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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088553/the-influence-of-landmark-stability-on-control-by-occasion-setters
#1
REVIEW
Lauren M Cleland, Chad M Ruprecht, Ronnie V Lee, Kenneth J Leising
In an operant serial feature-positive procedure, an occasion setter (OSX) signals that a response will be reinforced in the presence of second stimulus (e.g., a discriminative stimulus, A). During a transfer test, the OS is paired with a different discriminative stimulus. Experiment 1a tested transfer effects in a touchscreen-based spatial occasion setting task with pigeons. During training, four OSs (OSW, OSX, OSY, and OSZ) were paired on separate trials with landmark A (LMA) or B (LMB) and the opportunity for a reinforced response one location to the immediate left (R1) or right (R2) of the LM (OSW→LMA:R1, OSX→LMA:R2, OSY→LMB:R1, OSZ→LMB:R2)...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047699/su-c-brc-03-development-of-a-novel-strategy-for-on-demand-monte-carlo-and-deterministic-dose-calculation-treatment-planning-and-optimization-for-external-beam-photon-and-particle-therapy
#2
Y M Yang, K Bush, B Han, L Xing
PURPOSE: Accurate and fast dose calculation is a prerequisite of precision radiation therapy in modern photon and particle therapy. While Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation provides high dosimetric accuracy, the drastically increased computational time hinders its routine use. Deterministic dose calculation methods are fast, but problematic in the presence of tissue density inhomogeneity. We leverage the useful features of deterministic methods and MC to develop a hybrid dose calculation platform with autonomous utilization of MC and deterministic calculation depending on the local geometry, for optimal accuracy and speed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009000/sex-ratio-elasticity-influences-the-selection-of-sex-ratio-strategy
#3
Yaqiang Wang, Ruiwu Wang, Yaotang Li, Zhanshan Sam Ma
There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature-male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton's local mate competition (LMC) and Clark's local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917923/revealing-extraordinary-tensile-plasticity-in-layered-ti-al-metal-composite
#4
M Huang, G H Fan, L Geng, G J Cao, Y Du, H Wu, T T Zhang, H J Kang, T M Wang, G H Du, H L Xie
Layered Ti-Al metal composite (LMC) fabricated by hot-pressing and hot-rolling process displays higher ductility than that of both components. In this paper, a combination of digital image correlation (DIC) and X-ray tomography revealed that strain delocalization and constrained crack distribution are the origin of extraordinary tensile ductility. Strain delocalization was derived from the transfer of strain partitioning between Ti and Al layer, which relieved effectively the strain localization of LMC. Furthermore, the extensive cracks of LMC were restricted in the interface due to constraint effect...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847759/analysis-of-the-outcome-and-prognostic-factors-of-decompressive-craniectomy-between-young-and-elderly-patients-for-acute-middle-cerebral-artery-infarction
#5
Byung Rhae Yoo, Chan Jong Yoo, Myeong Jin Kim, Woo-Kyung Kim, Dae Han Choi
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effect of decompressive craniectomy between patients < 65 and ≥ 65 years age and investigated prognostics factors that may help predict favorable outcome in acute stroke patients undergoing decompressive surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 52 patients diagnosed with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction that underwent decompressive craniectomy were retrospectively reviewed. The outcome of all patients were evaluated by assessing the Glasgow coma scale, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), and Modified Rankin scale (mRS) six months after the onset of the disease...
