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Amy Y Tsou, Jonathan R Treadwell
BACKGROUND: Systematic review (SR) abstracts are important for disseminating evidence syntheses to inform medical decision making. We assess reporting quality in SR abstracts using PRISMA for Abstracts (PRISMA-A), Cochrane Handbook, and Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality guidance. METHODS: We evaluated a random sample of 200 SR abstracts (from 2014) comparing interventions in the general medical literature. We assessed adherence to PRISMA-A criteria, problematic wording in conclusions, and whether "positive" studies described clinical significance...
October 20, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
Daniel Esler, Brenda E Ballachey, Lizabeth Bowen, A Keith Miles, Rian D Dickson, John D Henderson
The authors quantified hepatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 2011, 2013, and 2014 (22 to 25 years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill). EROD activity was compared between birds from areas oiled by the spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. This work replicated studies conducted from 1998 to 2009 that demonstrated harlequin ducks using areas that were oiled in 1989 had elevated EROD activity, indicative of oil exposure, up to 2 decades post-spill...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Torsten Schröder
Basic haemodynamic monitoring is an essential part of the anaesthesia work place. This includes Monitoring of ECG, blood pressure and pulse oximetry. For early assessement of perioperative complications every patient should have a basic haemodynamic monitoring, independant of current health status or the type of anaesthesia applied. Knowledge of function, principles and limitations ais necessary for proper interpretation of the measured values. Here, we describe the function and application of ECG, non - invasive intermittent blood pressure and pulse oximetry in the perioperative setting...
October 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar Minhas, Amina Asif, Muhammad Arif
: Feature selection and ranking is of great importance in the analysis of biomedical data. In addition to reducing the number of features used in classification or other machine learning tasks, it allows us to extract meaningful biological and medical information from a machine learning model. Most existing approaches in this domain do not directly model the fact that the relative importance of features can be different in different regions of the feature space. In this work, we present a context aware feature ranking algorithm called CAFÉ-Map...
October 11, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Xu Jiao, Yuvaraja Gutha, Weijiang Zhang
The utilization of CS/PVA/CuO as a novel adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution has been examined in a batch adsorption process with several experimental conditions including initial solution pH, dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. The new and novel material was characterized by structural (XRD), spectral (FTIR), morphological with elemental (SEM with EDS), and size of the nanoparticles (TEM) analyses. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetics equations were used to analyze the kinetic data of the adsorption process and the data was fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with R(2) values (close to the unity)...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Zhe Wang, A Dessa Sadovnick, Anthony L Traboulsee, Jay P Ross, Cecily Q Bernales, Mary Encarnacion, Irene M Yee, Madonna de Lemos, Talitha Greenwood, Joshua D Lee, Galen Wright, Colin J Ross, Si Zhang, Weihong Song, Carles Vilariño-Güell
Identifying rare genetic variants that drive the onset of disease is challenging, even before considering the additional genetic and environmental influences that likely exist in complex diseases. We recently published a study proposing a rare variant in the NR1H3 gene (p.R415Q, rs61731956) as responsible for the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) in two multi-incident families (Wang et al., 2016). This publication has generated much discussion, and fortunately the possibility to validate a finding or prove it spurious can occur rapidly in genetic studies...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Xaq Pitkow
In this issue of Neuron, Orbán et al. (2016) test whether the brain represents probabilities by sampling: do neurons interpret the world by generating causal explanations of sense data and quickly sample different interpretations over time? Orbán et al. (2016) find agreement between this model's predictions and neural data.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
James Gardiner, Nuwan Gunarathne, David Howard, Laurence Kenney
Collecting large datasets of amputee gait data is notoriously difficult. Additionally, collecting data on less prevalent amputations or on gait activities other than level walking and running on hard surfaces is rarely attempted. However, with the wealth of user-generated content on the Internet, the scope for collecting amputee gait data from alternative sources other than traditional gait labs is intriguing. Here we investigate the potential of YouTube videos to provide gait data on amputee walking. We use an example dataset of trans-femoral amputees level walking at self-selected speeds to collect temporal gait parameters and calculate gait asymmetry...
2016: PloS One
Christoph Baldow, Lars Thielecke, Ingmar Glauche
The availability of several methods to unambiguously mark individual cells has strongly fostered the understanding of clonal developments in hematopoiesis and other stem cell driven regenerative tissues. While cellular barcoding is the method of choice for experimental studies, patients that underwent gene therapy carry a unique insertional mark within the transplanted cells originating from the integration of the retroviral vector. Close monitoring of such patients allows accessing their clonal dynamics, however, the early detection of events that predict monoclonal conversion and potentially the onset of leukemia are beneficial for treatment...
