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Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo, David Gonzalez, Mina Nouredanesh, James Tung
Kinematic analysis of upper limb reaching provides insight into the central nervous system control of movements. Until recently, kinematic examination of motor control has been limited to studies conducted in traditional research laboratories because motion capture equipment used for data collection is not easily portable and expensive. A recently developed markerless system, the Leap Motion Controller (LMC), is a portable and inexpensive tracking device that allows recording of 3D hand and finger position...
2018: PloS One
Nicola Cook, Rebecca A Boulton, Jade Green, Urmi Trivedi, Eran Tauber, Bart A Pannebakker, Michael G Ritchie, David M Shuker
Whole-transcriptome technologies have been widely used in behavioural genetics to identify genes associated with the performance of a behaviour and provide clues to its mechanistic basis. Here, we consider the genetic basis of sex allocation behaviour in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis . Female Nasonia facultatively vary their offspring sex ratio in line with Hamilton's theory of local mate competition (LMC). A single female or 'foundress' laying eggs on a patch will lay just enough sons to fertilize her daughters...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jussi Lehtonen, Lisa E Schwanz
Sex ratio evolution has been one of the most successful areas of evolutionary theory. Pioneered by Düsing and Fisher under panmixia, and later extended by Hamilton to cover local mate competition (LMC), these models often assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that all females are fertilized. Here, we examine the effects of relaxing this assumption, under both panmictic and LMC models with diploid genetics. We revisit the question of the mathematical relationship between sex ratio and probability of fertilization, and use these results to model sex ratio evolution under risk of incomplete fertilization...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Halima Abukabbos, Scott Tomar, Marcio Guelmann
PURPOSE: To explore cost-effective options for pulpotomy, chamber fillings, and crowns in primary molars using bioactive cements. METHODS: Thirty extracted primary molars were divided into five groups, each having two sets of three teeth (one first molar and two second molars). Pulpotomy and restorative options were randomly assigned: Biodentine plus Ketac Molar; NuSmile NeoMTA plus Tempit LC; NeoMTA Plus plus Fuji IX; MTA Angelus plus IRM capsule; MTA Flow plus IRM powder and liquid...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Dentistry
Céline Jean-Xavier, Marie-Claude Perreault
The trunk plays a pivotal role in limbed locomotion. Yet, little is known about how the brain stem controls trunk activity during walking. In this study, we assessed the spatiotemporal activity patterns of axial and hindlimb motoneurons (MNs) during drug-induced fictive locomotor-like activity (LLA) in an isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparation of the neonatal mouse. We also evaluated the extent to which these activity patterns are affected by removal of brain stem. Recordings were made in the segments T7, L2, and L5 using calcium imaging from individual axial MNs in the medial motor column (MMC) and hindlimb MNs in lateral motor column (LMC)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chih-Ju Chang, Ming-Yuan Chang, Szu-Yi Chou, Chi-Chen Huang, Jian-Ying Chuang, Tsung-I Hsu, Hsing-Fang Chang, Yi-Hsin Wu, Chung-Che Wu, Daniel Morales, Artur Kania, Tzu-Jen Kao
The precise assembly of a functional nervous system relies on the guided migration of axonal growth cones, which is made possible by signals transmitted to the cytoskeleton by cell surface-expressed guidance receptors. We investigated the function of ephexin1, a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, as an essential growth cone guidance intermediary in the context of spinal lateral motor column (LMC) motor axon trajectory selection in the limb mesenchyme. Using in situ mRNA detection, we first show that ephexin1 is expressed in LMC neurons of chick and mouse embryos at the time of spinal motor axon extension into the limb...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marialuisa Zedde, Rosario Pascarella
Leng et al. [1] described the practical application of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) in 85 patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis, to virtually measure arterial pressure (AP) across the stenotic segment, according to the theory that translesional pressure gradient (PG) drives arteriologenesis and leptomeningeal collaterals (LMC) development. This is a fundamental pathophysiological issue about the risk of recurrent stroke downstream an intracranial artery stenosis and both the degree of stenosis and the collateral circulation affect it; in WASID trial [2] patients with severe (> 70%) intracranial stenosis and efficient collaterals had a lower risk of recurrent stroke than patients with poor collaterals...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Dennis Jones, Eelco F J Meijer, Cedric Blatter, Shan Liao, Ethel R Pereira, Echoe M Bouta, Keehoon Jung, Shan Min Chin, Peigen Huang, Lance L Munn, Benjamin J Vakoc, Michael Otto, Timothy P Padera
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is a frequent cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Lymphedema-fluid accumulation in tissue caused by impaired lymphatic vessel function-is a strong risk factor for SSTIs. SSTIs also frequently recur in patients and sometimes lead to acquired lymphedema. However, the mechanism of how SSTIs can be both the consequence and the cause of lymphatic vessel dysfunction is not known. Intravital imaging in mice revealed an acute reduction in both lymphatic vessel contractility and lymph flow after localized MRSA infection...