September 2016: Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847569/retrospective-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-profiles-in-228-patients-with-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-differences-according-to-the-sampling-site-symptoms-and-systemic-factors
#6
Youngbo Shim, Ho-Shin Gwak, Sohee Kim, Jungnam Joo, Sang-Hoon Shin, Heon Yoo
OBJECTIVE: Elevated cell counts and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) result from disease activity in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC). Previous studies evaluated the use of CSF profiles to monitor a treatment response or predict prognosis. CSF profiles vary, however, according to the sampling site and the patient's systemic condition. We compared lumbar and ventricular CSF profiles collected before intraventricular chemotherapy for LMC and evaluated the association of these profiles with patients' systemic factors and LMC disease activity...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812326/a-foxp2-mutation-implicated-in-human-speech-deficits-alters-sequencing-of-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-adult-male-mice
#7
Jonathan Chabout, Abhra Sarkar, Sheel R Patel, Taylor Radden, David B Dunson, Simon E Fisher, Erich D Jarvis
Development of proficient spoken language skills is disrupted by mutations of the FOXP2 transcription factor. A heterozygous missense mutation in the KE family causes speech apraxia, involving difficulty producing words with complex learned sequences of syllables. Manipulations in songbirds have helped to elucidate the role of this gene in vocal learning, but findings in non-human mammals have been limited or inconclusive. Here, we performed a systematic study of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of adult male mice carrying the KE family mutation...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736871/determinants-of-treatment-abandonment-in-childhood-cancer-results-from-a-global-survey
#8
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720939/differential-expression-of-micrornas-from-mir-17-family-in-the-cerebellum-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i-mice
#9
Vanessa Gonçalves Pereira, Matheus Trovão Queiroz, Vânia D'Almeida
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by deficiency of α-l-iduronidase, involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans. Clinical manifestations are widely variable and patients with severe phenotype present developmental delay and cognitive decline, among other systemic alterations. MPS I patients present secondary accumulation of gangliosides in neuronal cells, besides accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans. Reduction of Neu1 expression has been previously observed in the cerebellum of MPS I mice; to be active, neuraminidase 1 forms the lysosomal multienzyme complex (LMC) with two other proteins, β-galactosidase and protective protein/cathepsin A, involved in stepwise degradation of gangliosides in the lysosomes...
December 31, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641238/gradual-downhill-running-improves-age-related-skeletal-muscle-and-bone-weakness-implication-of-autophagy-and-bone-morphogenetic-proteins
#10
Jeong-Seok Kim, Young-Hee Lee, Ho-Keun Yi
What is the central question of this study? Exercise training by running has an effect on age-related muscle and bone wasting that improves physical activity and quality of life in the elderly. However, the effect of downhill running on age-related muscle and bone wasting, and its mechanisms, are unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? Gradual downhill running can improve skeletal muscle growth and bone formation by enhancing autophagy and bone morphogenetic protein signalling in aged rats. Therefore, downhill running exercise might be a practical intervention to improve skeletal muscle and bone protection in the elderly...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637068/the-breadth-of-synthetic-long-peptide-vaccine-induced-cd8-t-cell-responses-determines-the-efficacy-against-mouse-cytomegalovirus-infection
#11
Eleni Panagioti, Anke Redeker, Suzanne van Duikeren, Kees Lmc Franken, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Sjoerd H van der Burg, Ramon Arens
There is an ultimate need for efficacious vaccines against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which causes severe morbidity and mortality among neonates and immunocompromised individuals. In this study we explored synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccination as a platform modality to protect against mouse CMV (MCMV) infection in preclinical mouse models. In both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mouse strains, prime-booster vaccination with SLPs containing MHC class I restricted epitopes of MCMV resulted in the induction of strong and polyfunctional (i...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627976/synthesis-characterization-and-anticancer-activity-of-tanshinone-i-grafted-low-molecular-chitosan
#12
Dongdong Wang, DanXu, Yuelin Sun, Yuanyuan Wu, Lili Ma, Jinyou Duan
In this study, we synthesized a novel water-soluble low molecular chitosan (LMC) derivative through Vilsmeier reaction and reductive amination reaction. The derivative was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, FTIR and SEM techniques. The results showed that the derivative effectively reduced the cell viability rate, inhibited cell metastasis, induced cell apoptosis and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Moreover, the antitumor activity was strengthened with the increase of the degree of substitution of tanshinone I (TanI)...
September 15, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554216/-a-case-of-isolated-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-from-advanced-gastric-cancer
#13
Jung Geun Ji, Joo Won Chung, Seung Woo Nam, Seung Kyu Choi, Dong Won Lee, Dae In Kim, Byung Gwan Jeon, Yun Jae Shin
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is rare metastatic form of gastric cancer. Most cases are diagnosed in the final stage after multiple distant metastasis. An 84-year-old woman was admitted with melena, headache and vomiting. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed an ulceroinfiltrating lesion at the stomach (Borrmann class III), and biopsy revealed a signet ring cell carcinoma. The abdominal-pelvic CT showed no evidence of metastasis. A sudden decrease of consciousness was noted, but the brain CT showed no active lesion while the brain MRI revealed enhancement of leptomeninges...
