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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817676/psychological-determinants-of-physical-activity-across-the-life-course-a-determinants-of-diet-and-physical-activity-dedipac-umbrella-systematic-literature-review
#1
Cristina Cortis, Anna Puggina, Caterina Pesce, Katina Aleksovska, Christoph Buck, Con Burns, Greet Cardon, Angela Carlin, Chantal Simon, Donatella Ciarapica, Giancarlo Condello, Tara Coppinger, Sara D'Haese, Marieke De Craemer, Andrea Di Blasio, Sylvia Hansen, Licia Iacoviello, Johann Issartel, Pascal Izzicupo, Lina Jaeschke, Martina Kanning, Aileen Kennedy, Fiona Chun Man Ling, Agnes Luzak, Giorgio Napolitano, Julie-Anne Nazare, Grainne O'Donoghue, Camille Perchoux, Tobias Pischon, Angela Polito, Alessandra Sannella, Holger Schulz, Rhoda Sohun, Astrid Steinbrecher, Wolfgang Schlicht, Walter Ricciardi, Loriana Castellani, Ciaran MacDonncha, Laura Capranica, Stefania Boccia
Low levels of physical activity (PA) are reported to contribute to the occurrence of non-communicable diseases over the life course. Although psychological factors have been identified as an important category concerning PA behavior, knowledge on psychological determinants of PA is still inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this umbrella systematic literature review (SLR) was to summarize and synthesize the scientific evidence on psychological determinants of PA behavior across the life course. A systematic online search was conducted on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817653/perilymph-pharmacokinetics-of-marker-applied-through-a-cochlear-implant-in-guinea-pigs
#2
Alec Salt, Jared Hartsock, Ruth Gill, Daniel Smyth, Jonathon Kirk, Kristien Verhoeven
Patients undergoing cochlear implantation could benefit from a simultaneous application of drugs into the ear, helping preserve residual low-frequency hearing and afferent nerve fiber populations. One way to apply drugs is to incorporate a cannula into the implant, through which drug solution is driven. For such an approach, perilymph concentrations achieved and the distribution in the ear over time have not previously been documented. We used FITC-labeled dextran as a marker, delivering it into perilymph of guinea pigs at 10 or 100 nL/min though a cannula incorporated into a cochlear implant with the outlet in the mid basal turn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817643/peripheral-clinic-versus-centralized-laboratory-based-xpert-mtb-rif-performance-experience-gained-from-a-pragmatic-stepped-wedge-trial-in-botswana
#3
Tefera Agizew, Rosanna Boyd, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Andrew Auld, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Nyirenda, Zegabriel Tedla, Anikie Mathoma, Unami Mathebula, Chawangwa Lesedi, Sherri Pals, Anand Date, Heather Alexander, Thomas Kuebrich, Alyssa Finlay
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Botswana National Tuberculosis Program adopted World Health Organization guidelines and introduced Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay to support intensified case finding among people living with HIV enrolling in care. An evaluation was designed to assess performance under operational conditions to inform the national Xpert scale-up. METHODS: Xpert was implemented from August 2012 through November 2014 with 13 GeneXpert instruments (GeneXpert) deployed in a phased approach over nine months: nine centralized laboratory and four point-of-care (POC) peripheral clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817626/acting-within-an-increasingly-confined-space-a-qualitative-study-of-sexual-behaviours-and-healthcare-needs-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-a-provincial-tanzanian-city
#4
Markus Larsson, Jasmine Mohamed Shio, Michael W Ross, Anette Agardh
OBJECTIVE: To explore risk perceptions, sexual practices and healthcare needs among men who have sex with men in the provincial city of Tanga in northern Tanzania. Previous research suggests that HIV/STIs are increasing problems for this population. Yet, few studies have been conducted outside the urban area of Dar es Salaam, which has limited our knowledge about the HIV/STI risk factors and healthcare needs among men who have sex with men who live outside major metropolitan areas. METHOD: During three months in 2013, 10 in-depth interviews with men who have sex with men were conducted in Tanga...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817593/a-systematic-review-of-context-bias-in-invasion-biology
#5
Robert J Warren, Joshua R King, Charlene Tarsa, Brian Haas, Jeremy Henderson
The language that scientists use to frame biological invasions may reveal inherent bias-including how data are interpreted. A frequent critique of invasion biology is the use of value-laden language that may indicate context bias. Here we use a systematic study of language and interpretation in papers drawn from invasion biology to evaluate whether there is a link between the framing of papers and the interpretation of results. We also examine any trends in context bias in biological invasion research. We examined 651 peer-reviewed invasive species competition studies and implemented a rigorous systematic review to examine bias in the presentation and interpretation of native and invasive competition in invasion biology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817581/population-activity-structure-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#6