January 17, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Tim Vanbellingen, Suzanne J Filius, Thomas Nyffeler, Erwin E H van Wegen
Background: Approximately 70-80% of stroke survivors have limited activities of daily living, mainly due to dexterous problems. Videogame-based training (VBT) along with virtual reality seems to be beneficial to train upper limb function. Objective: To evaluate the usability of VBT using the Leap Motion Controller (LMC) to train fine manual dexterity in the early rehabilitation phase of stroke patients as an add-on to conventional therapy. Additionally, this study aimed to estimate the feasibility and potential efficacy of the VBT...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
D Heise, W Bayings, A Tuinhof, R Eickhoff, A Kroh, F Ulmer, C H C Dejong, U Neumann, M Binnebösel
BACKGROUND: Repeat hepatectomy is a widely accepted treatment for patients with recurrent colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM). The aim of this study was to compare initial and repeat hepatic resection concerning overall survival, prognostic factors and postoperative quality of life. METHODS: Data on patients who underwent initial or repeat hepatic resection for CRLM between 2010 and 2016 were prospectively collected and retrospectively evaluated. Follow-up data, EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-LMC21 questionnaire results for quality of life (QoL) evaluation were analyzed...
December 2017: International Journal of Surgery
X Leng, L Lan, H L Ip, F Fan, S H Ma, K Ma, H Liu, Z Yan, J Liu, J Abrigo, Y O Y Soo, D S Liebeskind, K S Wong, T W Leung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leptomeningeal collateral (LMC) status governs the prognosis of large artery occlusive stroke, although factors determining LMC status are not fully elucidated. The aim was to investigate metrics affecting LMC status in such patients by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models based on computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients with recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack attributed to atherosclerotic M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis (50%-99%) were recruited...
February 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Pattanop Kanokratana, Sarunyou Wongwilaiwalin, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Lily Eurwilaichitr, Verawat Champreda
Energy grass is a promising substrate for production of biogas by anaerobic digestion. However, the conversion efficiency is limited by the enzymatically recalcitrant nature of cellulosic wastes. In this study, an active, structurally stable mesophilic lignocellulolytic degrading microbial consortium (Np-LMC) was constructed from forest compost soil microbiota by successive subcultivation on Napier grass under facultative anoxic conditions. According to tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, increasing abundance of facultative Proteobacteria was found in the middle of batch cycle which was then subsequently replaced by the cellulose degraders Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes along with decreasing CMCase, xylanase, and β-glucanase activity profiles in the supernatant after 5 days of incubation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Rosaline Ma, Morgan Levy, Bin Gui, Shou-En Lu, Venkat Narra, Sharad Goyal, Shabbar Danish, Simon Hanft, Atif J Khan, Jyoti Malhotra, Sabin Motwani, Salma K Jabbour
There is limited available literature examining factors that predispose patients to the development of LMC after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. We sought to evaluate risk factors that may predispose patients to LMC after SRS treatment in this case-control study of patients with brain metastases who underwent single-fraction SRS between 2011 and 2016. Demographic and clinical information were collected retrospectively for 19 LMC cases and 30 controls out of 413 screened patients with brain metastases...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Gareth Iacobucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Teresa Prezzemolo, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Kees Lmc Franken, Nadia Caccamo, Francesco Dieli, Tom Hm Ottenhoff, Simone A Joosten
