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Pediatric Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232772/s-nitrosohemoglobin-levels-and-patient-outcome-after-transfusion-during-pediatric-bypass-surgery
#1
Faisal Matto, Peter C Kouretas, Richard Smith, Jacob Ostrowsky, Anthony J Cina, Douglas T Hess, Jonathan S Stamler, James D Reynolds
Banked blood exhibits impairments in nitric oxide (NO)-based oxygen delivery capability, reflected in rapid depletion of S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb). We hypothesized that transfusion of even freshly-stored blood used in pediatric heart surgery would reduce SNO-Hb levels and worsen outcome. In a retrospective review (n = 29), the percent of estimated blood volume (% eBV) replaced by transfusion directly correlated with ventilator time and inversely correlated with kidney function; similar results were obtained in a prospective arm (n = 20)...
December 12, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232618/pediatric-medicolegal-autopsy-in-france-a-forensic-histopathological-approach
#2
Clémence Delteil, Lucile Tuchtan, Julia Torrents, Caroline Capuani, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
The aim of postmortem medicolegal examination in pediatric death is primarily to establish the circumstances and causes of death and to exclude child abuse. In France, pediatric death is systematically documented by medicolegal or medical autopsy. In case of medicolegal autopsy, the complementary examinations, requested and financed by justice, are rarely limited to a histopathological examination. However in medical autopsies other tools are available to the pathologist as toxicology, biochemistry and molecular biology...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232530/pediatric-endoscopic-pilonidal-sinus-treatment-a-revolutionary-technique-to-adopt-in-children-with-pilonidal-sinus-fistulas-our-preliminary-experience
#3
Ciro Esposito, Serena Izzo, Francesco Turrà, Mariapina Cerulo, Giovanni Severino, Alessandro Settimi, Marta Iannazzone, Lorenzo Masieri, Giuseppe Cortese, Maria Escolino
AIM: This study aimed to report our preliminary experience with pediatric endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment (PEPSiT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the reports of 15 patients, 6 girls and 9 boys, with an average age of 16 years (range 13-18) with noninfected pilonidal sinus disease who underwent PEPSiT in our institution over an 18-month period. Four cases were redo-procedures, for recurrence of disease after open excision repair. Surgical outcomes of sinus healing, recurrence of disease, postoperative pain, hospital stay, analgesic requirements, and patient satisfaction levels were evaluated and a comparison analysis with classic open repair was performed...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232351/randomized-clinical-trial-of-lidocaine-analgesia-for-transurethral-bladder-catheterization-delivered-via-blunt-tipped-applicator-in-young-children
#4
Neil G Uspal, Bonnie Strelitz, Jesse Gritton, Kristin Follmer, Miranda C Bradford, Taryn L Colton, Paul A Merguerian, Eileen J Klein
OBJECTIVE: Transurethral bladder catheterization (TUBC) is a painful, frequently performed procedure for collecting sterile urine. We sought to determine if administration of intraurethral lidocaine before TUBC using a blunt tipped syringe decreases procedural pain in young children in the pediatric emergency department. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial of children 0 to 36 months old requiring TUBC for collection of urine in a pediatric emergency department was performed...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232283/levocarnitine-for-the-treatment-of-valproic-acid-induced-hyperammonemic-encephalopathy-in-children-the-experience-of-large-tertiary-care-pediatric-hospital-and-a-poison-center
#5
Miguel Glatstein, Pedro Bonifacio Rino, Silvina de Pinho, Dennis Scolnik, Dikla Pivko-Levi, Christopher Hoyte
BACKGROUND: Although rare, symptomatic hyperammonemia is sometimes associated with valproic acid (VPA), especially in children. L-carnitine (levocarnitine), sometimes classified as an essential amino acid, is vital to mitochondrial utilization of fatty acids and can be helpful in treating this condition. The data supporting this, however, are limited. STUDY QUESTION: The aim of the study was to illustrate the role of L-carnitine in the treatment of patients with VPA-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VPE) at 2 different institutions...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232181/resna-position-on-the-application-of-power-mobility-devices-for-pediatric-users
#6
Lauren Rosen, Teresa Plummer, Andrina Sabet, Michelle L Lange, Roslyn Livingstone
This is an official RESNA Position Paper on Clinical and Professional Practice. As such, it has been prepared in accordance with the specific guidelines and approval process defined by the RESNA Board of Directors for Position Papers. See http://www.resna.org/knowledge-center/position-papers-white-papers-and-provision-guides for a complete description of this procedure. Key aspects of this procedure include: Establishment of a Working Group of three or more experts to author the paper, using evidence from the published literature, documented best practices, and other input from experts in the field as the basis for the content...
