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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190640/divergent-hox-coding-and-evasion-of-retinoid-signaling-specifies-motor-neurons-innervating-digit-muscles
#1
Alana I Mendelsohn, Jeremy S Dasen, Thomas M Jessell
The establishment of spinal motor neuron subclass diversity is achieved through developmental programs that are aligned with the organization of muscle targets in the limb. The evolutionary emergence of digits represents a specialized adaptation of limb morphology, yet it remains unclear how the specification of digit-innervating motor neuron subtypes parallels the elaboration of digits. We show that digit-innervating motor neurons can be defined by selective gene markers and distinguished from other LMC neurons by the expression of a variant Hox gene repertoire and by the failure to express a key enzyme involved in retinoic acid synthesis...
February 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168828/relative-bioavailability-of-a-dolutegravir-dispersible-tablet-and-the-effects-of-low-and-high-mineral-content-water-on-the-tablet-in-healthy-adults
#2
Ann M Buchanan, Michael Holton, Ian Conn, Mark Davies, Mike Choukour, Brian R Wynne
Dolutegravir (DTG) is approved in the United States to treat HIV-1-infected patients weighing ≥30 kg. A dispersible DTG tablet formulation was recently developed for pediatric patients. This study compares the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the dispersible tablet with that of a previously evaluated granule formulation. In this randomized, open-label, crossover study, 15 healthy adults received single oral doses of DTG 20 mg every 7 days across 5 treatment arms: granules consumed immediately after mixture with purified water, dispersible DTG consumed immediately after reconstitution in low-mineral-content (LMC) or high-mineral-content (HMC) water, and dispersible DTG consumed 30 minutes after dispersal in LMC or HMC water...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151850/distinctive-patterns-on-ct-angiography-characterize-acute-internal-carotid-artery-occlusion-subtypes
#3
Ji Man Hong, Sung Eun Lee, Seong-Joon Lee, Jin Soo Lee, Andrew M Demchuk
Noninvasive computed tomography angiography (CTA) is widely used in acute ischemic stroke, even for diagnosing various internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion sites, which often need cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmation. We evaluated whether clinical outcomes vary depending on the DSA-based occlusion sites and explored correlating features on baseline CTA that predict DSA-based occlusion site.We analyzed consecutive patients with acute ICA occlusion who underwent DSA and CTA. Occlusion site was classified into cervical, cavernous, petrous, and carotid terminus segments by DSA confirmation...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143548/the-lmc-skills-confidence-preparedness-index-scpi-development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-tool-for-assessing-self-management-in-patients-with-diabetes
#4
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Ronnie Aronson, Ashleigh Walker, Ruth E Brown, Naomi Orzech
BACKGROUND: Optimal diabetes care requires a specific set of self-management behaviours. The purpose of this study was to present the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a new tool to measure three key aspects of a patient's diabetes self-management: knowledge of the skill, confidence in being able to perform the skill and preparedness to implement the skill. METHODS: A sequential exploratory mixed-methods design was used. A panel of educators, researchers and clinicians established a scale with items that would adequately capture skills, confidence and preparedness in seven core health behaviours central to diabetes care...
January 31, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138027/met-copy-number-gain-is-associated-with-gefitinib-resistance-in-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-of-egfr-mutant-lung-cancer
#5
Shigeki Nanjo, Sachiko Arai, Wei Wang, Shinji Takeuchi, Tadaaki Yamada, Akito Hata, Nobuyuki Katakami, Yasunori Okada, Seiji Yano
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) occurs frequently in EGFR-mutant lung cancer, and develops acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of EGFR-TKI resistance in LMC and seek for a novel therapeutic strategy. We examined EGFR mutations, including the T790M gatekeeper mutation, in 32 re-biopsy specimens from 12 LMC and 20 extracranial lesions of EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients who became refractory to EGFR-TKI treatment. All the 32 specimens had the same baseline EGFR mutations, but the T790M mutation was less frequent in LMC specimens than in extracranial specimens (8% vs...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102449/development-of-a-new-assessment-tool-for-cervical-myelopathy-using-hand-tracking-sensor-part-2-normative-values
#6
M Abdulhadi Alagha, Mahmoud A Alagha, Eleanor Dunstan, Olaf Sperwer, Kate A Timmins, Bronek M Boszczyk
PURPOSE: To set a baseline measurement of the number of hand flexion-extension cycles and analyse the degree of motion in young healthy individuals, measured by leap motion controller (LMC), besides describing gender and dominant hand differences. METHODS: Fifty healthy participants were asked to fully grip-and-release their dominant hand as rapidly as possible for a maximum of 3 min or until subjects fatigued, while wearing a non-metal wrist splint. Participants also performed a 15-s grip-and-release test...