Sean R Bittner, Ryan C Williamson, Adam C Snyder, Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Brent Doiron, Steven M Chase, Matthew A Smith, Byron M Yu
Many studies use population analysis approaches, such as dimensionality reduction, to characterize the activity of large groups of neurons. To date, these methods have treated each neuron equally, without taking into account whether neurons are excitatory or inhibitory. We studied population activity structure as a function of neuron type by applying factor analysis to spontaneous activity from spiking networks with balanced excitation and inhibition. Throughout the study, we characterized population activity structure by measuring its dimensionality and the percentage of overall activity variance that is shared among neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817531/bias-confounding-and-interaction-lions-and-tigers-and-bears-oh-my
#7
Thomas R Vetter, Edward J Mascha
Epidemiologists seek to make a valid inference about the causal effect between an exposure and a disease in a specific population, using representative sample data from a specific population. Clinical researchers likewise seek to make a valid inference about the association between an intervention and outcome(s) in a specific population, based upon their randomly collected, representative sample data. Both do so by using the available data about the sample variable to make a valid estimate about its corresponding or underlying, but unknown population parameter...
September 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817507/comparison-of-consent-models-in-a-randomized-trial-of-corticosteroids-in-pediatric-septic-shock
#8
Kusum Menon, Katharine O'Hearn, James Dayre McNally, Anand Acharya, Hector R Wong, Margaret Lawson, Tim Ramsay, Lauralyn McIntyre, Elaine Gilfoyle, Marisa Tucci, David Wensley, Ronald Gottesman, Gavin Morrison, Karen Choong
OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of deferred and prior informed consent models in the context of a low additional risk to standard of care, placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial of corticosteroids in pediatric septic shock. DESIGN: An observational substudy of consent processes in a randomized controlled trial of hydrocortisone versus placebo. SETTING: Seven tertiary level PICUs in Canada. PATIENTS: Children newborn to 17 years inclusive admitted to PICU with suspected septic shock between July 2014 and March 2016...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817435/author-s-reply-how-to-report-and-interpret-bioequivalence-data-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#9
Wolfgang Arns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817424/impact-of-simulator-based-training-in-focused-transesophageal-echocardiography-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Andreas Bloch, Robert von Arx, Reto Etter, David Berger, Heiko Kaiser, Armando Lenz, Tobias M Merz
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine if training in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) using a TEE simulator improves the ability of novice operators to perform and interpret a focused critical care TEE. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, controlled study with blinded outcome assessment, 44 intensive care unit trainees were randomly assigned to a control group receiving 4 hours of lecture-based training only, or an intervention group which was additionally trained for 4 hours using a TEE simulator...
August 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817392/minimum-operational-standards-for-24-7-available-emergency-departments-in-the-netherlands-a-first-step-taken-by-emergency-physicians-using-an-e-delphi-approach
#11
Menno I Gaakeer, Rebekka Veugelers, Peter Patka, Robbert Huijsman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to effectuate a consensus of emergency physicians on minimum requirements for facility, diagnostic, and medical specialist availability as a first step toward minimum operational standards for 24/7 available emergency departments (EDs) in the Netherlands. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A two-part e-Delphi through online survey was performed between January 2015 and May 2016, using a panel of 20 experts in emergency medicine. The aim of part I was to reach an agreement on a list of possible ED elements and their definitions...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817247/assessing-predictions-of-fitness-effects-of-missense-mutations-in-sumo-conjugating-enzyme-ube2i
#12
Jing Zhang, Lisa N Kinch, Qian Cong, Jochen Weile, Song Sun, Atina G Cote, Frederick P Roth, Nick V Grishin
The exponential growth of genomic variants uncovered by next-generation sequencing necessitates efficient and accurate computational analyses to predict their functional effects. A number of computational methods have been developed for the task, but few unbiased comparisons of their performance are available. To fill the gap, The Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) comprehensively assesses phenotypic predictions on newly collected experimental datasets. Here, we present the results of the SUMO conjugase challenge where participants were predicting functional effects of missense mutations in human SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBE2I...
