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Biological marker

Julian Bejarano, Rainer Detsch, Aldo R Boccaccini, Humberto Palza
Novel multifunctional scaffolds for bone regeneration can be developed by incorporation of bioactive glasses doped with therapeutic and antibacterial metal ions, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), into a biodegradable polymer. In this context, porous composite materials of biodegradable poly(D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) mixed with sol-gel bioactive glasses (BG) of chemical composition 60SiO2 ; 25CaO; 11Na2 O; and 4P2 O5 (mol.%) doped with either 1 mol% of CuO or ZnO, and with both metals, were prepared. The cytocompatibility of the scaffolds on bone marrow stromal cells (ST-2) depended on both, the amount of glass filler and the concentration of metal ion, as evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, cell viability (water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8)), and by cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) tests...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Feng Q He, Markus Ollert
Identification of key genes for a given physiological or pathological process is an essential but still very challenging task for the entire biomedical research community. Statistics-based approaches, such as genome-wide association study (GWAS)- or quantitative trait locus (QTL)-related analysis have already made enormous contributions to identifying key genes associated with a given disease or phenotype, the success of which is however very much dependent on a huge number of samples. Recent advances in network biology, especially network inference directly from genome-scale data and the following-up network analysis, opens up new avenues to predict key genes driving a given biological process or cellular function...
October 26, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Guowu Chen, Aijie Xin, Yulin Liu, Changgen Shi, Junling Chen, Xiaofeng Tang, Ying Chen, Min Yu, Xiandong Peng, Lu Li, Xiaoxi Sun
BACKGROUND: Clinical ovulation induction induces blood estrogen (E2) in excess of physiological levels, which can hinder uterine receptivity. In contrast, progesterone produces the opposite clinical effect, suggesting that it might be capable of recovering the lost receptivity resulting from exposure to high estrogen levels. Integrins are the most widely used biological markers for monitoring uterine conditions. We studied progesterone-induced changes in integrin β expression patterns as biomarkers for changes in uterine receptivity in response to increased estrogen levels...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Alicja Pacholewska, Núria Mach, Xavier Mata, Anne Vaiman, Laurent Schibler, Eric Barrey, Vincent Gerber
BACKGROUND: MiRNAs regulate multiple genes at the post-transcriptional level and therefore play an important role in many biological processes. It has been suggested that miRNA exported outside the cells contribute to inter-cellular communication. Consequently, circulating miRNAs are of particular interest and are promising biomarkers for many diseases. The number of miRNAs annotated in the horse genome is much lower compared to model organisms like human and mouse. We therefore aimed to identify novel equine miRNAs for tissue types and breed in serum...
October 26, 2016: BMC Genomics
Andrea Schmitt, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Schahram Akbarian, Juliana S Cassoli, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Andre Fischer, Alfred Fonteh, Wagner F Gattaz, Michael Gawlik, Manfred Gerlach, Edna Grünblatt, Tobias Halene, Alkomiet Hasan, Kenij Hashimoto, Yong-Ku Kim, Sophie-Kathrin Kirchner, Johannes Kornhuber, Theo F J Kraus, Berend Malchow, Juliana M Nascimento, Moritz Rossner, Markus Schwarz, Johann Steiner, Leda Talib, Florence Thibaut, Peter Riederer, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite progress in identifying molecular pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia, valid biomarkers are lacking for both the disease and treatment response. METHODS: This comprehensive review summarises recent efforts to identify molecular mechanisms on the level of protein and gene expression and epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and micro RNA expression. Furthermore, it summarises recent findings of alterations in lipid mediators and highlights inflammatory processes...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Clara Leigh Feider, Natalia Elizondo, Livia S Eberlin
Ambient ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been increasingly used to investigate the molecular distribution of biological tissue samples. Here, we report the integration and optimization of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and liquid-microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP), and a chip-based high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) device to image metabolites, lipids, and proteins in biological tissue samples. Optimized FAIMS parameters for specific molecular classes enabled semi-targeted detection of multiply-charged molecular species at enhanced signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), improved visualization of spatial distributions, and most importantly, allowed detection of species which were otherwise unseen by ambient ionization MSI alone...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ya-Ting Tsai, Chao-Wei Huang, Hui-Yu Liu, Mei-Ching Huang, Ting-Pi Sun, Wen-Chien Chen, Chih-Yu Wu, Shih-Torng Ding, Hsien-Yeh Chen
The ability to induce osteointegration was introduced to a parylene-C surface via the simple and intuitive process of protein adsorption mediated by hydrophobic interactions. In this way, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, fibronectin, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could be immobilized on parylene-C surfaces. This approach alleviates concerns related to the use of potentially harmful substances in parylene-C modification processes. The adsorbed protein molecules were quantitatively characterized with respect to adsorption efficacy and binding affinity, and the important biological activities of the proteins were also examined using both early and late markers of osteogenetic activity, including alkaline phosphatase expression, calcium mineralization and marker gene expression...