January 19, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102448/development-of-a-new-assessment-tool-for-cervical-myelopathy-using-hand-tracking-sensor-part-1-validity-and-reliability
#7
M Abdulhadi Alagha, Mahmoud A Alagha, Eleanor Dunstan, Olaf Sperwer, Kate A Timmins, Bronek M Boszczyk
PURPOSE: To assess the reliability and validity of a hand motion sensor, Leap Motion Controller (LMC), in the 15-s hand grip-and-release test, as compared against human inspection of an external digital camera recording. METHODS: Fifty healthy participants were asked to fully grip-and-release their dominant hand as rapidly as possible for two trials with a 10-min rest in-between, while wearing a non-metal wrist splint. Each test lasted for 15 s, and a digital camera was used to film the anterolateral side of the hand on the first test...
January 19, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088553/the-influence-of-landmark-stability-on-control-by-occasion-setters
#8
REVIEW
Lauren M Cleland, Chad M Ruprecht, Ronnie V Lee, Kenneth J Leising
In an operant serial feature-positive procedure, an occasion setter (OSX) signals that a response will be reinforced in the presence of a second stimulus (e.g., a discriminative stimulus, A). During a transfer test, the OS is paired with a different discriminative stimulus. Experiment 1a tested transfer effects in a touchscreen-based spatial occasion setting task with pigeons. During training, four OSs (OSW, OSX, OSY, and OSZ) were paired on separate trials with landmark A (LMA) or B (LMB) and the opportunity for a reinforced response at one location to the immediate left (R1) or right (R2) of the LM (OSW→LMA:R1, OSX→LMA:R2, OSY→LMB:R1, OSZ→LMB:R2)...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047699/su-c-brc-03-development-of-a-novel-strategy-for-on-demand-monte-carlo-and-deterministic-dose-calculation-treatment-planning-and-optimization-for-external-beam-photon-and-particle-therapy
#9
Y M Yang, K Bush, B Han, L Xing
PURPOSE: Accurate and fast dose calculation is a prerequisite of precision radiation therapy in modern photon and particle therapy. While Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation provides high dosimetric accuracy, the drastically increased computational time hinders its routine use. Deterministic dose calculation methods are fast, but problematic in the presence of tissue density inhomogeneity. We leverage the useful features of deterministic methods and MC to develop a hybrid dose calculation platform with autonomous utilization of MC and deterministic calculation depending on the local geometry, for optimal accuracy and speed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009000/sex-ratio-elasticity-influences-the-selection-of-sex-ratio-strategy
#10
Yaqiang Wang, Ruiwu Wang, Yaotang Li, Zhanshan Sam Ma
There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature-male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton's local mate competition (LMC) and Clark's local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917923/revealing-extraordinary-tensile-plasticity-in-layered-ti-al-metal-composite
#11
M Huang, G H Fan, L Geng, G J Cao, Y Du, H Wu, T T Zhang, H J Kang, T M Wang, G H Du, H L Xie
Layered Ti-Al metal composite (LMC) fabricated by hot-pressing and hot-rolling process displays higher ductility than that of both components. In this paper, a combination of digital image correlation (DIC) and X-ray tomography revealed that strain delocalization and constrained crack distribution are the origin of extraordinary tensile ductility. Strain delocalization was derived from the transfer of strain partitioning between Ti and Al layer, which relieved effectively the strain localization of LMC. Furthermore, the extensive cracks of LMC were restricted in the interface due to constraint effect...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847759/analysis-of-the-outcome-and-prognostic-factors-of-decompressive-craniectomy-between-young-and-elderly-patients-for-acute-middle-cerebral-artery-infarction
#12
Byung Rhae Yoo, Chan Jong Yoo, Myeong Jin Kim, Woo-Kyung Kim, Dae Han Choi
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effect of decompressive craniectomy between patients < 65 and ≥ 65 years age and investigated prognostics factors that may help predict favorable outcome in acute stroke patients undergoing decompressive surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 52 patients diagnosed with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction that underwent decompressive craniectomy were retrospectively reviewed. The outcome of all patients were evaluated by assessing the Glasgow coma scale, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), and Modified Rankin scale (mRS) six months after the onset of the disease...
