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Medicine resident

Jessica C Stark, Euan Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Bryan Leaw
Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, are the first responders to inflammation or injury in the central nervous system. Recent research has revealed microglia to be dynamic, capable of assuming both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Both M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (pro-reparative) phenotypes play an important role in neuroinflammatory conditions such as perinatal brain injury, and exhibit differing functions in response to certain environmental stimuli. The modulation of microglial activation has been noted to confer neuroprotection thus suggesting microglia may have therapeutic potential in brain injury...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Joke Terryn, Tine Tricot, Madhavsai Gajjar, Catherine Verfaillie
Pluripotent stem cells have the property of long-term self-renewal and the potential to give rise to descendants of the three germ layers and hence all mature cells in the human body. Therefore, they hold the promise of offering insight not only into human development but also for human disease modeling and regenerative medicine. However, the generation of mature differentiated cells that closely resemble their in vivo counterparts remains challenging. Recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics and computational modeling of gene regulatory networks are revealing a better understanding of lineage commitment and are driving modern genome editing approaches...
2018: F1000Research
Mark Ayoub, William Paul Bassett, Patricia Seuffert, Douglas Matijakovich, Dorene A O Hara, Mark S Butler
OBJECTIVE: Health care costs are increasing in medicine and in orthopedics. Device choice in orthopedic cases can impact the cost of the procedure and thus result in cost savings. This study aims to determine whether orthopedic attendings and residents accurately estimate device costs they are implanting in trauma cases and whether costs would influence their surgical device selection. DESIGN: Using nationally published average cost data for 13 implants, a survey was distributed at 6 US academic centers...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
James Rourke, Shabnam Asghari, Oliver Hurley, Mohamed Ravalia, Michael Jong, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Danielle O'Keefe, Scott Moffatt, Wendy Graham, Carolyn Sturge Sparkes, Janelle Hippe, Kristin Harris Walsh, Donald McKay, Asoka Samarasena
CONTEXT: This report describes the community context, concept and mission of The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland (Memorial), Canada, and its 'pathways to rural practice' approach, which includes influences at the pre-medical school, medical school experience, postgraduate residency training, and physician practice levels. Memorial's pathways to practice helped Memorial to fulfill its social accountability mandate to populate the province with highly skilled rural generalist practitioners...
March 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Dagmar F Hernandez-Suarez, Christina Rodriguez-Ruiz, Melanie Malavé-Sánchez, Javier E Mirabal-Arroyo, José A Colón-Márquez, Ivonne Z Jiménez-Velázquez, Nicole Rassi-Stella, Arelis Febles-Negrón, Angel Lopez-Candales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Robert W Irwin, Jeffrey Smith, S Barry Issenberg
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (ABPMR) developed milestones for evaluation of resident physicians that include proper musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) examination of major joints. To date, there have been no published data demonstrating acquisition and retention of these skills and correlation with the milestone evaluation. The investigators developed and implemented a curriculum in musculoskeletal ultrasound examination for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) residents at a large academic medical center...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Christopher Sampson, Marc Borenstein
Background The impact of resident work hours on resident well-being and patient safety has long been a controversial issue. Objectives What has not been considered in resident work hour limitations is whether resident commuting time has any impact on a resident's total work hours or well-being. Methods A self-administered electronic survey was distributed to emergency medicine residents in 2016. Results The survey response was 8% (569/6828). Commuter time was 30 minutes or less in 70%. Two residents reported a commuter time of 76 to 90 minutes and one resident had a commuter time of 91 to 105 minutes...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Sarah Edgerley, Conor McKaigney, Devon Boyne, Darrell Ginsberg, Jeffrey Damon Dagnone, Andrew Koch Hall
AIM: Emergency medicine (EM) trainees often work nightshifts. We sought to measure how this circadian disruption affects EM resident performance during simulated resuscitations. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled EM residents at a single Canadian academic centre over a six-year period. Residents completed twice-annual simulation-based resuscitation-focused objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) with assessment in four domains (primary assessment, diagnostic actions, therapeutic actions and communication), and a global assessment score (GAS)...
March 12, 2018: Resuscitation
M Austin Coker, Carrie E Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Russell W Read, Mark W Swanson, Laura E Dreer, Dawn K DeCarlo, Lindsay Gregg, Cynthia Owsley
Importance: The prevalence of irreversible vision impairment in the United States is expected to increase by 2050. Vision rehabilitation is the primary treatment option. Clinical trials have established its efficacy in improving quality of life. Yet studies indicate that patients experience many barriers to accessing low-vision care. Objectives: To examine the rate of referral for low-vision rehabilitation services by resident and attending ophthalmologists for adults with irreversible vision impairment and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of patients about vision rehabilitation...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Justine Marchand, Parisa Heydarizadeh, Benoît Schoefs, Cornelia Spetea
Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast subcompartments. In secondarily evolved algae, three or four envelope membranes surround the chloroplast, making more complex the exchange of ions and metabolites...