December 12, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231269/lichen-planus-pigmentosus-inversus-in-children-case-report-and-updated-review-of-the-literature
#7
Sabrina Nurmohamed, Jori Hardin, Richard M Haber
Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus (LPPI) is a rare variant of lichen planus characterized by slate grey to dark black-brown macules, papules, or patches occurring in the skin folds. We present a case of LPPI in an 11-year-old girl, the second-youngest case and only the third pediatric case. This article also reviews the differential diagnosis and treatment of LPPI.
December 12, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231254/characteristics-of-pediatric-recurrent-erythema-multiforme
#8
Adam Heinze, Megha Tollefson, Kristen E Holland, Yvonne E Chiu
BACKGROUND: Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute condition characterized by distinctive target lesions of the skin often accompanied by mucosal ulcers. A subset of individuals experience frequent episodes of recurrent EM, which is rare and poorly understood, especially in children. OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical features, laboratory findings, and treatment responses of pediatric recurrent EM. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (2000-2015) and the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1990-2015)...
December 12, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230802/measurement-properties-of-instruments-that-assess-participation-in-young-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Francesca Lami, Kristine Egberts, Alexandra Ure, Rowena Conroy, Katrina Williams
AIM: To systematically review the measurement properties of instruments assessing participation in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: A search was performed in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PubMed combining three constructs ('ASD', 'test of participation', 'measurement properties'). Results were restricted to articles including people aged 6 to 29 years. The 2539 identified articles were independently screened by two reviewers. For the included articles, data were extracted using standard forms and their risk of bias was assessed...
December 12, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230709/point-of-care-gastric-ultrasound-and-aspiration-risk-assessment-a-narrative-review
#10
Anahi Perlas, Cristian Arzola, Peter Van de Putte
This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) of gastric contents in order to inform an assessment of aspiration risk and guide anesthetic management at the bedside. An I-AIM framework (Indication, Acquisition, Interpretation, and Medical decision-making) is used to summarize and organize the content areas. This narrative review spans the breadth of the literature on pediatric and adult subjects as well as on special patient populations such as obstetric and severely obese individuals...
December 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229894/retrospective-review-of-pediatric-status-epilepticus-in-116-saudi-patients-predictors-of-outcome
#11
Raid Harb Hommady, Muhammad Talal Alrifai, Osama Khaled Mubayrik, Ruba Salem Alayed, Muhannad Abdulrahman Alsemari, Ahmed Arumayyan, Waleed Altuwaijri, Duaa Baarmah
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) is a common, life-threatening condition. Multiple factors are used to predict its outcome and evaluate its risks, and there have been only a few studies in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVES: Investigate predictors of SE outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review study. SETTING: Tertiary center, Riyadh. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed all pediatric cases (age 14 years or younger) of SE admitted between January 2005 and December 2015, collecting data on age, sex, date of birth, developmental status, pre-existing neurological diseases, SE etiology, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores, and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings...
November 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229893/prognostic-factors-for-epilepsy-following-first-febrile-seizure-in-saudi-children
#12
Abdullah I Almojali, Anwar E Ahmed, Muhammed Y Bagha
BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is the most common convulsive event during childhood, but it is generally considered benign. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the rate of epilepsy after first presentation of febrile seizure and to describe factors that can predispose children to have subsequent epilepsy after their first febrile seizure. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: A tertiary care center in Riyadh. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All children whose first febrile seizure developed between 2009-2012, and who were admitted to the pediatric wards...
November 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229888/the-association-between-body-mass-index-and-frequency-of-emergency-department-visits-and-hospitalization-for-asthma-exacerbation-in-a-pediatric-population
#13
Ghadah Abdulrahman Alhekail, Alaa Althubaiti, Sulaiman AlQueflie
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both asthma and obesity are increasing. Although some studies suggest an association between body mass index (BMI) and frequency of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalization for asthma exacerbation, any association remains unproven. OBJECTIVE: Estimate the frequency of asthma exacerbation in obese children, and identify any relationship between BMI and frequency of ED visits and hospitalization for asthma exacerbation. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical records...