September 2016: Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847569/retrospective-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-profiles-in-228-patients-with-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-differences-according-to-the-sampling-site-symptoms-and-systemic-factors
#13
Youngbo Shim, Ho-Shin Gwak, Sohee Kim, Jungnam Joo, Sang-Hoon Shin, Heon Yoo
OBJECTIVE: Elevated cell counts and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) result from disease activity in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC). Previous studies evaluated the use of CSF profiles to monitor a treatment response or predict prognosis. CSF profiles vary, however, according to the sampling site and the patient's systemic condition. We compared lumbar and ventricular CSF profiles collected before intraventricular chemotherapy for LMC and evaluated the association of these profiles with patients' systemic factors and LMC disease activity...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812326/a-foxp2-mutation-implicated-in-human-speech-deficits-alters-sequencing-of-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-adult-male-mice
#14
Jonathan Chabout, Abhra Sarkar, Sheel R Patel, Taylor Radden, David B Dunson, Simon E Fisher, Erich D Jarvis
Development of proficient spoken language skills is disrupted by mutations of the FOXP2 transcription factor. A heterozygous missense mutation in the KE family causes speech apraxia, involving difficulty producing words with complex learned sequences of syllables. Manipulations in songbirds have helped to elucidate the role of this gene in vocal learning, but findings in non-human mammals have been limited or inconclusive. Here, we performed a systematic study of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of adult male mice carrying the KE family mutation...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736871/determinants-of-treatment-abandonment-in-childhood-cancer-results-from-a-global-survey
#15
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720939/differential-expression-of-micrornas-from-mir-17-family-in-the-cerebellum-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i-mice
#16
Vanessa Gonçalves Pereira, Matheus Trovão Queiroz, Vânia D'Almeida
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by deficiency of α-l-iduronidase, involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans. Clinical manifestations are widely variable and patients with severe phenotype present developmental delay and cognitive decline, among other systemic alterations. MPS I patients present secondary accumulation of gangliosides in neuronal cells, besides accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans. Reduction of Neu1 expression has been previously observed in the cerebellum of MPS I mice; to be active, neuraminidase 1 forms the lysosomal multienzyme complex (LMC) with two other proteins, β-galactosidase and protective protein/cathepsin A, involved in stepwise degradation of gangliosides in the lysosomes...
December 31, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641238/gradual-downhill-running-improves-age-related-skeletal-muscle-and-bone-weakness-implication-of-autophagy-and-bone-morphogenetic-proteins
#17
Jeong-Seok Kim, Young-Hee Lee, Ho-Keun Yi
What is the central question of this study? Exercise training by running has an effect on age-related muscle and bone wasting that improves physical activity and quality of life in the elderly. However, the effect of downhill running on age-related muscle and bone wasting, and its mechanisms, are unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? Gradual downhill running can improve skeletal muscle growth and bone formation by enhancing autophagy and bone morphogenetic protein signalling in aged rats. Therefore, downhill running exercise might be a practical intervention to improve skeletal muscle and bone protection in the elderly...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637068/the-breadth-of-synthetic-long-peptide-vaccine-induced-cd8-t-cell-responses-determines-the-efficacy-against-mouse-cytomegalovirus-infection
#18
Eleni Panagioti, Anke Redeker, Suzanne van Duikeren, Kees Lmc Franken, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Sjoerd H van der Burg, Ramon Arens
There is an ultimate need for efficacious vaccines against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which causes severe morbidity and mortality among neonates and immunocompromised individuals. In this study we explored synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccination as a platform modality to protect against mouse CMV (MCMV) infection in preclinical mouse models. In both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mouse strains, prime-booster vaccination with SLPs containing MHC class I restricted epitopes of MCMV resulted in the induction of strong and polyfunctional (i...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627976/synthesis-characterization-and-anticancer-activity-of-tanshinone-i-grafted-low-molecular-chitosan
#19
Dongdong Wang, DanXu, Yuelin Sun, Yuanyuan Wu, Lili Ma, Jinyou Duan
In this study, we synthesized a novel water-soluble low molecular chitosan (LMC) derivative through Vilsmeier reaction and reductive amination reaction. The derivative was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, FTIR and SEM techniques. The results showed that the derivative effectively reduced the cell viability rate, inhibited cell metastasis, induced cell apoptosis and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Moreover, the antitumor activity was strengthened with the increase of the degree of substitution of tanshinone I (TanI)...
September 15, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554216/-a-case-of-isolated-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-from-advanced-gastric-cancer
#20
Jung Geun Ji, Joo Won Chung, Seung Woo Nam, Seung Kyu Choi, Dong Won Lee, Dae In Kim, Byung Gwan Jeon, Yun Jae Shin
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is rare metastatic form of gastric cancer. Most cases are diagnosed in the final stage after multiple distant metastasis. An 84-year-old woman was admitted with melena, headache and vomiting. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed an ulceroinfiltrating lesion at the stomach (Borrmann class III), and biopsy revealed a signet ring cell carcinoma. The abdominal-pelvic CT showed no evidence of metastasis. A sudden decrease of consciousness was noted, but the brain CT showed no active lesion while the brain MRI revealed enhancement of leptomeninges...
August 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
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