2016: PloS One
Alissa J Brown, Douglas H Deutschman, Jessica Braswell, Dana McLaughlin
Granivorous animals may prefer to predate or cache seed of certain plant species over others. Multiple studies have documented preference for larger, non-native seed by granivores. To accomplish this, researchers have traditionally used indirect inference by relating patterns of seed removal to the species composition of the granivorous animal community. To measure seed removal, researchers present seed to granivorous animals in the field using equipment intended to exclude certain animal taxa while permitting access to others...
2016: PloS One
Sebastian Sippel, Holger Lange, Miguel D Mahecha, Michael Hauhs, Paul Bodesheim, Thomas Kaminski, Fabian Gans, Osvaldo A Rosso
Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena...
2016: PloS One
Lixia Xiang, Lipan Hu, Weinan Xu, Ai Zhen, Liang Zhang, Xiaohui Hu
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is important in plant responses to environmental stresses. We wished to clarify the role of GABA in maintenance of photosynthesis in muskmelon seedlings (Cucumis melo L., cv. Yipintianxia) during saline-alkaline stress. To this end, we assessed the effect of GABA on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in muskmelon seedlings grown under saline-alkaline stress. These stresses in combination reduced net photosynthetic rate, gas-exchange, and inhibited photosystem II (PSII) electron transport as measured by the JIP-test...
2016: PloS One
Eric C Honert, Karl E Zelik
INTRODUCTION: Inverse dynamics joint kinetics are often used to infer contributions from underlying groups of muscle-tendon units (MTUs). However, such interpretations are confounded by multiarticular (multi-joint) musculature, which can cause inverse dynamics to over- or under-estimate net MTU power. Misestimation of MTU power could lead to incorrect scientific conclusions, or to empirical estimates that misguide musculoskeletal simulations, assistive device designs, or clinical interventions...
2016: PloS One
Isabella C C von Holstein, Penelope Walton Rogers, Oliver E Craig, Kirsty E H Penkman, Jason Newton, Matthew J Collins
We investigate the origin of archaeological wool textiles preserved by anoxic waterlogging from seven medieval archaeological deposits in north-western Europe (c. 700-1600 AD), using geospatial patterning in carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N) and non-exchangeable hydrogen (δ2H) composition of modern and ancient sheep proteins. δ13C, δ15N and δ2H values from archaeological wool keratin (n = 83) and bone collagen (n = 59) from four sites were interpreted with reference to the composition of modern sheep wool from the same regions...
2016: PloS One
Chelvin C A Sng, Marcus Ang, Keith Barton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of central corneal thickness (CCT) in the clinical management of a glaucoma patient. RECENT FINDINGS: The prognostic value of CCT is well recognized in patients with ocular hypertension. However, its predictive value in other glaucoma suspects and patients with established glaucoma is less certain. Tonometry artefacts can result from variations in CCT. However, an adequately validated correction algorithm for Goldmann applanation tonometry measurements does not exist...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Hendrik J F Helmerhorst, Derk L Arts, Marcus J Schultz, Peter H J van der Voort, Ameen Abu-Hanna, Evert de Jonge, David J van Westerloo
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence has shown the potential risks of arterial hyperoxia, but the lack of a clinical definition and methodologic limitations hamper the interpretation and clinical relevance of previous studies. Our purpose was to evaluate previously used and newly constructed metrics of arterial hyperoxia and systematically assess their association with clinical outcomes in different subgroups in the ICU. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Three large tertiary care ICUs in the Netherlands...
October 19, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Andrew Paul Gray, Faisca Richer, Sam Harper
OBJECTIVES: Following the onset of intensive colonial intervention and rapid social change in the lives of Inuit people, youth in Nunavik have experienced high rates of mental health problems and suicide. Inuit people describe a broad range of contextual influences on mental wellness based on lived experience, but most epidemiological studies have focused on individual risk factors and pathologies. This study aimed to assess the influence of multiple determinants of mental wellness among Inuit youth in Nunavik, including culturally meaningful activities, housing and community social characteristics...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Shu-Ling Hoshi, Masahide Kondo, Ichiro Okubo
Two rotavirus vaccines are currently available in Japan. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of routine infant rotavirus immunisation programme without defining which vaccine to be evaluated, which reflects the current deliberation at the Health Science Council in charge of Immunisation and Vaccine established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Three ICERs were estimated, one from payers' perspective and two from societal perspective depending on the scenarios to uptake vaccines...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Daniel D Rhoads, Jonathan R Genzen, Christine P Bashleben, James D Faix, M Qasim Ansari
CONTEXT: -Syphilis serology screening in laboratory practice is evolving. Traditionally, the syphilis screening algorithm begins with a nontreponemal immunoassay, which is manually performed by a laboratory technologist. In contrast, the reverse algorithm begins with a treponemal immunoassay, which can be automated. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recognized both approaches, but little is known about the current state of laboratory practice, which could impact test utilization and interpretation...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or significance, depending on the GC measure, fitness metric, life history stage, or other intrinsic and extrinsic contexts considered...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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