October 26, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Kristelle Desfossés-Baron, Ian Hammond-Martel, Antoine Simoneau, Adnane Sellam, Stephen Roberts, Hugo Wurtele
The mechanism of action of valproate (VPA), a widely prescribed short chain fatty acid with anticonvulsant and anticancer properties, remains poorly understood. Here, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as model to investigate the biological consequences of VPA exposure. We found that low pH strongly potentiates VPA-induced growth inhibition. Transcriptional profiling revealed that under these conditions, VPA modulates the expression of genes involved in diverse cellular processes including protein folding, cell wall organisation, sexual reproduction, and cell cycle progression...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshiya Horimoto, Takuo Hayashi, Atsushi Arakawa
Several aspects of the article by Morita et al. (Cancer Medicine 5:1607-18, 2016), examining the spontaneous healing phenomenon with reference to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), require clarification. The concept of "healing", which can perhaps be more accurately termed "regressive change", remains controversial due to a lack of concrete evidence. Since regressive change is characterized by fibrosis and lymphocytes, a cancer nest that appears to lack a distinct basement membrane, surrounded only by lymphocytes, as in Morita et al's Figure 2F, should be meticulously examined because the appearance may correspond to a tumor having just completed the process of invasion...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Medicine
M J W Thompson, D A Aitken, I A van der Mei, P Otahal, J Cicolini, T M Winzenberg, G Jones
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Beagley-Gibson (BG) grading system utilizes microtopographical skin changes to generate an individualized, objective estimate of cumulative, lifetime ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. However, predictors of BG grade are ill-defined, particularly in older populations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the factors associated with skin damage as measured by the BG method in 835 community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Study participants aged 53-83 years had silicone casts taken from the dorsum of both hands and graded by the BG method...
October 26, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
Petra Minarikova, Lucie Benesova, Tereza Halkova, Barbora Belsanova, Inna Tuckova, Frantisek Belina, Ladislav Dusek, Miroslav Zavoral, Marek Minarik
Background. Gastric cancer is known for a notable variety in the course of the disease. Clinical factors, such as tumor stage, grade, and localization, are key in patient survival. It is expected that molecular factors such as somatic mutations and gene amplifications are also underlying tumor biological behavior and may serve as factors for prognosis estimation. Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine gene amplifications from a panel of genes to uncover potential prognostic marker candidates. Methods...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Yee-Seul So, Dong-Hoon Yang, Kwang-Woo Jung, Won-Ki Huh, Yong-Sun Bahn
In this study, we aimed to generate a series of versatile tagging plasmids that can be used in diverse molecular biological studies of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We constructed 12 plasmids that can be used to tag a protein of interest with a GFP, mCherry, 4×FLAG, or 6×HA along with nourseothricin, neomycin, or hygromycin-resistant selection markers. Using this tagging plasmid set, we explored the adenylyl cyclase complex (ACC), consisting of adenylyl cyclase (Cac1) and its associated protein Aca1, in the cAMP-signaling pathway, which is critical for the pathogenicity of C...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ho Jae Lee, Jong Min Park, Ki Baik Hahm
Background/Aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a cytokine implicated in the susceptibility, development, and progression of gastrointestinal cancer and certain other neoplasms. In the later stages of cancer, TGF-β not only acts as a bystander of host-immune response, but also contributes to cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. In the current study, we generated gastric mucosal cells that stably express Smad7, and explored the Helicobacter pylori-associated biological changes between mock-transfected and Smad7-transfected RGM1 cells...
