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Microbiota celiac

Maria C Cenit, Pilar Codoñer-Franch, Yolanda Sanz
Gut microbiota shapes the development of the mucosal immune system and may provide protection against immune-mediated diseases. Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition triggered by dietary gluten proteins, recently associated with gut microbiota alterations in cross-sectional studies comparing patients and controls. Whether or not these differences are causally related to the disease has yet to be elucidated, but evaluation of specific bacteria isolated from CD patients in experimental models suggests that they can promote an adverse response to dietary gluten, whereas other commensal bacteria can be protective...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Giuseppe Losurdo, Mariabeatrice Principi, Andrea Iannone, Enzo Ierardi, Alfredo Di Leo
Celiac disease (CD) is the most common autoimmune enteropathy, triggered by a deregulated immune response to gliadin. It has been hypothesized that human intestinal microbiota may interfere with the pathogenesis of the disease and in the clinical course of CD. In the present review, we analyzed the microbiota alterations observed in the course of CD, how they may influence the pathogenesis of CD, and the possible applications for a microbiota modulation in CD. In detail, most of the current literature underlined that the dysbiosis in CD is hallmarked by an increase in gram-negative and Bacteroidetes species, and by a decrease in Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Yvette H van Beurden, Tom van Gils, Nienke A van Gils, Zain Kassam, Chris J J Mulder, Nieves Aparicio-Pagés
Treatment of refractory celiac disease type II (RCD II) and preventing the development of an enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma in these patients is still difficult. In this case report, we describe a patient with RCD II who received fecal microbiota transfer as treatment for a recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and remarkably showed a full recovery of duodenal villi and disappearance of celiac symptoms. This case suggests that altering the gut microbiota may hold promise in improving the clinical and histological consequences of celiac disease and/or RCD II...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Carlos R Cámara-Lemarroy, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Roberto Monreal-Robles, Alejandro Marfil-Rivera
Migraine is a recurrent and commonly disabling primary headache disorder that affects over 17% of women and 5%-8% of men. Migraine susceptibility is multifactorial with genetic, hormonal and environmental factors all playing an important role. The physiopathology of migraine is complex and still not fully understood. Many different neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and brain pathways have been implicated. In connection with the myriad mechanisms and pathways implicated in migraine, a variety of multisystemic comorbidities (e...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Marlies Meisel, Toufic Mayassi, Hannah Fehlner-Peach, Jason C Koval, Sarah L O'Brien, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Kathryn Lesko, Sangman Kim, Romain Bouziat, Li Chen, Christopher R Weber, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Bana Jabri, Dionysios A Antonopoulos
Dysbiosis resulting in gut-microbiome alterations with reduced butyrate production are thought to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis and promote complex immune disorders. However, whether and how dysbiosis develops before the onset of overt pathology remains poorly defined. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is upregulated in distressed tissue and its overexpression is thought to predispose susceptible individuals to and have a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the immunological roles of IL-15 have been largely studied, its potential impact on the microbiota remains unexplored...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Joanna Harnett, Stephen P Myers, Margaret Rolfe
Background. There is limited research investigating the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota in individuals with celiac disease (CoeD) reporting only partial symptom improvement despite adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). The aim of this research was to determine if the gastrointestinal microbiota could be altered by probiotic bacteria and provide a potential new therapy for this subgroup. Methods. A multicentre RCT was conducted between January and August 2011 in Australia. Participants included 45 people with CoeD reporting only partial symptom improvement despite adherence to a strict GFD for a minimum of 12 months...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Maria De Angelis, Lucia Vannini, Raffaella Di Cagno, Noemi Cavallo, Fabio Minervini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Danilo Ercolini, Marco Gobbetti
Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder resulting from the combination of genetic predisposition and gluten ingestion. A life-long gluten free diet (GFD) is the only therapeutic approach. Dysbiosis, which can precede the CD pathogenesis and/or persist when subjects are on GFD, is reviewed and discussed. Salivary microbiota and metabolome differed between healthy and celiac children treated under GFD (T-CD) for at least two years. The type of GFD (African- vs Italian-style) modified the microbiota and metabolome of Saharawi T-CD children...
July 19, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Alberto Caminero, Heather J Galipeau, Justin L McCarville, Chad W Johnston, Steve P Bernier, Amy K Russell, Jennifer Jury, Alexandra R Herran, Javier Casqueiro, Jason A Tye-Din, Michael G Surette, Nathan A Magarvey, Detlef Schuppan, Elena F Verdu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Partially degraded gluten peptides from cereals trigger celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune enteropathy occurring in genetically susceptible persons. Susceptibility genes are necessary but not sufficient to induce CD, and additional environmental factors related to unfavorable alterations in the microbiota have been proposed. We investigated gluten metabolism by opportunistic pathogens and commensal duodenal bacteria and characterized the capacity of the produced peptides to activate gluten-specific T-cells from CD patients...
October 2016: Gastroenterology
Celia Escudero-Hernández, Amado Salvador Peña, David Bernardo
Celiac disease is the most common oral intolerance in Western countries. It results from an immune response towards gluten proteins from certain cereals in genetically predisposed individuals (HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8). Its pathogenesis involves the adaptive (HLA molecules, transglutaminase 2, dendritic cells, and CD4(+) T-cells) and the innate immunity with an IL-15-mediated response elicited in the intraepithelial compartment. At present, the only treatment is a permanent strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Multidisciplinary studies have provided a deeper insight of the genetic and immunological factors and their interaction with the microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disease...
July 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Hiroko Nagao-Kitamoto, Sho Kitamoto, Peter Kuffa, Nobuhiko Kamada
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by a dense community of commensal microorganisms referred to as the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota and the host have co-evolved, and they engage in a myriad of immunogenic and metabolic interactions. The gut microbiota contributes to the maintenance of host health. However, when healthy microbial structure is perturbed, a condition termed dysbiosis, the altered gut microbiota can trigger the development of various GI diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome...