HLA-E presented antigens are interesting targets for vaccination given HLA-Es' essentially monomorphic nature. We have shown previously that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) peptides are presented by HLA-E to CD8(+) effector T-cells, but the precise phenotype and functional capacity of these cells remains poorly characterized. We have developed and utilized in this study a new protocol combining HLA-E tetramer with intracellular staining for cytokines, transcription factors and cytotoxic molecules to characterize these cells in depth...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
Ronnie Aronson, Ruth E Brown, Dishay Jiandani, Ashleigh Walker, Naomi Orzech, Lawrence Mbuagbaw
AIMS: The LMC Skills, Confidence & Preparedness Index (SCPI) is an electronic tool designed to meet ISOQOL standards and (a) assess three dimensions: knowledge, confidence and preparedness; (b) provide a clinically meaningful measure; (c) provide immediate feedback to the healthcare provider. Internal consistency and external validity have been previously reported in a refractory diabetes cohort. This larger evaluation, broader in glycemic control, sought to assess clinical relevance to glycemia...
October 30, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Myungin Baek, Chiara Pivetta, Jeh-Ping Liu, Silvia Arber, Jeremy S Dasen
Control of movement relies on the ability of circuits within the spinal cord to establish connections with specific subtypes of motor neuron (MN). Although the pattern of output from locomotor networks can be influenced by MN position and identity, whether MNs exert an instructive role in shaping synaptic specificity within the spinal cord is unclear. We show that Hox transcription-factor-dependent programs in MNs are essential in establishing the central pattern of connectivity within the ventral spinal cord...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
Katsuki Mukaigasa, Chie Sakuma, Tomoaki Okada, Shunsaku Homma, Takako Shimada, Keiji Nishiyama, Noboru Sato, Hiroyuki Yaginuma
In the developing chick embryo, a certain population of motor neurons (MNs) in the non-limb-innervating cervical spinal cord undergoes apoptosis between embryonic days 4 and 5. However, the characteristics of these apoptotic MNs remain undefined. Here, by examining the spatiotemporal profiles of apoptosis and MN subtype marker expression in normal or apoptosis-inhibited chick embryos, we found that this apoptotic population is distinguishable by Foxp1 expression. When apoptosis was inhibited, the survived Foxp1+ MNs showed characteristics of lateral motor column (LMC) neurons, which are of a limb-innervating subtype, suggesting that cervical Foxp1(+) MNs are the rostral continuation of LMC...
October 23, 2017: Development
P Quaino, G Belletti, S A Shermukhamedov, D V Glukhov, E Santos, W Schmickler, R Nazmutdinov
The structure of bimetallic NiCu nanoparticles (NP) is investigated as a function of their composition and size by means of Lattice MonteCarlo (LMC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. According to our results, copper segregation takes place at any composition of the particles. We found that this feature is not size-dependent. In contrast, nickel segregation depends on the NP size. When the size increases, Ni atoms tend to remain in the vicinity of the surface and deeper. For smaller NPs, Ni atoms are located at the surface as well...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Soroor Farahnak, Toby K McGovern, Rachael Kim, Michael O'Sullivan, Brian Chen, Minhyoung Lee, Haruka Yoshie, Anna Wang, Joyce Jang, Saba Al Heialy, Anne-Marie Lauzon, James G Martin
Activated CD4 T cells connect to airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in vitro via lymphocyte-derived membrane conduits (LMCs) structurally similar to membrane nanotubes with unknown intercellular signals triggering their formation. We examined the structure and function of CD4 T cell-derived LMCs, and we established a role for ASMC-derived basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2b) and FGF receptor (FGFR)1 in LMC formation. Blocking FGF2b's synthesis and FGFR1 function reduced LMC formation. Mitochondrial flux from ASMCs to T cells was partially FGF2b and FGFR1 dependent...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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