September 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817245/reports-from-cagi-the-critical-assessment-of-genome-interpretation
#13
Roger A Hoskins, Susanna Repo, Daniel Barsky, Gaia Andreoletti, John Moult, Steven E Brenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817235/discrepant-hpv-cytology-cotesting-results-are-there-differences-between-cytology-negative-versus-hpv-negative-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#14
Jessica M Tracht, Antoinette D Davis, Danielle N Fasciano, Isam-Eldin A Eltoum
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions subcategorized as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN-3)-positive after a negative cytology result but positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to those with a negative HR-HPV test but positive cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]-positive/HPV-negative) and to assess reasons for discrepancies. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed women who underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing from 2010 through 2013...
August 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817196/technical-note-quantitative-analysis-of-ivim-diffusion-mri-using-total-variation-and-huber-penalty-function
#15
Esha Baidya Kayal, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Kedar Khare, Jayendra Tiru Alampally, Sameer Bakhshi, Raju Sharma, Amit Mehndiratta
PURPOSE: Quantitative analysis in Intra-voxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) imaging commonly uses voxel-wise estimation of the bi-exponential model, which might not be reliable for clinical interpretation. Improving model fitting performance and qualitative and quantitative parametric estimation, two novel methodologies are proposed here. METHODS: Five IVIM analyses methodologies: i) Bi-Exponential (BE) model, ii) Segmented BE method with 2-parameter fitting (BEseg-2), iii) Segmented BE method with 1-parameter fitting (BEseg-1), iv) BE with adaptive Total Variation Penalty function (BE+TV) and v) BE with adaptive Huber Penalty function (BE+HPF) were evaluated...
August 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816915/physician-awareness-of-developmental-screening-and-referral-in-the-state-of-kuwait
#16
Hollie Hix-Small, Khaled Alkherainej
OBJECTIVE: In the State of Kuwait, family physicians and pediatricians are responsible for identifying and referring children at risk of disability. The aims of this study were to better understand physician (1) use of developmental screening instruments, (2) referral practices for children at risk of developmental disability, (3) interpretation of screening results, and (4) anticipatory guidance topics prioritized over child screening. METHODS: A nonprobability volunteer, self-selection sample of family physicians, general practitioners, and pediatricians (n = 398) completed a 60-item paper questionnaire...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816861/en-face-versus-12-line-radial-optical-coherence-tomography-scan-patterns-for-detection-of-macular-fluid-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#17
Murtaza K Adam, Abtin Shahlaee, Wasim A Samara, Joseph I Maguire, Allen C Ho, Jason Hsu
PURPOSE: To compare fluid detection of autosegmented en face to 12-line radial spectral domain optical coherence tomography scan patterns in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: Retrospective observational case series. Sixty-seven patients (94 eyes) with neovascular age-related macular degeneration underwent autosegmented en face optical coherence tomography (with associated 304-line raster scan) and 12-line radial scan patterns. Sensitivity and specificity of fluid detection for en face scan and 12-line radial scans were determined by combining radial and 304-line raster scans as a gold standard...
August 14, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816696/subjective-visual-vertical-and-horizontal-in-vestibular-migraine
#18
Gaurav Ashish, Ann Mary Augustine, Amit Kumar Tyagi, Anjali Lepcha, Achamma Balraj
OBJECTIVE: To assess the functional status of the otolithic pathway in vestibular migraine by comparing the results of static and dynamic subjective visual vertical and horizontal [subjective visual vertical (SVV) and subjective visual horizontal (SVH)] testing in patients with vestibular migraine with that of normal individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in 82 normal adults and 66 adults with vestibular migraine...
August 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816642/proteomic-analysis-of-the-human-olfactory-bulb
#19
Manjunath Dammalli, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Manish Kumar, Benvil Rodrigues, Harsha Gowda, Bychapur Gowrishankar Siddaiah, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816591/final-year-physiotherapy-student-s-reliability-in-chest-x-ray-interpretation
#20
Valerie Ball, Caren Sze Chui, Yun-Perng Lian, Laksmini Lingeswaran
BACKGROUND: Newly qualified physiotherapists may be required to interpret an unreported chest X-ray (CXR) as part of their physiotherapy assessment in "on call" situations. Their interpretation may influence the patient management strategies they adopt. There is no research published which have tested the reliability of final year physiotherapy students in CXR interpretation. METHODS: Twenty-five final year physiotherapy students were asked to view and interpret the findings of six CXRs, together with a brief vignette, typical of a single commonly encountered diagnosis...
August 17, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
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