August 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504797/exploring-the-association-of-ego-defense-mechanisms-with-problematic-internet-use-in-a-pakistani-medical-school
#14
Ahmed Waqas, Abdul Rehman, Aamenah Malik, Ramsha Aftab, Aroosa Allah Yar, Arooj Allah Yar, Aitzaz Bin Sultan Rai
The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT)...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453486/exogenous-paraoxonase-1-during-oocyte-maturation-improves-bovine-embryo-development-in-vitro
#15
Jaa Rincón, E M Madeira, F T Campos, B Mion, J F Silva, V A Absalón-Medina, W R Butler, M N Corrêa, Lmc Pegoraro, A Schneider
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme found in serum and follicular fluid that protects cell membrane and circulating lipids against oxidative damage. The aims of this study were to measure the direct effects of recombinant PON1 (rPON1) on bovine oocyte maturation at the molecular level (gene expression) and to measure the carry-over effects of PON1 on pre-implantation embryo development in vitro. COCs were submitted to IVM with the addition of 0.0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg ml(-1) of rPON1, corresponding to an average PON1 arylesterase enzyme activity of 2...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399673/molecular-targeted-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Dae-Won Lee, Kyung-Hun Lee, Jin Wook Kim, Bhumsuk Keam
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is the multifocal seeding of cerebrospinal fluid and leptomeninges by malignant cells. The incidence of LMC is approximately 5% in patients with malignant tumors overall and the rate is increasing due to increasing survival time of cancer patients. Eradication of the disease is not yet possible, so the treatment goals of LMC are to improve neurologic symptoms and to prolong survival. A standard treatment for LMC has not been established due to low incidences of LMC, the rapidly progressing nature of the disease, heterogeneous populations with LMC, and a lack of randomized clinical trial results...
July 5, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380302/linear-model-correction-a-method-for-transferring-a-near-infrared-multivariate-calibration-model-without-standard-samples
#17
Yan Liu, Wensheng Cai, Xueguang Shao
Calibration transfer is essential for practical applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy because the measurements of the spectra may be performed on different instruments and the difference between the instruments must be corrected. For most of calibration transfer methods, standard samples are necessary to construct the transfer model using the spectra of the samples measured on two instruments, named as master and slave instrument, respectively. In this work, a method named as linear model correction (LMC) is proposed for calibration transfer without standard samples...
December 5, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320244/multi-mode-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-leptomeningeal-collateral-flow-and-the-related-factors-comparing-with-digital-subtraction-angiography
#18
Xin Liu, Yuehua Pu, Yuesong Pan, Yanan Zhang, Xin Dou, Ying Tan, Liping Liu, Yongjun Wang
OBJECTIVES: Less ischemic volume and better functional outcome are related with good cerebral collaterals in ischemic stroke. But the method of assessing collateral circulation is still undetermined. METHODS: Collateral status was assessed using a computed tomography angiography (CTA) source image (CTA-SI) based and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) based assessment system. CTP maps were quantitatively analyzed. CBF, CBV, MTT, and TTP were calculated within the hypoperfusion and in the equivalent region of unaffected hemisphere...
June 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306442/whole-brain-radiotherapy-in-management-of-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-associated-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-evaluation-of-prognostic-factors
#19
Yurday Ozdemir, Berna Akkus Yildirim, Erkan Topkan
To assess the efficacy of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and prognostic factors in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. WBRT records of 51 LMC patients confined to brain were reviewed. Eligible patients had squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) 0-3. The WBRT was either 20 or 30 Gray. The primary and secondary objectives were to determine overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors for improved treatment response, respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246268/a-coregionalization-model-can-assist-specification-of-geographically-weighted-poisson-regression-application-to-an-ecological-study
#20
Manuel Castro Ribeiro, António Jorge Sousa, Maria João Pereira
The geographical distribution of health outcomes is influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors operating on different spatial scales. Geographical variations in relationships can be revealed with semi-parametric Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (sGWPR), a model that can combine both geographically varying and geographically constant parameters. To decide whether a parameter should vary geographically, two models are compared: one in which all parameters are allowed to vary geographically and one in which all except the parameter being evaluated are allowed to vary geographically...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
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