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Pediatric Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823091/trauma-ptsd-and-the-developing-brain
#1
REVIEW
Ryan J Herringa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: PTSD in youth is common and debilitating. In contrast to adult PTSD, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of pediatric PTSD, nor how neurodevelopment may be altered. This review summarizes recent neuroimaging studies in pediatric PTSD and discusses implications for future study. RECENT FINDINGS: Pediatric PTSD is characterized by abnormal structure and function in neural circuitry supporting threat processing and emotion regulation...
August 19, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823022/long-term-bisphosphonate-therapy-in-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#2
REVIEW
A Biggin, C F Munns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic bone disorder resulting in bone fragility. It has a heterogeneous phenotype which typically includes reduced bone mass, multiple fractures, deformity, and chronic disability. Bisphosphonate treatment remains the first-line medical management, but there is still debate on aspects of its effectiveness. This review summarizes current knowledge about long-term bisphosphonate use in OI with recommendations on clinical application...
August 19, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822673/the-financial-impact-of-a-hospital-based-care-coordination-program-for-children-with-special-health-care-needs
#3
Janine M Petitgout
Care coordination programs are important in caring for medically complex pediatric patients, particularly for children with special health care needs. This study is a retrospective financial analysis of a hospital-based care coordination program involving one procedural subgroup of children with special health care needs: those receiving pediatric tracheostomy. Hospital records were reviewed for patients who received a tracheostomy at a large Midwestern U.S. hospital from 1999 through 2015. The population was divided into two subgroups: patients who received a tracheostomy before the development of a care coordination program and patients who received a tracheostomy after enrollment in the care coordination program...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822062/validation-of-dynamic-risk-stratification-in-pediatric-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#4
Seo Young Sohn, Young Nam Kim, Hye In Kim, Tae Hyuk Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung
PURPOSE: There has been increasing interest in a risk-adopted management strategy known as dynamic risk stratification following the revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for differentiated thyroid cancer. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic risk stratification for predicting structural disease in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 130 pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients (≤19 years) who were treated between 1996 and 2015 at Samsung Medical Center...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822033/clinical-and-polysomnographic-characteristics-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-children
#5
Jiwon Lee, Geonyoub Na, Eun Yeon Joo, Munhyang Lee, Jeehun Lee
PURPOSE: This study aimed to delineate the clinical and polysomnography (PSG) characteristics of sleep disorders in children with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). METHODS: Between February 2002 and June 2015, 622 pediatric patients with EDS were evaluated with overnight PSG and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test at the Samsung Medical Center. The medical records; questionnaire responses about depression, sleepiness, sleep habits; and sleep study data of 133 patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were reviewed retrospectively...
August 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821378/pathogens-and-outcomes-in-pediatric-septic-shock-patients-supported-by-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#6
Tu-Hsuan Chang, En-Ting Wu, Chun-Yi Lu, Shu-Chien Huang, Tzu-I Yang, Ching-Chia Wang, Jong-Min Chen, Ping-Ing Lee, Li-Min Huang, Luan-Yin Chang
BACKGROUND: Refractory septic shock is the leading cause of mortality in children. There is limited evidence to support extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in pediatric septic shock. We described the etiology and outcomes of septic patients in our institution and attempted to find predictive factors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 55 pediatric patients with septic shock who required ECMO support in a tertiary medical center from 2008 to 2015. Septic shock was defined as culture proved or clinical suspected sepsis with hypotension or end-organ hypoperfusion...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821366/safety-events-in-pediatric-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#7
Matt Hansen, Carl Eriksson, Barbara Skarica, Garth Meckler, Jeanne-Marie Guise
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the types of patient safety events that take place during pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review from a single large urban EMS system of EMS-treated pediatric (<18years of age) out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring between 2008 and 2011. A chart review tool was developed for this project and each chart was reviewed by a multidisciplinary review panel...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821330/systemic-atrioventricular-valve-excision-and-ventricular-assist-devices-in-pediatric-patients