April 2016: Intestinal Research
Valeria D'Argenio, Giorgio Casaburi, Vincenza Precone, Chiara Pagliuca, Roberta Colicchio, Daniela Sarnataro, Valentina Discepolo, Sangman M Kim, Ilaria Russo, Giovanna Del Vecchio Blanco, David S Horner, Matteo Chiara, Graziano Pesole, Paola Salvatore, Giovanni Monteleone, Carolina Ciacci, Gregory J Caporaso, Bana Jabrì, Francesco Salvatore, Lucia Sacchetti
OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD)-associated duodenal dysbiosis has not yet been clearly defined, and the mechanisms by which CD-associated dysbiosis could concur to CD development or exacerbation are unknown. In this study, we analyzed the duodenal microbiome of CD patients. METHODS: The microbiome was evaluated in duodenal biopsy samples of 20 adult patients with active CD, 6 CD patients on a gluten-free diet, and 15 controls by DNA sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA libraries...
June 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
E Nistal, A Caminero, A R Herrán, J Pérez-Andres, S Vivas, J M Ruiz de Morales, L E Sáenz de Miera, J Casqueiro
AIMS: Several studies have suggested that abnormalities in the small-intestinal microbiota might be involved in the development or the pathogenesis of celiac disease (CD). The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the composition of the duodenal microbiota between CD patients and non-CD controls. METHOD AND RESULTS: Bacterial communities were identified by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA extracted from duodenal biopsies. The sequences analysis showed that the majority of the reads were classified within two phyla: Firmicutes and Proteobacteria...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Giovanni Marasco, Anna Rita Di Biase, Ramona Schiumerini, Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Lorenzo Iughetti, Federico Ravaioli, Eleonora Scaioli, Antonio Colecchia, Davide Festi
Recent evidence regarding celiac disease has increasingly shown the role of innate immunity in triggering the immune response by stimulating the adaptive immune response and by mucosal damage. The interaction between the gut microbiota and the mucosal wall is mediated by the same receptors which can activate innate immunity. Thus, changes in gut microbiota may lead to activation of this inflammatory pathway. This paper is a review of the current knowledge regarding the relationship between celiac disease and gut microbiota...
June 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Archita Makharia, Carlo Catassi, Govind K Makharia
The spectrum of gluten-related disorders has widened in recent times and includes celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy. The complex of symptoms associated with these diseases, such as diarrhea, constipation or abdominal pain may overlap for the gluten related diseases, and furthermore they can be similar to those caused by various other intestinal diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The mechanisms underlying symptom generation are diverse for all these diseases. Some patients with celiac disease may remain asymptomatic or have only mild gastrointestinal symptoms and thus may qualify for the diagnosis of IBS in the general clinical practice...
December 2015: Nutrients
Danilo Ercolini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Lucia Vannini, Francesca De Filippis, Teresa Capriati, Raffaella Di Cagno, Giuseppe Iacono, Maria De Angelis, Marco Gobbetti
Fourteen Saharawi celiac children following an African-style gluten-free diet for at least two years were subjected to a change of diet to an Italian-style gluten-free diet for 60 days. Significant differences were identified in the salivary microbiota and metabolome when Saharawi celiac children switched from African- to Italian-style dietary habits. An Italian-style gluten-free diet caused increases in the abundance of Granulicatella, Porphyromonas and Neisseria and decreases in Clostridium, Prevotella and Veillonella, altering the 'salivary type' of the individuals...
2015: Scientific Reports
Yolanda Sanz
Celiac disease (CD) is a frequent chronic inflammatory enteropathy caused by gluten in genetically predisposed individuals that carry disease susceptibility genes (HLA-DQ2/8). These genes are present in about 30-40% of the general population, but only a small percentage of carriers develops CD. Gluten is the key environmental trigger of CD, but its intake does not fully explain disease onset; indeed, an increased number of cases experience gluten intolerance in late adulthood after many years of gluten exposure...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
P'ng Loke, Yvonne A L Lim
There is growing interest in treating inflammatory conditions with helminth infection. Recently, Loukas and colleagues have reported promising results from using experimental hookworm infection to reduce gluten sensitivity in celiac disease patients. Analysis of microbiota samples from the trial is contributing to our understanding of the complexity underlying helminth–microbiota–host relationships.
November 2015: Trends in Parasitology
F Girón Fernández-Crehuet, S Tapia-Paniagua, M A Moriñigo Gutiérrez, V M Navas-López, M Juliana Serrano, J Blasco-Alonso, C Sierra Salinas
OBJECTIVES: To establish whether the duodenal mucosa microbiota of children with active coeliac disease (CD) and healthy controls (HC) differ in composition and biodiversity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of duodenal biopsies in 11 CD patients were obtained at diagnosis, and in 6 HC who were investigated for functional intestinal disorders of non-CD origin. Total duodenal microbiota and the belonging to the genus Lactobacillus using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were analysed...
April 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Maureen M Leonard, Stephanie Camhi, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Alessio Fasano
In the past it was believed that genetic predisposition and exposure to gluten were necessary and sufficient to develop celiac disease (CD). Recent studies however suggest that loss of gluten tolerance can occur at any time in life as a consequence of other environmental stimuli. Many environmental factors known to influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota are also suggested to play a role in the development of CD. These include birthing delivery mode, infant feeding, and antibiotic use. To date no large-scale longitudinal studies have defined if and how gut microbiota composition and metabolomic profiles may influence the loss of gluten tolerance and subsequent onset of CD in genetically-susceptible individuals...
November 2015: Nutrients
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