...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Kyle A Denniston, Vivek Verma, Abhijeet R Bhirud, Nathan R Bennion, Chi Lin
PURPOSE: In pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), radiotherapy (RT)-related late toxicities are a prime concern during treatment planning. This is the first study to examine whether arm positioning (raised versus akimbo) result in differential cardiopulmonary and breast doses in patients undergoing mediastinal RT. METHODS: Two treatment plans were made for each patient (akimbo/arms raised); treatment was per Children's Oncology Group AHOD0031 protocol, including AP/PA fields...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Bettina Knie, Nobuhito Morota, Satoshi Ihara, Goichiro Tamura, Hideki Ogiwara
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is for the surgical treatment and outcome of the endoscopic fenestration of the arachnoid cyst located in the ventricular body to trigone in the pediatric population. Special concern was paid for the developmental origin of the intraventricular cysts estimated from the postoperative follow-up neuroimagings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 2002 and June 2015, we performed endoscopic and partly CT/MRI navigated fenestrations of intraventricular arachnoid cysts located at the body to trigone of the lateral ventricle in ten pediatric patients aged 2 months to 5 years...
November 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Zijo Begic, Senka Mesihovic Dinarevic, Senad Pesto, Edin Begic, Amra Dobraca, Izet Masic
INTRODUCTION: The most common clinical sign in pediatric cardiology is a heart murmur (organic and inorganic). Organic are sign of heart disease, while inorganic (basically divided into accidental and functional) murmurs occur on anatomically healthy heart. AIM: To determine the justification of the application of the methods of cardiac treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study included 116 children aged from 1 to 15 years, who were referred due to cardiac treatment to Pediatric Clinic, of Sarajevo University Clinical Center...
April 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Dutta M, Kundu S, Roy S, S Mukhopadhya
OBJECTIVE: Lipoblastoma(toses) are benign neoplasms of embryonic white fat in a state of arrested maturation, and are seldom encountered in the head-neck region. We discuss the clinical details of lipoblastomatosis in the retropharyngeal space of a 9-year-old boy,with an emphasis on the head-neck area, the histopathological maturity of the tumor, and the practical roles of imaging, cytogenetics, and immunostaining in the diagnosis. METHODS: Clinical record analysis; literature review...
2016: B-ENT
Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout, Ethan A Smith
Renal and urinary tract imaging is commonly performed in the pediatric population, particularly in the setting of suspected or known congenital anomalies. In most cases, adequate anatomic assessment can be achieved using ultrasound and fluoroscopic techniques, and evaluation of differential renal function and urinary tract drainage can be accomplished with renal scintigraphy. However, in a subset of children, anatomic or functional questions may remain after this routine evaluation. In this setting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tailored to evaluate the kidneys and urinary tract, known as MR urography (MRU), can be used to depict the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder in detail and to determine differential renal function and assess urinary tract drainage...
June 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Heather J McCrea, Emilie George, Allison Settler, Theodore H Schwartz, Jeffrey P Greenfield
The various childhood suprasellar tumors, while pathologically distinct, present similar clinical and surgical challenges as a result of their common anatomic location. These lesions are in close proximity to or may invade the optic nerve and chiasm, pituitary gland and infundibulum, hypothalamus, and third ventricle, leading to presenting features including visual field loss, impairment in visual acuity, endocrine dysfunction, and hydrocephalus. Though many suprasellar lesions are relatively benign in pathology, treatment may be complicated by high surgical morbidity resulting from damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
October 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Wojciech Mądry, Maciej A Karolczak
The diagnosis of the congenital heart defects, among others totally anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, is based on echocardiography. While the visualization of intracardiac structures rarely causes significant difficulties, the vessels positioned outside the heart, e.g. the pulmonary veins, are often hidden behind tissues impermeable to ultrasounds, which may necessitate the use of other imaging methods, such as computer tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance or angiocardiography. The serious limitation of these techniques, especially in pediatric age, is the necessity to administer general anesthesia and contrast media...
December 2012: Journal of Ultrasonography
Abdelhalim Mahmoudi, Charifa Alaoui Rachidi, Khalid Khattala, Lamiae Chater, Youssef Bouabdallah, My Abderrahmane Afifi
Human cystic echinococcosis, a zoonotic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus, remains a largely extended public health problem in endemic regions. Hydatid cyst disease can occur in all viscera and soft tissues, although the liver and the lungs are the most commonly involved organs. Primary hydatid disease of the soft tissue is extremely rare, even in endemic areas, and accounts for 0.5-5.4 % of all hydatid disease cases, with very little data on the incidence of subcutaneous echinococcosis. The paper will be focused on analyzing this extremely rare disease...
November 2012: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
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