#8
Deipanjan Nandi, Kelley D Miller, Carley M Bober, Tami M Rosenthal, Lisa M Montenegro, Joseph W Rossano, J William Gaynor, Christopher E Mascio
BACKGROUND: Continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CF VADs) designed for adults are increasingly used in pediatric patients. However, there is greater risk of device inflow obstruction as a result of size and anatomy. METHODS: We reviewed all cases of systemic atrioventricular valve (AVV) excision with HeartWare HVAD (HeartWare, Framingham, MA) implantation in the systemic ventricle performed at our institution from November 2015 to May 2016. RESULTS: AVV excision with CF VAD implantation was undertaken in 3 patients...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820870/controversies-in-the-identification-and-management-of-acute-pulmonary-hypertension-in-preterm-neonates
#9
REVIEW
Regan E Giesinger, Kiran More, Jodie Odame, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov, Patrick J McNamara
It is increasingly recognized that the abnormal physiologic consequences of pulmonary hypertension (PH) may contribute to poor cardiopulmonary health in premature babies. Conflicting literature has led to clinical uncertainty, pathological misinterpretation and variability in treatment approaches among practitioners. There are several disorders with overlapping and interrelated presentations and other disorders with a similar clinical phenotype but diverse pathophysiological contributors. In this review, we provide a diagnostic approach for acute HRF in the preterm neonate, outline the pathophysiological conditions that may present as acute PH and discuss the implications of high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) on the cardiovascular system...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820680/creating-online-training-for-procedures-in-global-health-with-procedural-education-for-adaptation-to-resource-limited-settings
#10
Rachel S Bensman, Tina M Slusher, Sabrina M Butteris, Michael B Pitt
The authors describe a multiinstitutional collaborative project to address a gap in global health training by creating a free online platform to share a curriculum for performing procedures in resource-limited settings. This curriculum called PEARLS (Procedural Education for Adaptation to Resource-Limited Settings) consists of peer-reviewed instructional and demonstration videos describing modifications for performing common pediatric procedures in resource-limited settings. Adaptations range from the creation of a low-cost spacer for inhaled medications to a suction chamber for continued evacuation of a chest tube...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820061/renin-angiotensin-system-and-cytokines-in-chronic-kidney-disease-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#11
Ariadna Andrade Saldanha Silva, Beranardo Bahia Finotti, Amanda Oliveira Lauar, Thiago Ruiz Rodrigues Prestes, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. There are many causes of CKD, being the congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and the glomerular diseases very common in pediatric patients, while diabetic nephropathy, CKD due to chronic arterial hypertension and glomerular diseases are predominant in adult patients. Many endogenous mediators have been related to the pathophysiology of CKD, being relevant the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the immune-inflammatory mediators including cytokines...
August 18, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819914/psychometric-characteristics-of-non-instrumental-swallowing-and-feeding-assessments-in-pediatrics-a-systematic-review-using-cosmin
#12
REVIEW
Renée Speyer, Reinie Cordier, Lauren Parsons, Deborah Denman, Jae-Hyun Kim
As early diagnosis of swallowing and feeding difficulties in infants and children is of utmost importance, there is a need to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of pediatric assessments of swallowing and feeding. A systematic review was performed summarizing the psychometric properties of non-instrumental assessments for swallowing and feeding difficulties in pediatrics; no data were identified for the remaining twelve assessments. The COSMIN taxonomy and checklist were used to evaluate the methodological quality of 23 publications on psychometric properties...
August 17, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818837/parent-coping-support-interventions-during-acute-pediatric-hospitalizations-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie K Doupnik, Douglas Hill, Deepak Palakshappa, Diana Worsley, Hanah Bae, Aleesha Shaik, Maylene Kefeng Qiu, Meghan Marsac, Chris Feudtner
CONTEXT: Parents may experience psychological distress when a child is acutely hospitalized, which can negatively affect child outcomes. Interventions designed to support parents' coping have the potential to mitigate this distress. OBJECTIVE: To describe interventions designed to provide coping support to parents of hospitalized children and conduct a meta-analysis of coping support intervention outcomes (parent anxiety, depression, and stress). DATA SOURCES: We searched Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, Psychiatry Online, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature from 1985 to 2016 for English-language articles including the concepts "pediatric," "hospitalization," "parents," and "coping support intervention...