March 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Attia Bari, Rehan Ahmed Khan, Ahsan Waheed Rathore
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of postgraduate residents about the clinical educational environment and to investigate the association of their perception with different specialities and years of residency. METHODS: The study was conducted in August 2016 at The Children's Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised postgraduate residents who were asked to complete postgraduate hospital educational environment measure questionnaire. The residents' individual perception scores were calculated and the means of both individual domain and global score of the questionnaire were compared by different specialities and different levels of residency training year...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
James Rourke, Danielle O'Keefe, Mohamed Ravalia, Scott Moffatt, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Michael Jong, Kristin Harris Walsh, Janelle Hippe
OBJECTIVE: To assess Memorial University of Newfoundland's (MUN's) commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice, and to determine the national and provincial effects of applying this approach. DESIGN: Analysis of anonymized secondary data. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Memorial's medical degree (MD) graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015 (N = 305), MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates (N = 120), and physicians who completed family medicine training programs in Canada between 2004 and 2013 and who were practising in Canada 2 years after completion of their postgraduate training (N = 8091)...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Eva Purkey, Rupa Patel, Tracey Beckett, Françoise Mathieu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the primary care experiences of women who have a history of childhood trauma and chronic disease. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with directed content analysis. SETTING: Family health team in Kingston, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six women. METHODS: Letters of invitation were sent to eligible participants followed by a telephone survey. Women with an adverse childhood experience (ACE) score of 4 or higher and with 2 or more chronic conditions were invited to participate in a one-on-one interview...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Vineet M Arora
With the advent of electronic medical records (EMRs) fueling the rise of big data, the use of predictive analytics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence are touted as transformational tools to improve clinical care. While major investments are being made in using big data to transform health care delivery, little effort has been directed toward exploiting big data to improve graduate medical education (GME). Because our current system relies on faculty observations of competence, it is not unreasonable to ask whether big data in the form of clinical EMRs and other novel data sources can answer questions of importance in GME such as when is a resident ready for independent practice...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Sebastian T Tong, Camille J Hochheimer, Wendy B Barr, Matteo Leveroni-Calvi, Nicholas M Lefevre, Jordyn T Wallenborn, Lars E Peterson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prior research found that 24% of graduating family medicine residents intend to provide obstetrical deliveries, but only 9% of family physicians 1 to 10 years into practice are doing so. Our study aims to describe the individual and residency program characteristics associated with intention to provide obstetrical deliveries and prenatal care. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 2014-2016 graduating residents were obtained from the American Board of Family Medicine certification examination demographic questionnaire that asked about intended provision of specific clinical activities...
March 8, 2018: Family Medicine
Steven Lin, Cathina Nguyen, Emily Walters, Paul Gordon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Worsening faculty shortages in medical schools and residency programs are threatening the US medical education infrastructure. Little is known about the factors that influence the decision of family medicine residents to choose or not choose academic careers. Our study objective was to answer the following question among family medicine residents: "What is your greatest concern or fear about pursuing a career in academic family medicine?" METHODS: Participants were family medicine residents who attended the Faculty for Tomorrow Workshop at the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Annual Spring Conference in 2016 and 2017...
March 2018: Family Medicine
Ahmad Khobrani, Nirali H Patel, Richard L George, Neil L McNinch, Rami A Ahmed
Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide. Trauma education is one of the most commonly reported deficiencies in pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) training. In this study, we describe the creation of a pediatric trauma boot camp in which trainees' basic knowledge, level of confidence, teamwork, and communication skills are assessed. The primary goal of this pilot study was to create a simulation-based pediatric trauma curriculum for PEM fellows and emergency medicine residents utilizing Kern's curricular conceptual framework...
2018: Emergency Medicine International
Wei Gan, Xin-Le Liu, Ting Yu, Yuan-Gao Zou, Ting-Ting Li, Shuang Wang, Jin Deng, Lan-Lan Wang, Jian-Ping Cai
Background: A molecular biomarker of physiologic age, as opposed to chronologic age, is needed in clinical medicine. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGsn) and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGsn) are two promising aging biomarkers. Methods: A total of 1,228 healthy Chinese residents (613 males and 615 females) 2-90 years of age were randomly selected. Spot urine samples were collected, and the concentrations of 8-oxodGsn and 8-oxoGsn were measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sukanya Srinivasan, Lisa Schlar, Stephanie E Rosener, Daniel J Frayne, Scott G Hartman, Michael A Horst, Jessica L Brubach, Stephen Ratcliffe
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, birth defects, and unintended pregnancy are major sources of infant and maternal morbidity, mortality, and associated resource use in American health care. Interconception Care (ICC) is recommended as a strategy to improve birth outcomes by modifying maternal risks between pregnancies, but no established model currently exists. The Interventions to Minimize Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants through Continuous Improvement Techniques (IMPLICIT) Network developed and implemented a unique approach to ICC by assessing mothers during their baby's well-child visits (WCVs) up to 24 months...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Zubair Khan, Umar Darr, Muhammad Ali Khan, Mohamad Nawras, Basmah Khalil, Yousef Abdel-Aziz, Yaseen Alastal, William Barnett, Thomas Sodeman, Ali Nawras
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. About one in three adults in the United States is not getting the CRC screening as recommended. Internal medicine residents are deficient in CRC screening knowledge. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the improvement in internal medicine residents' CRC screening knowledge via a pilot approach using a smartphone app...
March 13, 2018: JMIR Medical Education
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