November 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229640/adverse-effects-of-intravenous-vancomycin-based-prophylaxis-during-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#14
Yilun Sun, Rachael L Huskey, Li Tang, Hiroto Inaba, Aditya H Gaur, Raul Ribeiro, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Joshua Wolf
Background Children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at risk of life-threatening bacterial infection, especially with viridans group streptococci. Primary antibacterial prophylaxis with vancomycin-based regimens reduces this risk, but might increase risk of renal or liver toxicity, or Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).Methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients treated for newly diagnosed AML at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from 2002 to 2008. Nephrotoxicity was classified according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) criteria, and hepatotoxicity according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229328/outcomes-after-reirradiation-for-recurrent-pediatric-intracranial-ependymoma
#15
Derek S Tsang, Elizabeth Burghen, Paul Klimo, Frederick A Boop, David W Ellison, Thomas E Merchant
PURPOSE: To determine the long-term outcomes and the optimal dose and volume for reirradiation of recurrent pediatric ependymoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with recurrent ependymoma treated with a second course of fractionated radiation therapy (RT2) were reviewed retrospectively. Eligible patients had localized, intracranial ependymoma at initial diagnosis that was treated with focal radiation (RT1) without craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and were aged ≤21 years at the time of RT2...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229171/special-considerations-in-pediatric-kidney-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
Sean A Hebert, Rita D Swinford, David R Hall, Jason K Au, John S Bynon
Universally accepted as the treatment of choice for children needing renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation affords children the opportunity for an improved quality of life over dialysis therapy. Immunologic and surgical advances over the last 15 years have improved the pediatric patient and kidney graft survival. Unique to pediatrics, congenital genitourinary anomalies are the most common primary diseases leading to kidney failure, many with urological issues. Early urological evaluation for post-transplant bladder dysfunction and emphasis on immunization adherence are the mainstays of pediatric pretransplant and post-transplant evaluations...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229170/care-of-the-pediatric-patient-on-chronic-dialysis
#17
REVIEW
Annabelle N Chua, Bradley A Warady
Optimal care of the pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient on chronic dialysis is complex and requires multidisciplinary care as well as patient/caregiver involvement. The dialysis team, along with the family and patient, should all play a role in choosing the dialysis modality which best meets the patient's needs, taking into account special considerations and management issues that may be particularly pertinent to children who receive peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Meticulous attention to dialysis adequacy in terms of solute and fluid removal, as well as to a variety of clinical manifestations of ESRD, including anemia, growth and nutrition, chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular health, and neurocognitive development, is essential...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229067/practice-guidelines-for-peanut-allergies
#18
Celeste Sitton, Heide S Temples
This article reviews the latest recommendations and clinical practice guidelines for peanut allergies among the pediatric population. Recommendations in this paper were compiled using information collected from a variety of publications of accredited professional organizations. Peanut allergies are the body's response to what it sees to be an unwanted substance in the body. This article focuses on the causes, signs and symptoms, prevention, diagnosis, and management of peanut allergies.
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228891/adherence-to-asthma-treatment-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-narrative-literature-review
#19
Kristine Desager, Françoise Vermeulen, Eddy Bodart
OBJECTIVES: We provide a narrative literature review on surveys used to assess the level of medication adherence in children and adolescents with asthma, the attitudes of these patients and their parents toward asthma therapy, and their expectations concerning asthma and available treatment. METHODS: A PubMed search and manual selection of the retrieved papers was conducted to identify studies using surveys or interviews that addressed one of the three topics of interest...
December 11, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227721/chinese-guidelines-for-childhood-asthma-2016-major-updates-recommendations-and-key-regional-data
#20
Jianguo Hong, Yixiao Bao, Aihuan Chen, Changchong Li, Li Xiang, Chuanhe Liu, Zhimin Chen, Deyu Zhao, Zhou Fu, Yunxiao Shang
OBJECTIVE: With increased industrialization and urbanization in China, pediatric asthma is becoming more prevalent. Despite a growing body of evidence, there remains a significant unmet need for adequate management of childhood asthma. The Subspecialty Group of Respiratory Diseases of the Society of Pediatrics, the Chinese Medical Association, and the editorial board of the Chinese Journal of Pediatrics have recently updated the "Guidelines for diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children," first published in 2008...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
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