October 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Xin Yu Leong, Punniyakoti Veeraveedu Thanikachalam, Manisha Pandey, Srinivasan Ramamurthy
BACKGROUND: Swertiamarin, is a secoiridoid glycoside found in genera of Enicostemma Species (Enicostemma littorale and Enicostemma axillare) belonging to the family of gentianaceae, which has been reported to cure many diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arthritis, malaria and abdominal ulcers. However, to the best of our knowledge, till date systematic studies to understand the molecular basis of cardiac and metabolic disease preventing properties of swertiamarin has not been reported...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mitsuaki Kojima, Joao Antonio Gimenes-Junior, Simone Langness, Koji Morishita, Ophelie Lavoie-Gagne, Brian Eliceiri, Todd W Costantini, Raul Coimbra
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that mesenteric lymph (ML) has a crucial role in driving the systemic inflammatory response after trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). The specific mediators in the ML that contribute to its biological activity remain unclear despite decades of study. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are shed into body fluids such as serum and urine that can mediate intercellular communication. We hypothesized that exosomes are present in the ML after trauma/shock and are responsible for the biological activity of ML...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ahmad Kotb, Antonina Klippert, Maria Daskalaki, Ulrike Sauermann, Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Berit Neumann
Granzyme B-expressing (GrB(+)) B cells are thought to contribute to immune dysfunctions in HIV patients, but so far their exact role is unknown. This report demonstrates for the first time the existence of GrB(+) B cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques, which represent the most commonly used nonhuman primate model for HIV research. Similar to HIV patients, we found significantly higher frequencies of these cells in the blood of chronically SIV-infected rhesus monkeys compared with uninfected healthy ones. These frequencies correlated with plasma viral load and inversely with absolute CD4 T-cell counts...
October 25, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Kazuha Kizaki, Fumiharu Yamashita, Tomoya Hayashi, Noboru Funakoshi
AIM: This study was designed to investigate which biological agent, infliximab or tocilizumab, would more intensively keep suppressing oxidative stress among well-controlled patients as C-reactive protein (CRP) levels normalized in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, it was intended to clarify indicative factors of oxidative stress among well-controlled patients with RA. METHODS: We recruited 61 well-controlled (CRP < 0.3 mg/dL within normal ranges) patients with RA using biological agents (infliximab n = 33; tocilizumab n = 28), active RA patients with CRP > 1...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Adam M Passman, Jasmine Low, Roslyn London, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker, Atsushi Miyajima, Minoru Tanaka, Helene Strick-Marchand, Gretchen J Darlington, Megan Finch-Edmondson, Scott Ochsner, Cornelia Zhu, James Whelan, Bernard A Callus, George C T Yeoh
Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) can proliferate extensively, are able to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and contribute to liver regeneration. The presence of LPCs, however, often accompanies liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), indicating that they may be a cancer stem cell. Understanding LPC biology and establishing a sensitive, rapid, and reliable method to detect their presence in the liver will assist diagnosis and facilitate monitoring of treatment outcomes in patients with liver pathologies...
2016: Stem Cells International
Ioannis Politikos, Haesook Kim, Theodoros Karantanos, Julia Brown, Sean McDonough, Lequn Li, Corey Cutler, Joseph H Antin, Karen K Ballen, Jerome Ritz, Vassiliki A Boussiotis
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valuable graft source for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients who lack adult donors. UCB transplantation (UCBT) in adults results in delayed immune reconstitution leading to high infection-related morbidity and mortality. Angiogenic factors and markers of endothelial dysfunction have biologic and prognostic significance in conventional HSCT, but their role in UCBT has not been investigated. Furthermore, the interplay between angiogenesis and immune reconstitution has not been studied...
October 21, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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