August 17, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818584/-neonatal-intoxication-to-vitamin-d-in-premature-babies-a-series-of-16%C3%A2-cases
#14
M Vierge, S Laborie, A Bertholet-Thomas, M-C Carlier, J-C Picaud, O Claris, J Bacchetta
INTRODUCTION: Preterm neonates are particularly at risk of vitamin D (25-D) deficiency. To prevent rickets and osteopenia in this population, international guidelines vary between 800 and 1000IU per day of vitamin D in Europe and recommend 400IU per day in the USA. Target levels of circulating 25-D are not well identified, with the lower target level 50-75nmol/L and the upper target level probably 120nmol/L. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2015, 16 premature infants (born<35WG) were referred to pediatric nephrology clinics because of symptoms secondary to 25-D overdose during the neonatal period...
August 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817750/the-surgeon-on-service-model-for-timely-economically-viable-inpatient-care-of-tracheostomy-patients-in-academic-pediatric-otolaryngology
#15
Jennifer M Lavin, James W Schroeder, Dana M Thompson
Importance: The traditional practice model for pediatric otolaryngologists at high-volume academic centers is to simultaneously balance outpatient care responsibilities with those of the inpatient service, emergency department, and ambulatory care clinics. This model leads to challenges with care coordination, timeliness of nonemergency operative care, and consistent participation in care and consultation at the attending surgeon level. The "surgeon on service" (SOS) model-where faculty members rotate to manage the inpatient service in lieu of outpatient responsibilities-has been described as one method to address this conundrum...
August 17, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817604/therapeutic-flexible-airway-endoscopy-of-small-children-in-a-tertiary-referral-center-11-years-experience
#16
Wen-Jue Soong, Pei-Chen Tsao, Yu-Sheng Lee, Chia-Feng Yang
OBJECTIVES: Use of therapeutic flexible airway endoscopy (TFAE) is very limited in pediatrics. We report our clinical experiences and long term outcomes of TFAE in small children from a single tertiary referral center. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Small children with their body weight no more than 5.0 kg who had received TFAE between 2005 and 2015 were enrolled. Demographic information and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed from medical charts and TFAE videos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817401/challenges-in-the-anesthetic-management-of-ambulatory-patients-in-the-mri-suites
#17
Jasper Deen, Yzabel Vandevivere, Peter Van de Putte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MRI is becoming an indispensable diagnostic tool. The need for prolonged motion-free periods has substantially increased the need for deep sedation or anesthesia in a challenging environment. This review summarises recent literature with respect to pharmacological sedative strategies, nonpharmacological alternative approaches, airway management and safety issues in the ambulatory setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Most literature researches the pediatric patient population...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816912/distance-learning-adhd-quality-improvement-in-primary-care-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#18
Alexander G Fiks, Stephanie L Mayne, Jeremy J Michel, Jeffrey Miller, Manju Abraham, Andrew Suh, Abbas F Jawad, James P Guevara, Robert W Grundmeier, Nathan J Blum, Thomas J Power
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a distance-learning, quality improvement intervention to improve pediatric primary care provider use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scales. METHODS: Primary care practices were cluster randomized to a 3-part distance-learning, quality improvement intervention (web-based education, collaborative consultation with ADHD experts, and performance feedback reports/calls), qualifying for Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Part IV credit, or wait-list control...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816870/spinal-cord-injury-what-are-the-controversies
#19
Christopher S Ahuja, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injuries have a tremendous impact on individuals, families, and society as a whole. Substantial heterogeneity in the patient population, their presentation and underlying pathophysiology has sparked debates along the care spectrum from initial assessment to definitive treatment. This article reviews spinal cord injury (SCI) management followed by a discussion of the salient controversies in the field. Current care practices modeled on the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons joint section guidelines are highlighted including key recommendations regarding immobilization, avoidance of hypotension, early International Standards for Neurological Classification of SCI examination and intensive care unit treatment...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816803/induction-methotrexate-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-versus-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-followed-by-radiotherapy-in-pediatric-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-a-retrospective-analysis-in-a-tertiary-cancer-center
#20
Abdelatif Al Mousa, Ramiz Abu-Hijlih, Ahmed Salem, Iyad Sultan, Layth Mula-Hussain, Taleb Ismael, Issa Mohamad
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare treatment outcomes of methotrexate, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (MPF) or cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF) in pediatric NPC patients treated with sequential chemoradiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 25 patients aged 18 years or below with stage II-IV NPC treated with IC using PF (n=16) or MPF (n=9) followed by radiotherapy between 2003 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Radiotherapy dose was 61.2 to 66...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
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